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Патент USA US2109375

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Feb. 22,1938.
'w. J. PODBIELNIAK .
' \
_>2,109,375
APPARATUS FOR EFFECTINGJCOUNTER CURRENT CONTACT BETWEEN FLUIDS
Filed June 25, 1936
.
2 Sheets-Sheet 1
manna/r0’?
“
Feb. 22, 1938.
W; J. PODBIELNIAK
2,109,375
APPARATUS FOR EFFECTING COUNTER CURRENT CONTACT BETWEEN I/“LUIDS
Filed June 25, 1936
2 Sheets-Sheet 2
I
Patented Feb.
,
t
>
M09375
UNITED .s-TAT-ss PATENT oFi-‘icef ' ‘ M
2,108,375
‘
APPARATUS FOR EFFECTING comm.
.
C'URREN’I'OONTACT BETWEEN
Walter J. Podblelnlak, Chicago. m.
Application June 25,1938‘, Serial N0. 87,222
.. 18 Claims.
The present invention relates to improvements
in apparatus for eii'ecting counter-current conact between ?uids and more particularly between liquids‘ and vapors or gases, or ‘between'liq5 uids of di?erent densities that are more or less
3
completely immiscible. It is particularly adapted for the distillation and fractionation of complex liquids, or for the fractional condensation
or removal bycabsorption of constituents‘ of Va,-
10 nor of gaseous mixtures.‘ This application is a
continuation-in-part of 'the invention disclosed
in my prior co-pending application Serial No.
(0L zen-as)
I! through which one extremityof a shaft I I’
extends andv is. supported. The'shaf vIt passes
through the casing Ill and its other extremity
extends outwardly therefrom. To the conduit
section I‘ there is provided a pipe or inlet con
duit I‘! by which vapor, from the distilling‘ ket- '
tle, or other liquid ?uid issupplled to the appa
ratus. The inlet conduit may be secured to con
duit section ll in any desired manner __or may
be formed integral therewith.
,
,.
'At its opposite end the casing I0 is closed by a
plate‘ ll having a ‘central opening’,v I! through
> 9,923 ?led March 8. 1935, and is related to the whichshait- it extends. An outwardly extend
invention described in my prior application See- > in'g conduit section 20 ‘and stumng box 2| are
15- rial No. 5,059,~?led February 5, 1935.
.
_
secured in a ?uid-tight manner in central open
The invention will be fully understood from. ing la. The shaft," extends through this con
the following description, in which:
duit section and into stuiilng box 2] in which _
Fig. 1 is a longitudinal-vertical sectional view
through an
apparatus
2o invention
into
etl'ect; suitable for carrying the
Fig. 2 is a transverse vertical sectional view
on
the line 2-2 of Fig._ 1 looking in the- direction‘
of the arrows:
' ~
Fig. 3 is a transverse vertical sectional view on
25 the line 3_—3\of Fig. 1 lookingin the direction of
it is supported.
The conduit section 20 com-
municates with the'exit pipe 22 for treated va- '
por or gas, and through which re?ux liquid orv
other heavy liquid may be supplied as required.
The exit pipe 22 may be secured in any desir
ableformed
manner
to thetherewith.
conduit section’
20 or may ‘
be
integral
_.
Within the casing it and spaced ‘therefrom,
the arrows, parts being brokenaway forithe pur- \ a cylindrical rotor designated as a whoieby the
pose of illustration;
'
>
‘ >
Fig- 4 is a fragmentary ‘View On an enlarged
~scale with part removed, of a- portion of the an. 30 paratus illustrated in Fig. 1;
I
numeral 23, is mounted for rotation upon the
shaft 16., Theirotor 23 may suitably comprise
end plates 24 and :II and an intermediate spiral
ly wound sheet 28 surrounded by a cyclindrical
Fis. 5 is a fragmentary view similar ‘to. Fig. 4
illustrating a modi?cation adapted for use under
shell as. The sheet :0 is coiled as best illustrated '
in Fig, 2, so that one end, conveniently referred
different pressure conditions from those exists
to es the inner end, is spaced only a short radial '
1.1181111 F188‘- 1 t0 4; and
35 Fig. 6 is 8- View similar-‘w F188- 4~ and 510.11%
illustrating a further, modi?catidn adapted for
distance from, the shaft 18 and its outer end
isnear the casing 28. The turns or coils oispiral- "
sheet 26 are spaced radially so as to form a spiral
use under still other pressure ‘conditions. _
passageway 21 of increasing radius. The outer
In order that the invention may be fully under“ - end of sheet 20 forms with the'shell as an inlet
stood it will be described in connection with a
29 to this passageway.
. .
.
