Патент USA US2109415код для вставки
Feb. 22, 1938. A. M. DEITERS POLE SHAPING CUTTER Filed Jan. 11, 1937 5291 1/5 ' 2,109,415 I 5 Sheets-Sheet 1 Z Feb. 22, 1938. 2,109,415 A. M. DEITERS POLE SHAPING CUTTER Filed Jan. 11, 1937 2/ ' 5 Sheets-Sheet 2 Feb. 22,1938. A_ M_ DE|TER5 2,109,415 POLE SHAPING CUTTER Filed Jan. 11, 1937 I 5 Sheets-Sheet 5 Z2 /5 \ m m ‘ll 14 ’ 4 Z/ ‘1 a I 4/ G |||||llll I I‘ . . | 41/ 5 g ; I n J > 2,109,415 Patented Feb. 22, 1938 UNITED STATES ‘PATENT OFFICE _ 2,109,415 POLE SHAPING CUTTER. August M. Deiters, Atlanta, ‘Ga., assignor to Southern 'Wood Preserving Company, Atlanta, Ga., a corporation of Georgia Application January 11, 1937, Serial No. 120,105 7 Claims. (Cl. 144-218) This invention relates to pole shaping machines frame or innergimbal ll carrying annular race~ of the general type shown in U. -S. Patent No. ways 12. A drum or casing 13 having comple 1,943,649 and, among other objects, aims to pro-_ _ ~mental raceways i4 is rotatably mounted within vide greatly improved rotary cutters for shaping ordinary poles. The main idea is to provide roughing cutters having associated saws adapted to ‘cut spiral kerfs in front of the cutter blades across the grain of the wood and thereby relieve the cutter blades of end thrust and destructive wear on their leading end edges. Another aim is to provide roughing cutters of this type adapted for use in conjunction with ?nishing or smooth the main frame. The drum is shown as being driven by‘a motor M through suitable‘ reduction Cl gearing including a pinion ‘f5 meshing with an external ring gear is on the rear end of the drum. The mounting'of the drum i3 is such that it is capable of heating movement. That is to say, it is universally movable both angularly and lat 10 orally to follow the sweeps in a pole as it is‘fed through the. machine by the feedingmechanism ' ing cutters such as those shown in a copending ‘ (not shown). These parts-may be ‘and prefer application, Ser. No. 120,104, ?led Jan. 11, 1937, ably are the same as those disclosed in the afore- _ in connection with-the accompanying drawings, said patent, except for the fact that the driving motor M is mounted on top of the'inner gimbal instead’ of within the drum.‘ ‘A pole P is adapted to be fed longitudinally wherein: Fig. 1 is a vertical sectional view, partly'in ele means, ‘such as that disclosed in the aforesaid 1 7-15 by A. M. Deiters and E. R. Gillon. Other aims and advantages of the invention will appear in the speci?cation when considered vation, showing the preferred form of cutters applied to a pole shaping machine; Fig. 2 is a sectional view taken on the line 2-2 of Fig. 1; Fig. 3 is a front end elevation of one of the roughing cutters removed from the machine; Fig. 4 is a side elevation of the roughing cutter shown in Fig. 3; Fig. 5 is a fragmentary sectional view taken on the line 5—5 of Fig. 4; and Fig. 6 is a fragmentary sectional view of a pole showing the contour of a cut made by the rough ing cutter. Referring particularly to the drawings, the cut ters there shown are’mounted. in a pole shaping machine like that disclosed in the aforesaid ap plication, wherein poles are fed longitudinally through the machine and two sets of cutters are mounted within a rotatable drum or casing to rotate about their own axes and also bodily with the drum about the axis of the pole. The rough ing cutters are used to remove a greater portion of the surplus wood on the pole and the machine is so constructed that the cutters follow the 45 sweeps in the pole. That is to say, the poles are fed into the machine between the cutters, and the machine is mounted for ?oating movement to through the machine by any'suitable feeding patent. and, as it enters the machine, it is en gaged by a plurality of fluid pressure operated guide rollers I1. Three such guide rollers are preferably employed for this purpose, and the arrangement is such that'they impart universal ?oating movement to- the machine, as described in said patent. They are arranged within the machine near the‘cutters so that the cutterswill be caused to follow the sweeps in the pole. In this instance, the roughing cutters are shown as being arranged on diametrically opposite sides of the pole near the front or entering end of the rotatable casing. They are preferably composed of ordinary planer heads l8 carrying a plurality of angularly arranged blades i9 suitably secured in grooves 20 in the head by means of set screws 21 and blocks 22. The leading and trailing end edges of the cutter blades are shown as being ightly beveled. The heads are mounted on hori zontal shafts 23 which are driven by motors 24 within the casing and ‘supported on crossheads, each shown as including a pair of spaced plate members 25 and 26 having legs 2'! at their four corners which are mounted in guide members 28 secured at their ends to the inner wall of the drum. The inner ends of the guide members 28 are also shown as being secured to a small slotted correspond with sweeps and irregularities in the pole, such movement being imparted to the ma chine by roller guides bearing against the pole drum 29 which is of such size as to accommodate as'it moves between the cutters. est poles. In Figs, 1 and 2, the machine is shown as in cluding'a special design of gimbal ring in the ‘form of a main supporting frame It, within whichis pivotally mounted a second supporting the largest poles and permits the cutters to be projected radially inwardly to work onthe small 50 v The cutters are adapted to automatically and adjusted