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March 1, 1938. 2,109,640 ,J_ B HE“; CONVERSION OF HYDROCARBON OILS Original Filed July 18, 1934 FRACTIONATOR SEPARATING CHAMBER FURNACE FURNACE 2O FURNACE INVENTOR JACOB BENJAMIN HEID v ‘ 04% A%ZIEY ' Patented Mar. 1, 1938 2,109,640 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE 2,109,640 CONVERSION OF HYDROCARBON OILS Jacob Benjamin Heid, Chicago, Ill., assignor to Universal Oil Products Company, Chicago, 111., a corporation of Delaware Application July 18, 1934, Serial No. 735,752 Renewed November 20, 1935 10 Claims. (Cl. 196-49) This invention is related to an improved proc ess for the selective conversion of relatively low outlined may be employed without departing from the scope of the present invention. For ex boiling and high-boiling hydrocarbon oils where ample, the hydrocarbon oil charging stock for the process, depending upon its characteristics, in quick separation is effected between the liquid 5 and vaporous products resulting from conver sion of the relatively heavy oils, the vaporous‘ products subjected to continued conversion, the liquid products subjected to further vaporiza tion, the residual liquid resulting from said fur 10 ther vaporization subjected to coking and the highly heated products resulting from conversion of the relatively low-boiling oils utilized as the heat carrying medium to assist the coking oper ation. In one speci?c embodiment, the invention com prises subjecting a hydrocarbon oil of relatively high-boiling characteristics to conversion tem perature at superatmospheric pressure in the heating coil, introducing the heated products into a separating chamber also operated at substan tial superatmospheric pressure wherein vaporous and liquid conversion products are quickly sepa rated, subjecting the vaporous products from said separating chamber to continued conversion in a reaction chamber operated at substantial su peratmospheric pressure, introducing the prod ucts from said reaction chamber into a fractiona tor wherein their desirable low-boiling com ponents are separated, as fractionated vapors, 30 from their higher boiling insu?iciently converted components, which latter are condensed as re ?ux condensate, separating the re?ux condensate into selected relatively low-boiling and high-boil ing fractions, subjecting the relatively high-boil 35 ing fraction to said conversion, subjecting the fractionated vapors to condensation, recovering the resulting distillate, withdrawing the liquid conversion products from said separating cham ber, introducing the same into a reduced pres 40 sure vaporizing chamber, subjecting vapors evolved in the vaporizing chamber to said frac tionation, withdrawing non-vaporous residual liquid from the vaporizing chamber and subject ing the same to coking in a low pressure coking 45 zone, subjecting the relatively low-boiling frac tions of the re?ux condensate to more severe con version conditions of elevated temperature and superatmospheric pressure in a separate heating coil, introducing the resulting highly heated prod 50 ucts into direct contact with the residual ma terials undergoing coking for the purpose of as sisting their reduction to coke and subjecting vaporous products of the coking operation to said fractionation. Several modi?cations of the operation above may be subjected to conversion, together with 5 either the low-boiling or the high-boiling frac tions of the re?ux condensate, or may be supplied to the fractionator for separation into selected relatively low-boiling and high-boiling fractions and subjected to conversion together with the 10 corresponding fractions of the re?ux, condensate or, when desired, it may be independently sub jected to conversion in a separate heating coil, the products from which are discharged into the separating chamber. . 15 I am aware that the present process involves various steps which are not novel in themselves and that even some of the combinations of steps employed are not new with the present invention. The invention is directed to the novel and ad vantageous combination of a method and means 20 for quickly separating vaporous and liquid con version products resulting from the conversion of relatively high-boiling oils accompanied by continued conversion of the vapors at elevated temperature and superatmospheric pressure, va porization of the liquid conversion products at substantially reduced pressure and coking of the resulting residual liquid with the assistance of 5 highly heated relatively low-boiling oils from within the system. It will be apparent that there is a de?nite cooperation between these various steps of the process and that they mutually con tribute to produce the desired ?nal results. The accompanying diagrammatic drawing il lustrates one speci?c form of apparatus in which .35 the invention may be carried out. Referring to the drawing, hydrocarbon oil charging stock for the process, which may be any desired type of oil, is supplied through line I and valve 2 to pump 3 by means of which it is fed through line 4 and 40 . may be directed, all or in part, either through - line 5 