-
40 process of distillation, wherein vapors'irom a vaThe end plate or head 24 of rotor 23 vmay be
porizing receptacle containing mixed liquids are secured in a'iiuid-tight'mannei- to one edge of
charged into the apparatus embodying my in- spiral sheet 28 and shell” as by .a weld or solder.
vention and passed counter-currently to conden,—' The end plate 2| is‘ provided with a central open
sate or re?ux liquid trcvellins therethrough. for ing through which shaft It extends and a ?uid
45 the. Purpose of (meeting fractional condensation tight keying means as at II is provided to estab- ~' .
and separation of individual constituents of the lish mutual rotation between the, shaft and. '
vapors. Although reference will be made in the, . end plate. The end‘ plate or head 25, however,
following description to such Process it Will be is illustrated as having a- spiral'groove therein
understood‘ that the present invention is- not
which receives the other edge of spiral sheet 28. ’ ~
O
iimited thereto-
‘
~
~
.
, '
- ,
Referring more‘particularly to Piss; 1 to 4 in-
The head iris bolted toa- ?ange on shell in
as shown fat 30 so that. head “is forced-against
.clusive of the drawings, numeral It indicates a the edgeof sheet I! to form a ?uid-tight joint _- '
stationary- casing of generally cylindrical or . therewith. The ?uid-tight joints between mem
drum-like form mounted Ill->011 & Suitable statione bers 24, 25 and II and between members I I and
55 erg Support I l- Casing "I 18 provided at One end ‘M prevent ?uid from by-passing,
e 21 and
with a closure plate i2 having a‘ central opening
it. An outwardly projecting conduit section I‘
is secured in a ?uid-tight manner in the central
opening I 3 of the closure plate l2. Conduit sec
60 tion it is provided at its‘ end with a riumng box
ensure that the ?uids supplied to opposite ‘ends
of passage 21" traverse such passage in opposite
directions and so ‘cause the maximum action
on each other.
-
'
As appears best in‘ Fig. ,2, the inner end of the
-
8,109,875
at the opening it. Conduit section 48 in turn,
sheet 23 is spaced from the shaft It to provide
20.
communicates with the'conduit section
is such that
a space or chamber 32 from which ?uid may
enter the passage 21 or through which it may dis
charge therefrom. As stated above, the outer end
of sheet 26 is spaced from the shell 28 to provide
The construction of my apparatus
condensate or re?ux is formed in the passage- '
7
a space or chamber 29. Fluid may be discharged
from the passage 21 into space 29 or, as stated
above, space 28 may serve as an inlet for ?uid
, into this passage. Provision for a ?ow of ?uid
10 to and from space 28 is obtained by openings 33,
described and this condensate or re?ux is
made use of in a seal to prevent the escape _of
vapors passing from the rotor 23 to the exit pipe
ways
22.
.
>
The seal is formed as shown in Fig. 1 and may
comprise an outwardly projecting ?ange member 10
4'l formed integral with the end of conduit sec
33, in the plate 24, which are arranged in a ring
close to shell 28. The openings 33 connect the
space 29 with a device on the outside of the plate
plate to which an L-shaped circular member 48
15 discharge device, the construction of which is
chamber into which the liquid reflux is propelled
tion 44. Member 41 is in effect a wide annular
may be secured in a ?uid-tight manner. Mem
24 which serves as a liquid ‘sealing and a liquid bers 41 ‘and 43 cooperate to form an annular
as follows:
.
The end plate 24, which is secured to and ro
tates with the shaft i6, is of generally circular
form and extends somewhat beyond the rotor
20 casing 28, the projecting ‘annular portion being
indicated at 34. An annular member 35 of gen
by centrifugal force. The inner walls of the an
nular chamber ‘may be provided with ribs or cor
rugations to assist the movement of the ?uid in 20
the seal. An upstanding ?ange member 49 is
formed integral with conduit section 45 and is
erally L shape crossrsection is secured as by a
' ?uid-tight connection to the end plate 24. Mem
her 35 rotates with the end plate 24 and forms
therewith an annular chamber for a body of
arranged substantially
liquid. To the inner side of the end plate i2 of
casing Ill there may be secured a. conduitv sec
tion 36 which provides an opening that com
municates from the opening l3 in end plate l2
80 with the opening in conduit section l4, and forms
a continuation of the latter. A stationary ?at
plate 31 is secured to the free end of conduit sec
centrally of the annular -
chamber. The'outer end of member 49 is adapt
ed to extend into the body of liquid and thus pre-1
vent the escape of vapors passing through the 25
seal.