to ferent diameters, as well as to sired'tapers, by means of feed r be fed inwardly cut poles of dif produce the de screws 30 driven 1 2 2,109,415 by reduction gearing 3! connected to be operated by sprockets 32 journaled in brackets within the casing over which a sprocket chain 33 is trained. Four such sprockets are shown in Fig. 2. Two of them are employed to feed a pair of ?nishing cut ters 3% by means of feed screws 35. Incidentally, the ?nishing cutters may be of any suitable de sign, but they are shown as being the same as those claimed in the aforesaid copending appli cation. All of the cutters are simultaneously ad justed by means of the feed screws operated by the sprocket chain and the chain is adapted to be» driven by a motor 36, the speed of which is controlled according to the feeding speed of the 15 pole, as explained in the aforesaid patent. As shown in Fig. 1, the roughing cutters and the ?nishing cutters are arranged to take spiral cuts around the pole as it is fed through the ma chine. The ?nishing cutters are spaced from the roughing cutters and arranged behind a slot ted partition 3'! within the casing. This parti tion prevents the chips out by the roughing cut ters from entering the rear chamber of the casing and clogging up the feeding mechanism. After the roughing cutters have removed a great er portion of the surplus wood from the pole, the pole is engaged by a pair of spring urged guide shoes 38 arranged just ahead of the fin ishing cutters to ride on the roughed surface 30 of the pole. These guide shoes tend to main tain the pole and the machine substantially co axial behind the guiding rollers H. In machines of this type used for shaping tele phone or telegraph poles and the like, the feeding 35 speed of the poles sometimes exceeds 25 feet per minute. I-Ieretofore, special and very expensive blades having cutting edges on their sides and leading ends have been employed. When taking deep cuts, such blades were subjected to enor 40 mous end thrust and Wore out very quickly at their leading ends. The end edges had to cut across the grain of the wood sometimes to a depth of 2 inches and, at the same time, bear the feeding thrust. The loss of time and replace 45 ment costs were far too great in proportion to the output of the machine. In accordance with this invention, the roughing cutters are relieved of the end thrust and the cutters, themselves, are greatly simpli?ed so that ordinary planer blades may be used without excessive wear. Referring to Figs. 3 and 4, each cutter head is shown as being Provided with a pair of circular saw segments 39 and 4B eccentrically arranged at acute angles to the plane of the end of the head. 55 These saw segments are preferably semi-circular and may be made by cutting a circular saw in half. The segments are preferably secured to the head by bolts 4! and are held at acute angles thereto by means of spacer washers 42 of different 60 thicknesses. The two segments are eccentric in opposite directions and are oppositely inclined with respect to the face of the head at the junc tion of the segments. That is to say, the teeth of the segments on the shortest radii are most remote from the leading end of the cutter head; while the teeth on the longest radii are nearest the end of the head or the leading ends of the cutter blades. The arrangement of the teeth is such that, as the cutter head rotates counter clockwise on its own axis as viewed in Fig. 3, the teeth on each segment will take successively deeper cuts beginning with the teeth on the shortest radii until the teeth on the longest radii cut to the botom of the kerf. Incidentally, the 75 cutters rotate bodily in a clockwise direction around the pole, as viewed in Fig. 2. This ar rangement of the saw segments is important be cause the teeth are relieved of excessive side thrust or end thrust on the cutter head, each tooth taking only a small cut. Moreover, the 5 saw segments cut outwardly and rearwardly in clined shoulders on the pole ahead of the cutter blades so that the successive teeth have ample clearance and do not frictionally engage the faces of the shoulders left by the preceding teeth. 10 The maximum diameter of the toothed segments is substantially the same as the cutting diameter of the cutter blades at their leading edges and the cutter blades, as hereinbefore stated, are slightly beveled at their leading ends so that the 15 central portions of the blades out slightly deeper and produce a smoother surface. In Fig. 6, the cut made by one of the roughing cutters is shown on a fragment of a pole, the roughing cutter being shown'in broken lines. 20 The pole is being fed to the right and the saw segments have produced a beveled shoulder S. The bottom of the saw kerf is the same depth as the cut made by the leading beveled end edges of the cutter blades. The leading ends of the 25 blades produce albevel cut B; while the cylin drical portions of the blades make a cylindrical cut C representing the roughed out diameter of the pole. The feeding speed of the pole: is pref erably such that the pitch of the spiral cuts pro 30 duced by the roughing cutters is 6 inches or more. Each cutter shown will therefore take a cut of half that width, de?ning a double spiral path on the pole. The cutter blades successively remove portions of the surplus wood, each taking a deeper 35 bite than the preceding one around the pole and the ?bres of the surplus wood are severed by the saw segments so that all of the surplus wood is easily removed by the blades. From the