and valve 6 into fractionator l or through line 8, valve 9 and line I 0 to heating coil II or from line 8 through lines l2 and I3, valve l4 and line l5 to heating coil IE or from line l2 through line I ‘l and valve I8 into heating coil IS. The method of supplying the charging stock to the process will depend, primarily, upon its charac teristics, for example, when the charging stock is an oil of relatively low-boiling characteristics 5.0 it is preferably supplied to heating coil II or if of relatively high-boiling characteristics it is preferably supplied'to heating coil Hi. If, on the other hand, the charging stock is an oil of rela 2,109,640 2 the invention and may be eliminated, when de tively wide boiling range it is preferably supplied to the fractionator and is separated, together with the insu?iciently converted intermediate sired, or other suitable well known means of as sisting separation may be substituted therefor. The liquids separated from the vaporous conver sion products in chamber 24 are withdrawn from the lower portion of this zone through line 28 and valve 29 and are introduced into vaporizing chamber 39. The remainder of the conversion products supplied to chamber 24, which are pre products of the process, as will be later more fully described, into selected relatively low-boiling and high-boiling fractions which are respectively sub~ jected to separate conversion in heating coils ll and 16. Whether the charging stock is of low boiling or high-boiling characteristics or of rela tively wide boiling range it is within the scope of the invention to supply it, all or in part, to frac- ' tionator ‘I except in case it contains low-boiling fractions of inferior quality within the boiling dominantly vapors, are withdrawn from the upper portion of this. zone through line 3! and .valve 32 andare ‘introduced into reaction cham range of the desired light distillate product of 15 the process. Since this'product is removed as the overheat stream from fractionator ‘I and such materials in the charging stock would contami nate the product if fed to the fractionator. The present invention also provides for separate treat ment of the charging stock without mixing the same with either the low-boiling or high-boiling fractions of the reflux condensate. This method of operation may be accomplished, when desired, by passing the charging stock, as previously de scribed, to heating coil l9 and is particularly de sirable in case the charging stock is an interme diate .oil such as, ‘for example, gas oil or the like of lower boiling nature than the re?ux conden ber 33. , _ It will be noted in connection with separating chamber 24 and reaction chamber 33 that in the present invention the usual sequence of these zones is reversed and that instead of employ ing substantially reduced pressure in the vaporiz ing chamber relative to that employed in the reaction chamber, both zones are operated at sub— 20 stantially the same relatively high superatmos pheric pressure. The arrangement and method of operation of chambers 24 and 33, as pro vided by the present invention, offers distinct ad vantages over ‘the conventional method wherein 25 a high pressure reaction chamber is followed by a reduced pressure vaporizing and separating sate supplied to ‘heating coil I6 and of higher 30 boiling nature than the reflux condensate sup plied to heating coil ll, although separate con version of the charging'stock, regardless of its nature; is within the scope of the invention. When the charging stock is supplied to heat .35 ing coil l9 it is subjected therein to the desired conversion temperature, preferably at a substan tial superatmospheric pressure, by means of heat supplied from furnace 2B of ‘any suitable form. The heated oil is discharged from heating coil 19 through line 2|, valve 22 and line 23 into sepa rating chamber 24. Relatively ‘high-boiling fractions of the reflux condensate formed in fractionator '1 are supplied, ‘as will be later more fully described, either alone or together with the charging stock or high-boil ing fractions thereof, to ‘heating coil l6 and the oil passing through this zone is heated to the de- sired conversion temperature by means of heat supplied from any suitable form of furnace 25. The stream of ‘heated materials are discharged '50 from ‘heating coil l6 preferably at substantial superatmospheric pressure through line 23 and valve v26 into separating chamber 24. Heating coils l6 and 19 may be operated at 55 substantially the same or under different pressure conditions and preferably the pressure employed in separating chamber 24 is substantially the chamber, particularly in conjunction with the other features of the present invention. The use of high superatmospheric pressure in the sepa 30 rating chamber precludes any substantial va porization in this zone and permits quicker and more complete separation of vaporous and liquid products than when their separation is attempted at substantially reduced pressure. The use of 35 a separating chamber ahead of the reaction chamber also precludes any excessive further conversion of residual liquid products, which is