The apparatus illustrated in Figs. 1 and 2 is
assumed to be connected, by way of example, to a
still by means of conduit l1 and its operation un 30
der such conditions is as follows:
-
-
. Vapors, from a distilling iettle or like device, to
be fractionated, enter the conduit sections l4
and 35 from the pipe i1. They pass through the
tion 38 forming a wide annulus which is parallel opening 39 in the annular member 38 which
to‘and spaced from plate 24. The outer edge of forms, as heretofore stated, a part of the liquid 35
annulus 31 extends into 'the body or liqlild'ln the seal and discharge device, the operation of which
annular chamber formed by the projecting por
will be hereinafter described. Vapors then travel
tion 34 of the rotor end plate: 24 and the annular outwardly and enter the openings 33 of the end ‘
member 35. On the plate 31 there is mounted a 'plate 24‘of rotor 23. @The rotor is rotated at a
plate 38 of smaller diameter, spaced somewhat speed suitable to develop the centrifugal force 40
from the plate 31 and also from plate 24. This necessary for the operation, by a motor and belt
member is provided with a central opening 33 (not shown), andihe pulley IS’ on one end of the
through which‘the shaft l8 passes. Opening 33,, shaft IS. The vapors are supplied under pres
however, is larger than the shaft to permit a sure sui?cient to cause them to travel inwardly
desired flow of vapors or like ?uids from con . through the rotor being forced by such pressure 45
duit sections l4 and 38 into the space between the to traverse the passage 21 inwardly from the
rotary plate 24 and the stationary plate 38. The
outer edge of the plate 33 is secured to the plate
31 by a ring 40 (Figi 4) having in it a large num-‘
ber of openings 4| (Figs. 1 and 4). Fixed to one
face of the plate 33, and extending into the space
52 between such plate and the plate 31 are ?ow
impeding ridges or corrugations 42 (Fig. 3), the
purpose of which will presently appear. As will
be hereinafter pointed out, the assemblage of the
stationary plates 31 and 331, in the manner de
scribed, wlthin the annular chamber formed by
the end plate 24. of the rotor and the annular
member 35, provides bothva sealing means and a
- liquid collecting or discharge means.
The end plate 25 at the-opposite end of the
rotor 24, is provided at its center with an open
‘,ing- 43, which communicates with the space 32
in the‘ interior of rotor 23. An outwardly pro
space 29 and to contact, in such passage, with
re?ux liquid or other liquid passing counter-cur
rently thereto. Preferably, plate 24 has impeller 4
or booster blades 33 afllxed to its outer face and
which are positioned between itself and plate 34.
Vanes i0 serve to‘ assist the ?ow of vapors or
other light ?uid through the openings 33. when
the vapors reach the space 32 at the center oLthe
rotor, they pass .out through the central opening
43 in the rotor head plate", thence through the
conduit sections 44, 44 and 23 torthe exit pipe
22. As stated above, the liquid seal between con
duit sections 44 and 43 prevents the escape of
vapors from the rotor 23.
I
Re?ux liquid'i'or cooling purposes maybe sup
plied to the pipe 22 in the required amounts and
enters the rotor through the conduit sections 24
and 43, passing into the projecting portion 44 of
the‘ end plate 23 of rotor 23, and thus into the‘
space 32 surrounding the shaft I3. The re?ux
the opening 43,_is provided with a spider 4I,_by or like liquid as well as the condensate formed
which the end‘ plate 25 may be mounted for rota- \ in passage 21, builds up a film or layer on the
'
face of the sheet 23 and travels under the action To
tion on the shaft l4. The spider 4i and the con
of centrifugal force resulting from the rotation
nection 3| thus provide the means for establish‘
of the rotor through the passage 21 into the
'70
iecting cylindrical conduit section 44,- secured
in any desirable manner to the end plate 24 at
in: mutual rotation of the rotor 23 and the shaft
II. 'The' conduit section 44 leading from‘the
central portion of the rotor communicates‘ with
a stationary conduit section 43, extending in-'
gr: wardly from the end plate i3 of the casing l3
space 22 . from
which, it discharges through the
openings 33.
In'its travel
, counterrcurrently
' ‘
‘
the-rotor, the liquid moves I
to the ?owof vapor passing 75
eioasre
therethrough and intimate contact between the
.
3f
The liquid dischargedthrough the openings 33
enters the rotating chamber formed by the pro
crease in centrifugal force in the deeper portion of
body II oil-setting difference in static pressures
at its surface. Consequently the surface oi’ the
liquid body Bl outside the plate 31 may not be the
jecting portion 34 of the end plate 24- of the rotor
andthe annular member 35.- The liquid accu
body inside plate 3!. The radial dimension of the ‘
liquid ?lm and the vapor throughout the entire
length of passage 21 is assured.
I
.
same distance from shaft I! as the surface of such
plate 38 and the consequent position of the holes
4! through which the liquid discharges from body
mulatingiin the bottom of this chamber, rotates
therewith and is formed into an annular liquid
10 body (as shown at 5!) by the centrifugal ‘force set , 5| may advantageously be diiferent in' installa
tions having different pressure conditions, to l0v
upduring rotation. To assist the movement of adapt
the liquid discharge means to the pressure
the body of liquid, the inner walls 0! the annular ‘conditions in order to keep the seal dimension and " '
chamber may be provided with ribs or corruga
its liquid content at a minimum. Obviously also?
tions. The outer edge of_ stationary plate 31 pro
for
any given construction of the plate-33, the
jects into the annular ,body of liquid and thereby
forms a/liquid seal adapted to prevent vapors pressure differential between the space surround
the rotor and-the space. 51 between the plates
leaving the rotor 23 at the arid from which liquid ing
38 and 24 should be maintained reasonably con
is/withdrawn; As liquid continues to flow into ' stant
to suit the construction of ‘the plate 38.