foregoing description, it will be seen 40 that the roughing cutters are relatively simple in their design and may employ inexpensive planer blades. Also, the saw segments may be made of ordinary plain circular saws of the prop— er diameter. They do not require frequent sharp 45 ening but may be removed very quickly for re pair or replacements. The planer blades will last much longer than the more expensive cut ters heretofore used without the saw segments. Furthermore, the cutters enable the machine to 50 cut poles continuously at a much greater speed than was heretofore possible. The loss of time for changing blades and regrinding them is re duced to a minimum. Obviously, the present invention is not re 55 stricted to the particular embodiment thereof herein shown and described. Moreover, it is not indispensable that all the features of the inven tion be used conjointly, since they may be em~ ployed advantageously in various combinations and sub-combinations. 60 What is claimed is: 1. Cutting means for shaping wood poles and the like comprising, in combination, a rotatable cutter head carrying cutter blades and adapted 65 to rotate bodily relative to the pole while the pole moves relatively longitudinally of and parallel with the axis of the head; and rotary cutting means coacting with the cutter head having teeth each spaced longitudinally and circum 70 ferentially in rear of the preceding tooth and on successively greater radii, whereby the lowest teeth engage the surface of the pole ?rst while the succeeding teeth take successively deeper cuts to produce a shoulder in a path slightly in 75 2,109,415 advance of the leading ends of the cutting blades and approximately to the same depth as the depth of the cut of the blades. 2. Cutting means for shaping wood poles and the like‘comprising, in combination, a rotatable cutter head carrying cutter blades and adapted to rotate bodily relative to the pole while the pole moves relatively longitudinally of and par allel with the axis of the head, and ?bre severing 10 means comprising a separate rotary cutter hav ing circumferential cutting edges of progres— 15 5. Cutting means for shaping wood poles and the like comprising, in combination, a rotatable cutter head carrying cutter blades and adapted. to rotate bodily relative to the pole while the pole moves relatively longitudinally of andrparallel with the axis of the head; and eccentrically ar ranged saw segments secured to the leading end of the cutter head at acute angles to a plane normal to the axis of the head with'the high teeth of each segment nearest the adjacent end 10 of the cutter head whereby said saw segments sively increasing radii, said edges being angularly sever the wood ?bres ahead of the'blades. ' pitched so that the lowest edges are the ?rst to engage the pole surface as the pole is fed past 6. Cutting means for shaping wood poles and the like comprising, .in combination, a rotatable cutter head carrying cutter blades and adapted 15 the cutting blades, whereby said cutting edges produce a substantially spiral shoulder around the pole ahead of the blades and approximately to the same depth as the depth of cut of the blades to relieve the leading ends of the blades 20 of end thrust. 3. Cutting means for shaping wood poles and the like comprising, in combination, a rotatable cutter head carrying cutter blades and adapted to rotate bodily relative to the pole while the 25 pole moves relatively longitudinally of and par allel with the axis of the head; and eccentrically and angularly arranged saw segments associated with the cutter head to produce a kerf around to rotate bodily relative to the pole while the pole 7 moves ‘relatively longitudinally of and parallel with the axis of the head, the leading ends of said blades being bevelled; and eccentrically ar ranged saw segments secured to the leading end 20 of the cutter head at acute angles to a plane normal to the cutter head axis and having the high teeth of each segment nearest the adjacent end of the cutter head, said high teeth being sub stantially of the same diameter as the leading 25 bevelled edges of the blades. '7. Cutting means for shaping Wood poles and 4. Cutting means‘ for shaping wood poles and the like comprising, in combination, a rotatable cutter head carrying cutter blades and adapted to rotate bodily relative to the pole while the the like comprising, in combination, a rotatable cutter head carrying cutter blades and adapted to rotate bodily relative to the pole while the pole moves relatively longitudinally of and parallel with the axis of the head; and'segments of a plain circular saw secured eccentrically to the leading end of the cutter head, each segment be pole moves relatively longitudinally of and par ing arranged at an acute angle to a plane nor the pole and sever the wood ?bres ahead of the 30 3 blades. ' r allel with the axis of the head; and a pair of mal to the cutter head axis with the high teeth eccentrically arranged saw segments secured to of each segment nearest the adjacent end of the the leading end of the cutter head at opposite, cutter head, the segments being arranged to cut ‘ acute angles to a plane normal to the axis of 40 the head with the low teeth thereof most remote from the end of the head to produce a kerf around the pole and sever the ?bres ahead of the blades. a kerf in a pole in advance of and to substan tially the same depth as the blades, and the ec centricity of the segments being substantially the same as the maximum depth of cut. AUGUST M. DEITERS.