oftenv the case when the entire stream of heated products from the heating coil is passed through 40 a relatively large high-pressure reaction cham ber before liquid and vaporous products are sep arated, and since, in the present invention, the liquid conversion products are quickly separated from the stream of heated products from the 45 heating coils without being subjected to con tinued conversion time in the reaction chamber, ' more severe conversion conditions may be em ployed in the heating coils than could be other wise safely employed without the danger of ex 50 cessive coke and gas formation from excessive conversion of the residualv liquid. However, the use of a high-pressure reaction chamber, such as chamber 33, following the separating zone in sures continued conversion of the vaporous prod 55 ucts to the desired degree. The use of more se— vere conversion conditions in the heating coils favors the production of motor fuel of higher same as that at the outlet from the heating coil antiknock value, particularly in conjunction with employing the lowest pressure. However, when continued conversion of the vaporous products 60 desired, a somewhat reduced superatmospheric the reaction chamber. Particular attention is pressure relative to that employed at the outlet "in directed to the fact that without the steps pro from the heating coils may be utilized in cham by the present invention, which will be later -ber24. In the particular case ‘here illustrated, vided described in more detail, for further treatment of a suitable ba?ie 21 is provided in chamber 24 so the liquid conversion products following their re 65 that the heated mixture of ‘liquids and vapors moval from the separating chamber, the use of entering this zone passes ?rst downward on one a high-pressure separating chamber ahead of the side of the chamber to its lower portion wherein chamber would not be desirable since the a major portion of the liquid conversion products reaction liquid removed by such. high-pressure reaction are separated fromthe vapors, the latter passing chamber contains in addition to heavy residue, 70 together with they remainder of the entrained lower boiling components which are desirable as liquid in an upward direction on the opposite side crackingstock. If the liquid conversion products of the chamber. This reversal of flow within 24 were removed from the system chamber 24 serves to'assist quick separation'of from-chamber without adequate further treatment their de vaporous and liquidconversion products in this sirable lower'boiling components could not be re 75 75 zone but is not intended as a limiting feature of 2,109,640 turned, as provided by the present invention, to further conversion within the system and the yield of the desired light distillate product would be materially reduced. Chamber 33, as already indicated, is prefer ably operated at substantially the same pressure as that employed in chamber 24 and the hot con version products supplied to this zone, as previ ously described, are subjected during their pas 10 sage therethrough to continued conversion for a predetermined time. The resulting products are discharged, in the case here illustrated, from the lower portion of chamber 33 through line 34 and valve 35 into fractionator '| and it is within 15 the scope of the invention, although not illus trated, to cool the products discharged from the reaction chamber sufficiently to retard or arrest their further conversion in order to prevent their excessive conversion and to preclude the 20 appreciable formation and deposition of coke or heavy residual materials such as tar and the like in line 34. This may be accomplished, for example, by indirect cooling of the material leav ing chamber 33 in any suitable well known man 25 ner, not illustrated, or by directly commingling with these materials in the lower portion of chamber 33 on in line 34 suitable cooling oil such as, for example, charging stock and/or a regu lated portion or selected fractions of the re?ux These fea tures are not new except in combination with the 30 condensate formed in fractionator 7. other features of the invention and for the sake of simplicity are not illustrated. The vaporous products supplied to fraction 35 ator 1 (including the conversion products from reaction chamber 33 and other vaporous prod ucts supplied to this zone, as will be later more fully described) are subjected to fractionation therein for the separation of their low-boiling 40 components from their insu?iciently converted higher boiling components, which latter are con densed in the fractionator as re?ux condensate. The fractionated vapors of the desired end-boil ing point, which comprise the desired low-boil 45 ing product of the process, such as, for example, good quality motor fuel, are withdrawn together with uncondensable gas produced by the process from the upper portion of f-ractionator 7 through line 36 and valve 31 to- be subjected to condensa 50 tion and cooling in condenser 38. The resulting distillate and gas passes through line 39 and valve 40 to collection and separation in receiver 4|. Uncondensable gas may be released from the receiver through line 42 and valve 43. The dis 55 tillate may be withdrawn from receiver 4| through line 44 and valve 45 to storage or to any desired further treatment. When desired, a reg ulated portion of the distillate collected in re ceiver 4| may be recirculated by well known 60 means, not illustrated, to the upper portion of fractionator 1 to serve as a cooling and re?uxing medium to assist fractionation of the vapors in this zone and to maintain the desired vapor out let temperature. 