the annular chamber, the chamber becomes ?lled, Such result
is obtained by the action of
pres
20 and thereupon the liquid enters the openings GI . sure
regulator 53,
_
and the stationary space 52 between the plates 37 '
and 38. Liquid entering space 52 through open
ings M has considerable velocity of rotation
25
which, unless checked, retards the discharge of
liquid from suchsspace. I accordingly provide
plate 33 with impeding ridges or corrugations '42
(Fig. 3), lying in space 52, to check the rotation
of liquid therein. From space 52, liquid ?ows out
through the conduit sections 36 and I 4 to the pipe
I‘! by which it may be returned to the kettle or
receptacle from which vapors are supplied to the
system.
a
'
However, diiferent pressurerelations, or a vari
ation in the pressure diii'erential, may often be de
sired in di?'erent installations. Figsu4, 5 and 6
illustrate three diiferent relations. between the
pressure external to the rotor and that within it 25
in the space 29. These ?gures show the variations ' '
in design of the plate 88 and the» discharge cham
ber 52 between plates 31 and 38 advantageous!‘ for ‘
such diiierences in pressure conditions. In Fig. 4,
I have illustrated a liquid seal and discharge
chamber designed to operate in an apparatus ‘haying zero pressure diiferential between the space
so
The space within casing II and surrounding the
the rotor 23 and that in the spaces
rotor 23 may be.maintained under atmospheric I surrounding
35 pressure, or under any suitable pressure other 29 and 5?; It will be seen that in Fig. 4, the sur
, than atmospheric. In order to prevent or avoid face of liquid body ll has the same distance from 35
the shaft on both sides,of plate 3'l.' , ,
the necessity of constructing the rotor 23 to with
In‘ the modi?cation shown in, Fig. 5, it is as
stand undu'e pressures, it is desirable that the
_ interior of the casing Ill be maintained under a
pressure approximately the same as that prevail
ing within the interior of the rotor and, in the spe
cific case described, within the distillation system.
For this purpose, a pressure regulator and con
troller 53 is shown, this being of well known char
acter and supplied with a suitable inert gas such
as carbon dioxide or with air or other gas if de
sired,‘ through the pipe 54. The gas thus supplied
sumed that the pressure surrounding the rotor 23
is greater than that in the spaces 2! and 59. The '
surface of the liquid of body ‘I! on ‘the outside of 40
plate 31 is therefore farther from the shaft than
the surface of such- body inside the plate.‘ In the
modi?cation shown vin Fig. 6, it is assumed that
the pressure surrounding the rotor 23 isless than
that within the rotor in the space Bl . The surface
of'the liquid body 82 on the outside of plate 31
is therefore closer to'the shaft than the surface
45
is conducted to the interior of the casing through of such body inside of the
plate. In each vof Figs. 'the pipe 55. The pressure within the casing is ' 4,
5 and 6, the discharge means 7 is designed so»
controlled by the pressure regulator 53 to main
that the openings 41 shall lie at the surface oi
tain a ?xed relationship to that prevailing within the liquid on the, inside of ‘plate. 31 so that addi 50
the exit conduit 22. The pressure in exit conduit tional ?uid discharged through opening 33 will
22 is communicated to the pressure regulator 53 >
pass out through the discharge chamber. This
through the pipe 56.
condition requires that in the arrangement of >3
in
As exit conduit 22 is in communication with the
5, the plate 83 have a less radius thanplate 3B 55
interior of .the rotor :3, pressure regulator 53 _ Fig.
4, whilethejplate 8d ‘of Fig. 6 shall have a .
maintains a constant relationship between the Fig.
greater radius than that of plate 38.
_ pressure at any given point in such rotor, for ex
ample spaceS'I in the liquid'disoharge and sealing
device,“and that‘in the space surrounding it. The
pressure of the medium surrounding the rotor 23
It is evident that a pressure di?erential be- 4
tween spaces 5'5, It or ii and the space in casi- '
ing it‘ outside rotor 28, if too great, will cause 60
will be seen to exert itself-against the surface of ‘ ,either a loss of liquid into casing It or a ?ow of .
the body liquid ii at points outside the stationary . relatively cold foreign gas into the interior of
plate 31, while the surface of the body of ‘liquid the rotor. The pressure regulator 53 or equivaa
55 within plate 81 is subjected to the pressure of lent means' for maintaining constant pressure.
the medium in space 57 between the outer portion relations in the apparatus, therefore not only at
of the plate 33 and the outer face of plate 2t. fects the construction of rotor 33, but also is .im- _‘
Such pressure is substantially that of the vapors portant in ensuring satisfactory operationof the‘
or lighter ?uid in the space 2%.
,
liquid sealing means supra whenever material
u
The liquid in body'Si is 01' course, tree to how pressure variations occur between the inlet and
around the outer edge .of plate 37 and a di?’erence outlet of the rotor. While valved pipe 65 con
in‘the pressures onthe suriace of body d! on op~ necting inlet conduit H with the interior of hous
posite sides of the plate causes such a ?ow to . ing Hi may be .used to maintain a pressure dif
occur until the‘liquid on one side is suilic'iently
deeper than that on the other to produce an in
feren'tialbetween the interior and exterior of the .
rotor, it cannot, beused to equalize pressures on
75'
'
areas-1s _
a rotor havinga spiral passageway, means for
the-liquidin the liquid sealingmeans when fan supplying
a relatively heavier ?uid within said
blades ‘I, or their equivalent, ‘are employed.
rotor so that it flows outwardly through said pas
4
-
0
The layer or depth of liquid formed on the
sheet 2. has a thickness depending upon the char
acteristics of the-liquid and‘ the centrifugal force
developed in the operation. While this centrifu
gal force may be approximately equal to the force
exerted by gravity or even less, it is preferred that
it be substantially in excess of the force of grav-v
10 ity and preferably at least twice. In general, I
have found it advisable to employ conditions of a‘
operations, rates of rotation and the like so that
the centrifugal force effected in the operation is 1
equivalent to five or more times the force of
gravity.
A speed of rotation at 600 to 2000.
R. P. M. or higher has been found suitable. At
this speed a clearance between the relatively mov
ing parts of the seals heretofore described of
approximately %" has been found satisfactory
' when utilizing a seal diameter of approximately
eight inches.
The traverse of the liquid within spaces 32 and
29 in the rotor 23 is in general parallel to the
axis of rotation while, inlthe passage 21, it is
'25 in general transverse to such axis.
The apparatus shown in the drawings is de
sageway upon rotation, means for supplying a
relatively lighter ?uid to the outer’ end of said
passageway under su?lcient pressure so that it
?ows inwardly therethrough. means for dis
charging said lighter ?uid from said rotor, means
for discharging said'heavier ?uid from the rotor
and a casing surrounding said rotor, said means 10
for discharging said heavier ?uid comprising a
liquid seal means having abody‘ of liquid there
in, means forming a passageway for the ?ow of
liquid from said body and having an'extension
into said body which separates the surfaces there 15
of so that one surface is in communication with >
the interior of the rotor and the other is in com
munication‘ with the exterior of the rotor.
2. In an apparatus‘ for the counter-current
contact of'?uids in a zone of centrifugal'force, 20
a rotor having a spiral passageway, means for _
supplying a relatively heavier ?uid within said
rotor so that it ?ows outwardly through said
passageway upon rotation, means for supplying
a relatively lighter ?uid to the outer end of said 25
passageway under sufficient pressure so that it
' signed for operation with the shaft in the hori ?ows inwardly therethrough, means for dis
zontal position but, it may be arranged so that charging said lighter ?uid from said rotor, means
for discharging said heavier ?uid from the rotor
the shaft is mounted vertical or at an, interme
and
a casing surrounding said rotor, said means 30
30 diate angle, since the main force compelling the
for
discharging
said heavier ?uid comprising a
movement of the liquid through the system is cen
trifugal and static pressure is employed to force
liquid seal means having a body of liquid there
the vapors through the system.
liquld‘from said body and having an extension
into said body which separates the surfaces there
While the invention has been described here
35
inbefore in- connection with distillation opera
tions, it is readily apparent that it is also appli
cable to other operations in ‘which counter-cur
rent contact between vapors and liquids areide
sired. For example, in absorption processes for
40 removing constituents‘ from natural gas or-other
gases, by absorption in oil or other liquids or in
processes wherein constituents of ‘gases are re
moved by chemical action, as in the removal of
hydrogen sulfide from gases by contact with alkali
in, means forming a passageway for the ?ow of
of so that one surface is in communication with
the interior of the rotor and the other is in com
munication with the exterior of the rotor, said
passageway for the ?ow of liquid from saidbody
being in communication with the surface of said
bog: that communicates with the interior of the
ro
r.
3. In an apparatus for the counter-current
contact of ?uids in a zone of centrifugal force,
a rotor having a spiral passageway, means for
supplying a relatively heavier ?uid within said
solutions, such as solutions of soda ash, ‘trietha
nolamine and the like. The invention may also be ' rotor so that it ?ows outwardly through said pas
_ employed in processes where counter-current
upon rotation, means for supplying a rel
contact .between liquids of different densities sageway
atively
lighter
?uid to the outer end of said pas
which are more or ‘less immiscible with one an
under su?lcient pressure so that it ?ows iii
other is desired.v For example, in solvent proc ' sageway
cases for removing constituents of lubricating inwardly therethrough, means for discharging
said lighter ?uid from said rotor, means for' dis
oils and the like or the chemicalre?ning of hy
charging said heavier ?uid from the rotor and -a
drocarbon oils with sulfuric acid, alkalis or the casing surrounding said rotor, said means for
like. In these instances suitable means being discharging said heavier ?uid comprising a liquid
55 provided forthe introduction of the heavier
seal means having a body of liquid therein, means
and lighter ?uids into the rotor.
forming a passageway for the ?ow of liquid from
Althoughithe present invention has been de
said body and having an extension into said body
scribed in‘ connection with details of speci?c ap
separates the surfaces thereof so that one
paratus and processes for carrying the same into which
surface is subjected to the pressure in the, rotor
effect,
it
is
to
be?
understood
that
such
details
60
and the other is subjected to the pressure outside
are not to be recorded as limitations upon the the rotor whereby‘ the surface subjected to the
scope of the invention, except in so far as included _ least pressure is more proximate to the axis of the
' in the accompanying claims which’ form a part,
rotor than the other‘ surface.