65 In accordance with the features of the pres ent invention, the re?ux condensate formed in fractionator '| is separated by fractional distilla tion in this zone into selected relatively low-boil ing and high-boiling fractions. The high-boil 70 ing fractions are withdrawn from the lower por tion of the fractionator through line 46 and valve 4'! to pump 48 by means of which they are re turned through line I5 and valve 49 to heating coil i6 for further conversion, as already de 75 scribed. The selected relatively low-boiling 3 . fractions of the re?ux condensate may be with drawn from one or a plurality of suitable inter mediate points in fractionator '| and pass, for example, through line 50 and valve 5| to pump 52 by means of which they are supplied through line 53, valve 54 and line ID to heating coil II for further conversion, either alone or together with hydrocarbon oil charging stock for the proc ess, which may be supplied to this zone, when desired, as previously described. Chamber 30 is preferably operated at a sub_' stantially reduced pressure relative to that em ployed in chamber 24 by means of which the liq uid conversion products supplied to this zone 10 from chamber 24, as previously described, are 15 subjected to appreciable further vaporization for the purpose of separating the heavy high coke i‘ocrming components of the liquid conversion products from their lower boiling components which may be successfully subjected to further 20 conversion within the system for the production ’ of additional yields of desirable low-boiling ma terials. The vapors evolved from chamber 30 are withdrawn therefrom through line 5| and valve 62 and are directed through line 63 to 25 fractionation in fractionator 1. The residual liquid conversion products remaining unvapor~ ized in chamber 36' are withdrawn from the lower portion of this zone through line 64 and a regu lated portion thereof may, when desired, be (ii 30 rected through valve 65 in this line to cooling and storage or elsewhere, as desired. However, a regulated portion or all of the residual liquid withdrawn from chamber 30 is subjected to cok ing within the system and in the cas'e here illus 35 trated residual liquid may be diverted from line 64 through line 56 and valve 6? to pump 68 by means of which it is fed through line 69 and, valve ill’ and may be directed into coking cham ber 55 at any desired point in this zone by means 40 of any one, any combination or all of the various lines 58 controlled by valves 59. Heating coil H is located within a furnace 55 of any suitable form, by means of which the oil passing through the heating coil is subjected to 45 the desired conditions of conversion tempera ture and pressure. Preferably, a substantial su peratmospheric pressure is employed at the out let from heating coil | i and the stream of highly. heated products are discharged from this zone 50 through line 56 and valve 51. Preferably, in case a high superatmospheric pressure is employed in heating coil | i, the pressure imposed upon the stream of highly heated oil leaving this zone is substantially reduced as it passes through valve 55 51 so that it may be introduced into coking‘ chamber 60, which is preferably operated at sub stantially atmospheric or relatively low superat mospheric pressure. The stream of highly heated products from heating coil || may be introduced into the coking chamber at any desired point in this zone, a plurality of suitable lines 53 con trolled by valves 59 being provided in the case here illustrated for this purpose. Preferably, this material is either introduced into direct con tact with the materials undergoing coking in chamber Si! or is commingled, prior to its intro- duction into the coking chamber, with the resid ual liquid from chamber 35 supplied‘to this zone, in which latter case the commingled materials may also be introduced into the coking chamber through any or all of the various lines 58 con~> trolled by valves 59. The coke produced in chamber 60 may be allowed to accumulate within this zone to- be rye-,7‘? 2,109,640 4 moved therefrom after the operation of the chamber is completed and, when desired, a plu rality of coking chambers similar to chamber 60, but not illustrated, may be employed and may be simultaneously operated or, preferably, are alter nately operated, cleaned and prepared for fur ther operation so that the duration of the oper ating cycle of the process is not limited by the capacity of the coking chamber. Chamber 6!! 