‘ of this speci?cation. . Thus, the seals heretofore
4. In an apparatus for the counter-current A
65 described may be inverted; that is, the annular contact of ?uids in a zone of centrifugal force, a
chamber may be made stationary and the mem
rotor having a spiral passageway, means for sup- '
ber extending into the annular body of liquid may plying
a relatively heavier ?uid within said rotor
‘rotate with the rotation of the rotor. In this so that it ?ows outwardly through said passage
instance the rotating member may be provided way upon rotation, meanslfor supplying a rein
ribs or corrugations to assist the ?ow of tively lighter ?uid to the outer end of said pas
76 with
the" annular body of liquid in the stationary seal sageway under suf?cient pressure so that it ?ows
inwardly therethrough, means for discharging
I claim:
.
I
said lighter ?uid from said rotor, means for dis
1. In an apparatus for the counter-current charging said heavier ?uid from the rotor and
75 contact of ?uids in a zone of centrifugal force,
chamber.
_
'
2,109,370
a casing surrounding said rotor, said means for
.5
discharging said heavier ?uid comprising a liquid vcontact-of ?uids-in a zone of centrifugal force of
seal means having a body of liquid therein, means a rotor having a passage whose ends are spaced
forming a passageway for the ?ow of liquid from in the direction radially of the axis of rotation,
for supplying a relatively heavier ?uid
said body and having an extension into said body means
within said
so that it ?ows outwardly ‘
which separates the surfaces thereof so that one through said rotor
passage upon rotation; means for 5
surface is subjected to the pressure in'the rotor
and the other is subjected to the pressure outside supplying a relatively lighter ?uid to the outer I
the rotor, the surface subjected to the pressure in ‘end of said passage under sufficient pressure- to
10 the rotor being more proximate to the axis of the cause it to flow inwardly therethrough, means for
rotor than the other, said passageway for the ?ow discharging said relatively heavier ?uid from said 10
of liquid from said'body being in communication rotor, means included in‘ a sealfor discharging
with the surface of said ,body more proximate to ' relatively lighter ?uid from said rotor, a casing
surrounding said rotor and spaced therefrom and
the axis ‘of the rotor.
means
for maintaining a pressure in said'casing
15
5. In an apparatus for the counter-current
contact of ?uids in a zone of centrifugal force, a outside said rotor greater than that at the point 15
of discharge of said heavier ?uid from the rotor.
rotor having a spiral passageway, means for sup
9. The combination in an apparatus for the
- plying a relatively heavier ?uid within said rotor
so that it ?ows outwardly throughsaid passage [contact of ?uids in a zone of centrifugal force I
of a rotor having a passage whose ends are
20 way upon rotation, means for supplying a rela
tively lighter ?uid to the outer end of said was
sageway- under su?iclent pressure so that it ?ows
inwardly therethrough, means for discharging
_ said lighter ?uid from said rotor, means for dis
25 charging said heavier ?uid from the-rotor and
spaced in the direction radially of the axis of ro
tation, means for supplying a relatively heavier
?uid vwithin said rotor so that it ?ows outwardly
through said passage upon rotation, means for
20
supplying a relatively lighter ?uid to theoute'r
a casing surrounding said rotor, said means for end of said passage under a force su?icientto
discharging said heavier ?uid comprising a liq-~ cause it- to ?ow inwardly therethrough, means
uid seal means having a body of liquid therein, included in a seal'for discharging said relatively '
heavier ?uid from, said rotor, means for dis
means forming a passageway for the?ow of liq
30 uid from said body and having an extension into charging said relatively lighter ?uid from said
said body which separates the surfaces thereof rotor, a casing surrounding said rotor and means '30
for maintaining in said casing outside said rotor
I so that one surface is subjected to the pressure in
a ?uid pressure less ‘than that at the point of
the rotor and the other is subjected to the pres
sure outside the rotor, the surface subjected to discharge of said heavier fluid from the rotor.
10. The combination in an ~apparatus for the -'
35 the pressure in the rotor being more distant from
the aids of the rotor than the other, said pas , contact of ?uids in a zone of centrifugal force, 35
of a rotor having a passage whose ends are
sageway for the ?ow of liquid from said body be
ing in communication with the surface of said _ spaced in the direction radially of the axis of
rotation and adapted to create a centrifugal ac
body more distant from the axis of the rotor.
6. The combination in an apparatus for the tion, means for supplying a relatively heavier
contact of ?uids in a zone of centrifugal force of ?uid within said rotor ‘so that it ?ows outwardly
through said passage upon rotation, means for
_ a rotor having a passage whose ends are spaced
> radially of the axis of rotation and adapted to supplying a relativcly‘lighter ?uid to the‘ outer
i create a centrifugal action, means for supplying‘ end of said passage under pressure sufficient to
45 a relatively heavier ?uid within said rotor so that force it inwardly therethrough, a casing sur
rounding said rotor and spaced therefrom, means
it ?ows outwardly through said passage upon ro
tation, means for supplying ‘relatively lighter . for discharging said relatively lighter ?uid from
said rotor, means for maintaining the pressure
?uid to the outer end of said passage and at su?i
cient pressure to force it inwardly therethrough, ' in the space between said rotor and casing in
?xed relation to that-at a point within saidrotor,
50 means for discharging said relatively heavier‘ and
relatively lighter ?uids from said rotor, the means ' and means fordischarging said heavier ?uid
for discharging said relatively heavier ?uid being
from said rotor comprising a liquid seal means
. .7. The combination in an apparatus for the coin
chamber for checking the rotary motion of liquid
that it ?ows inwardly therethrough, means in
cluded in a seal for discharging said relatively
heavier ?uid from said rotor, means for dis
charging said relatively lighter ?uid therefrom, a
stationary casing surrounding ‘said rotor and
action, means for supplying a. relatively heavier
?uid within said rotor so that it ?ows outwardly
throng‘. said passage upon rotatlon,'means for
having a body of llquidgtherein, a stationary
included in a seal, a stationary casing surround
ing said rotor and means for maintaining the chamber extending to the surface of said ‘liquid
pressure in said casing outside said rotor at a and provided with one or more openings. through
constant relation to the pressure at a given point ~ which. liquid from said seal -may enter such 55
within the rotor.
chamber,_ and means within said stationary
tact of ?uids in a zone of centrifugal force of a entering ‘the chamber from ‘said body.
60 rotor havinga passage adapted to create a cen
11. The combination in an apparatus for the
trifugal action, means for supplying a relatively contact of ?uids moving in continuous uninter 60
heavier fluid within said rotor so that it ?ows out~ _ rupted streams in a ‘zone of centrifugal force, of
wardiy through said passsge upon rotation; means a drum type rotor having a passage whose'ends
for supplying a relatively lighter ?uid to the outer are spaced in the direction radially’ of the axis
65 end of said passage'under su?cient pressure so .of rotation and adapted to create a centrifugal
means for maintaining a ?uid in said casing sur
rounding said rotor at a pressure apprommately
of discharge of
said heavier ?uid from the'rotor.
75
supplying a relatively lighter fluid to'the outer
‘end of said passage under press )esui?cient to
force it inwardly therethrough, a shaft for said 70
rotor, a stationary casing surrounding said rotor I
and spaced therefrom, said. casing having an
opening through which said shaft extends, said
8. The combination in an apparatus forthe , casing having a second opening adjacent to and
a the same as that at the point
65
'
teamed with the anal opening in said rotor and 75.
6
2,109,876 '
,
body at points between said plate and rotor, a
?xed casing enclosing said rotor, said sealing
through which said shaft extends, and liquid seal
means surrounding said shaft intermediate said
openings comprising an annular member sup
adapted upon rotation to‘ contain a body of seal
ing fluid, and a plate ?xed to said outer casing
and discharge means being so arranged that the
pressure within said casing and outside said ro
tor exerts itself on one part of the surface of said
liquid body and the pressure at a point within
and adapted to extend into the ring of ?uid
within said member to form a seal.
12. The combination in an apparatus for the
surface of said body, and means to regulate the
pressure within said casing outside said rotor to
maintain a constant relationship to the pressure
ported by said rotor to revolve therewith and
said rotor exerts itself on another part of the "
contact of ?uids in a zone of centrifugal force
within the rotor.
of a rotor having a ‘continuous uninterrupted
passage whose ends are spaced in the direction
radially of the axis of rotation and adapted to
create'a centrifugal action, means for supplying
_
'10
l,
. 16. In an apparatus for the counter-current
contact of ?uids in a zone of centrifugal force, a
rotor having a spiral passageway, means for sup
plying a relatively heavier fluid within said rotor 15
- a relatively heavier ?uid within'said rotor so , so that it ?ows outwardly through said passage
that it ?ows outwardly through said passage
upon rotation, means for supplying a relatively way upon rotation, means for supplying a rela
lighter ?uid to the outer end of said‘ passage
under pressure suf?cient to force‘ it inwardly
20 therethrough, a casing surrounding said rotor
and spaced therefrom, means for discharging
said relatively lighter ?uid from said rotor, means
for'maintaining the pressure in the space be
tween said rotor and casing in ?xed relation to
25 that at a point within said rotor, and means for
discharging said heavier ?uid from said rotor
comprising a liquid sealing means having a body
of liquid therein, a stationary chamber extending
to the surface of said liquid and provided with
30' one or moreopenings through which liquid from
said seal may enter such chamber.