10 is provided with a suitable drain-line ‘H con trolled by valve 12 which may also serve as a means of introducing steam, water or any other heating coils. The reaction chamber is prefer ably operated at substantially the same pressure as that employed in the separating chamber. The vaporizing chamber to which liquid con version products from the separating chamber are supplied preferably employs a substantially reduced pressure relative to that employed in the separating chamber which may range, for example, from 100 pounds or thereabouts per square inch to substantially atmospheric pres 10 siu'e. Any desired pressure within substantially this same range may be employed in the coking chamber and this zone may, when desired, utilize its operation is completed and after it has been . either a lower or higher pressure than that em 15 ployed in the vaporizing chamber. The heating 15 isolated from the rest of the system in order to coil to which the relatively low-boiling fractions suitable cooling medium into the chamber after hasten cooling and facilitate cleaning of the chamber. The vaporous products of the coking operation are withdrawn from the upper por tion of chamber 60 through line '53 and may be 20 directed through line 63 and» valve ‘H! to fraction ation in fractionator 1. However, the vaporous products from the coking zone will normally con tain a certain amount of entrained particles of high coke~forming materials such as tars, pitches 25 and the like and in order to separate these ma terials from the vapors, prior to their introduc tion into the fractionator, the vapors from cok ing chamber 60 are preferably directed through valve 15 in line 13 into chamber 30. 30 Suitable fractionating means or baffles of any desired form may, when desired, be provided in the upper portion of chamber 30 to assist in affect ing relatively clean separation of vaporous and residual liquid products in this zone. By means of the method of operation just described in a relatively heavy high coke-forming component of the vaporous products from the coking zone are collected in chamber 30, together with the residual liquid resulting from the partial vapori 40 zation in this zone of the liquid conversion prod ucts from chamber 24, and may be returned there with to coking chamber 60 for further treatment and eventual reduction to coke, while the total vaporous products from chamber 30 are directed 45 through line 6|, valve 62 and line 63 to frac tionation in fractionator 1. In a process of the character illustrated and above described, the preferred range of operating conditions may be approximately as follows: 50 When a separate heating coil is employed for con version of the charging stock the conversion con ditions employed therein may vary over a rela tively wide range, depending upon the nature of the charging stock, the conversion temperature 55 measured at the outlet from the heating coil ranging, for example, from 850 to 950° F., pref erably with a substantial superatmospheric pres sure at this point in the system of from 100 to 500 pounds, or more, per square inch, substan 60 tially the same range of conditions may be em ployed at the outlet from the heating coil to which the relatively high-boiling fractions of the re?ux condensate are supplied although nor mally different conversion conditions are em 65 ployed in each of the heating coils when both zones are utilized. The pressure employed in the separating chamber may also'range, for ex ample, from 100 to 500 pounds, or thereabouts, per square inch, and ordinarily is approximately 70 the same as that employed in the charging stock or heavy re?ux heating coil, whichever heating coil employs the lowest pressure. However, when desired, the separating chamber may be operated at a somewhat reduced superatmospheric pres sure relative to the pressures employed in both of the re?ux condensate are supplied may utilize an outlet conversion temperature ranging, for example, from 900 to 1050° F., or thereabouts. Preferably a substantial superatmospheric pres 20 sure of the order of 300 to 1000 pounds, or there abouts, per square inch, is employed at the out let from the light oil heating coil, although lower pressures down to substantially atmospheric pres sure may be employed in this zone, when desired. 25 The fractionating, condensing and collecting portions of the system may employ pressure sub stantially the same or somewhat lower than the pressure employed in the vaporizing or coking chamber whichever employs the lowest pressure. 30 As a speci?c example of one of the many pos sible operations of the process of the present in vention as it may be practiced in an apparatus such as illustrated and above described, the charging stock, which comprises a Mid-Continent 35 gas oil of about 32° A. P. I. gravity, is independ ently subjected in the heating coil to a conver sion temperature, measured at the outlet there from, of approximately 950° F., at a superat mospheric pressure of about 350 pounds per r40 square inch. High-boiling fractions of the re flux condensate from the fractionator of the sys tem, containing not over approximately 5 per cent of materials boiling below 600° F., are sub jected in a separate heating coil to an outlet con version temperature of approximately 935° F., at a superatmospheric pressure of about 350 pounds per square inch and the heated products from both'the heavy re?ux and raw oil heating coils are introduced into a separating chamber also :50 maintained at a superatmospheric pressure of about 350l pounds per square inch. Substantially the same pressure is employed in the reaction chamber to which vaporous products from the separating chamber are supplied and the mate 55 rials leaving the reaction chamber are cooled, prior to, their introduction into» the fractionator, V to a temperature of approximately ‘760° F. Liq uid conversion products are withdrawn from the separating chamber and subjected to further va porization in a vaporizing chamber operated at a superatmospheric pressure of approximately 30 pounds per square inch. The non-vaporous re sidual liquid from the vaporizing chamber is di rected to a coking chamber operated at a super 65 atmospheric pressure of approximately 50 pounds per square inch. Low-boiling fractions of the re?ux condensate from the fractionator of the system, having a boiling range of approximately 400‘ to 600° F., are subjected in a separate heat 70 ing coil to a conversion temperature of approxi mately 970° F., at a superatmospheric pressure of about 600 pounds per square inch and the highly heated products from this zone are intro duced into direct contact with the residual mate 2,109,640 rials undergoing coking in the coking chamber. Vaporous'productsfrom the coking chamber are supplied to the vaporizing chamber and the va pors from the vaporizing chamber are directed to the fractionator of the system which is operated at substantially the same pressure as that em ployed in the vaporizing chamber. This opera tion may yield, per barrel of charging stock, ap proximately 67 percent of 400° F., end-point motor fuel having an octane number of approx imately 70 and about 54 pounds of coke of sub stantially uniform ' quality, good structural strength and low volatility, the remainder is chargeable, principally, to uncondensable gas. 15 ~ I claim as my invention :, ~ 1. A process for the conversion of hydrocarbon oils which comprises subjecting a relatively high boiling oil from within the systemto conversion 20 temperature at superatmospheric pressure in a heating coil, introducing the heated products into a separating chamber also operated at substan tial superatmospheric pressure wherein vaporous and liquid conversion products are quickly sep arated, introducing vaporous conversion products 25 from the separating chamber into a reaction chamber, also operated at substantial superat mospheric pressure, wherein they are subjected to continued conversion, introducing the resulting 30 products from. the reaction chamber into a frac tlonator wherein they are subjected to fractiona tion for the separation of re?ux condensate, com prising their insu?‘iciently converted components, from their desirable lower boiling components, process is subjected in another separate heating coil to independently controlled conversion con ditions of elevated temperature and superatmos pheric pressure and the heated products there from are introduced into‘ the separating chame ber; ' '6. A process of the character de?ned in claim 1 wherein hydrocarbon oil charging stock for the process is separated into selected relatively high boiling and low-boiling fractions, the high-boil ing fractions supplied to the ?rst mentioned heat 10 ing coil and the low-boiling fractions supplied to the last mentioned heating coil. ' 7. A conversion process which comprises heat ing hydrocarbon oil‘to cracking temperature un der pressure in a heating coil, introducing the '15 heated oil into a separating chamber maintained under cracking conditions of temperature and pressure and separating vapors from unvaporized oil therein, subjecting the separated vaporsto continued reaction under cracking conditions of 20 temperature and pressure and subsequently in troducing the same to a fractionating zone, re moving the unvaporized oil from the separating chamber and ?ash distilling the same by pres sure reduction thereby forming additional Vapors 25 and residue, introducing such additional vapors to the fractionating zone, distilling said residue to coke and supplying resultant vapors to the fractionating zone, fractionating the commingled vapors in the fractionating zone and separating. 30 therefrom a relatively heavy re?ux condensate subjecting fractionated Vapors of the desired end 35 boiling point to condensation, recovering the re sulting distillate, withdrawing liquid conversion products from the separating chamber and in troducing them into a vaporizing chamber op erated at substantially reduced pressure relative 40 to that employed in the separating chamber, whereby they are subjected to appreciable fur ther vaporization, withdrawing non-vaporous re sidual liquid from the vaporizing chamber and introducing the same into a coking chamber, sep 45 arating said re?ux condensate into selected rela tively low-boiling and high-boiling fractions, re turning the high-boiling fractions to the heating coil for further conversion, subjecting the low boiling fractions to independently controlled 50 more severe conversion conditions in a separate heating coil, introducing the highly heated prod ucts from said separate heating coil into the cok~ ing chamber to serve as a heat carrying medium for assisting the coking operation and directing 55 the vaporous products from said coking and va porizing steps to the fractionator for treatment together with the conversion products from the reaction chamber. 