'
_
-
'
13. The combination in an apparatus for con
tacting a liquid and a relatively lighter ?uid in
a zone of centrifugal force oi? a rotor having a
35 passage in which such contact occurs, means for
feeding liquid to the interior of said rotor so that
it passes outwardly through said passage, a liquid
.sealing and discharge means having an annular
chamber arranged to rotate with said rotor,and
40
to receiveliquid which has passed outwardly
through said passage so as to form an annular
' body, a stationary plate whose outer edge pro
J'ects beneath the surface of said body of liquid,
means to withdraw liquid from between said ro
45 tor and stationary plate, and means'to maintain
a constant relationship between the pressures on
tively lighter ?uid to the outer end of said pas
sageway under suiilcient pressure so that it ?ows
inwardly therethrough, means for discharging 20
said lighter ?uid from said rotor, means for
discharging said heavier ?uid from the rotor, a
casing surrounding said rotor, said means for
discharging said heavier ?uid comprising a liquid
seal means having a body ‘of liquid therein, 25
means forming a passageway'for the‘?ow of liq
uid from said body and having an extension into '
said body which separates the surfaces thereof
so that one surface is in communication with the
interior of the rotor and the other is in commu 30
nication with the exterior of ‘the rotor, and means
to regulate the pressure within said casing out
side said rotor to maintain a constant relation
ship to the pressure within the rotor. '
'
‘
1'7. In apparatus for effecting counter-current 35
contact between ?uids, a rotor and means for ef
fecting rotation thereof, means forsupplying a
liquid within the rotor to pass outwardly .there- "
through and means for supplying a lighter ?uid
at an outer point to pass inwardly therethrough,
means for rotating said rotor to cause outward
movement of the heavier ?uid, an annular cham
ber at one end of said rotor and rotatable there
with, said chamber having openings communicat
ing with the interior of the rotor to receive heav
ier ?uids discharged therefrom, and a stationary
collector chamber extending into said annular
chamber, said collector chamber being formed of
said plate.
‘
'
ii. In a ‘?uid counter-current apparatus, av spaced circular plates having openings therebe
tween through which liquid collected in said an
60 rotor having a liquid sealing and discharge de— nular chamber may enter the collector chamber
vice comprising in combination a rotating plate,
7
g
means forming an annular chamber ?xed to said formed between said plates.
18. In apparatus for e?ecting counter-current
plate and adapted to rotate therewith, means
the surfaces of said body on opposite sides of
through which liquid is fed to said chamber to
55 build up an annular liquid body therein during
rotation, a ?xed plate parallel to said plate and
spaced therefrom, said ?xed plate having its
edge normally extending beneath the surface of
said body, means for withdrawing liquid from'
60 the surface of said body, and means for main
taining a constant relationship between pres
sures on the parts of the surface of said body on
opposite sides of said stationary plate.
15. The combination in an apparatus for coun
ter-currently contacting ?uids in a zone of cen
trifugal force of a rotor within which ?uids are
contact between ?uids, a rotor and means for ef
fecting rotation thereof, means for supplying a
liquid within the rotor to pass outwardly there
through and means for supplying a lighter ?uid .
at an outer point to pass inwardly therethrough.
means for rotating said rot'or to cause outward
movement of the heavier ?uid, an annular cham-_ 60
ber at one end of said rotor-and rotatable there
with, said chamber having openings communl- '
cating with the interior of ‘the rotor to-receive
heavier ?uids discharged therefrom, and a sta
tionary collector chamber extending into said
annular chamber,‘ said collector chamber being
contacted and having liquid sealing and dis ‘ formed of spaced circular plates having openings
charge means associated therewith comprising therebetween through which liquid collected in
said annular chamber may enter the collector
chamber formed between said plates, one of said 70
plates
extending beyond the other and into the V
from said rotor to said chamber to build up an '
?uid in said annular chamber, thereby forming a
annular ‘liquid body therein, a ?xed plate nor
seal.
mally extending beneath the surface of_ said liq
WALTER J. POD'BIELN'IAK.
uid body, means to withdraw liquid from said
means forming an annular chamber mounted to
70 rotate with said rotor, means for feeding liquid
CERTIFICATE OF'CORRECTION; '
Patent No.
2,109,575‘.
’
‘
'
‘
‘
,
.
February‘ 22, 1938..
WALTER J. PODBIELNIAK.
- It is hereby certified that ‘error appears in the printed specification
of the above numbered patent requiring cor'I-e'ctionas follows: Page 5, second’
colmpn, line 11, claim 8, strike out the words "included in a seal" and
insert the same after "means", line 9,‘ same claim; page 6, first column,
‘line LL9,_ claim 11;, for "fluid" read fluid-fluid; and that the said Letters
Patent should be read with these corrections therein that the same maYEon
forhi' to the r'eeord'of the case in the‘Patent Office.’
Signed and sealed this 12th day of April, A. D. 1938.
.
(Seal)
Henry ‘Van Arsdale ,
v
Acting Commissioner of Patents;
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