2. A process of the character de?ned in claim 1 60 wherein the volatilized materials from the coking chamber are introduced into the vaporizing chamber to effect separation therein of the va pors and high coke~forming materials and the commingled vaporous products are directed from 65 the vaporizing chamber to the fractionator. 3. A process of the character de?ned in claim 1 wherein hydrocarbon oil charging stock for the process is supplied to the ?rst mentioned heating coil. 4. A process of the character de?ned in claim 1 wherein hydrocarbon oil charging stock for the process is supplied to the last mentioned heating coil. 5. A process of the character de?ned in claim 1 75 wherein hydrocarbon oil charging stock for the said heating coil, passing the lighter re?ux condensate through a second heating coil and heating the same there 35 in to higher cracking temperature than the oil in the ?rst-named coil, discharging resultant heated products fromv the second coil into con tact with said residue being distilled to coke to 40 assist the coking thereof, and ?nally condensing and collecting the fractionated vapors. 8. A conversion process which comprises heat ing hydrocarbon oil to cracking temperature under pressure in a heating coil, introducing the‘ 45 heated oil into a separating chamber main tained under cracking conditions of temperature and pressure and separating vapors from un vaporized oil therein, subjecting the separated vapors to continued reaction under cracking conditions of temperature and pressure and sub 50 sequently introducing the same to a fractionat ing zone, removing the unvaporized oil from the separating chamber and ?ash distilling the same by pressure reduction thereby forming addi tional vapors and residue, introducing such additional vapors to the fractionating zone, dis tilling said residue to coke and supplying re sultant vapors to the fraction'ating'zone, frac tionating the commingled vapors in the fraction ating zone and separating therefrom a relatively heavy re?ux condensate and a lighter re?ux condensate, passing such heavy and light re?ux condensate respectively through a second and a third heating coil and subjecting the same there-' 65 in to cracking conditions of temperature and pressure, the lighter re?ux condensate in the third coil being heated to higher, temperature , than the heavy re?ux condensate in the second coil, discharging the heated heavy re?ux con~ 70 densate from the second coil into the separating chamber, introducing the heated light re?ux con densate from the third coil into contact with said residue being distilled to coke to assist the coking 75 6 2,109,640 thereof, and ?nally condensing and collecting the fractionated vapors. ' 9’. A conversion process which comprises heat ing hydrocarbon oil to cracking temperature M131 19‘ under pressure in a heating coil and separating the same into vapors and unvaporized oil in a separating chamber, ?ash distilling the unva porized oil in a ?ashing zone maintained under lower'pressure than the separating chamber, re moving resultant ?ash residue from the ?ashing zone and distilling the same to coke in a coking zone, passing the vapors evolved in the coking zone through the ?ashing zone to separate heavy coke-forming, constituents therefrom, combining vapors from the ?ashing zone with the ?rst named‘ vapors and fractionating the resultant mixture ‘to form a relatively heavy re?ux con de'nsate and a lighter re?ux condensate, return ing such heavy condensate to the heating coil, _ , passing the lighter condensate through a second heating coil maintained at higher cracking tem perature than‘ the ?rst-named coil and then introducing the same to the coking zone, and ?nally condensing the fractionated vapors. 10. A conversion process which comprises heat ing hydrocarbon oil to cracking temperature under pressure in a heating coil, separating re sultant vapors and unvaporized oil, subjecting said vapors to continued reaction under cracking conditions of temperature and pressure, ?ash distilling said unvaporized oil by pressure reduc tion in a ?ashing zone, removing resultant ?ash 10 residue from the ?ashing zone and distilling the same to coke in a coking zone, passing the vapors evolved in the coking zone through the ?ashing zone to separate heavy coke-forming constituents therefrom, combining vapors from 15, the ?ashing zone with the ?rst-named vapors after said continued. reaction of the latter, frac tionating the resultant mixture to condense: heavier fractions thereof and supplying result ant re?ux condensate to the heating coil, and; 20v ?nally condensing’ the fractionated vapors. ' JACOB BENJAMIN HElD.