close

Вход

Забыли?

вход по аккаунту

?

Патент USA US2109640

код для вставки
March 1, 1938.
2,109,640
,J_ B HE“;
CONVERSION OF HYDROCARBON OILS
Original Filed July 18, 1934
FRACTIONATOR
SEPARATING
CHAMBER
FURNACE
FURNACE 2O
FURNACE
INVENTOR
JACOB BENJAMIN HEID v
‘
04%
A%ZIEY '
Patented Mar. 1, 1938
2,109,640
UNITED STATES
PATENT OFFICE
2,109,640
CONVERSION OF HYDROCARBON OILS
Jacob Benjamin Heid, Chicago, Ill., assignor to
Universal Oil Products Company, Chicago, 111.,
a corporation of Delaware
Application July 18, 1934, Serial No. 735,752
Renewed November 20, 1935
10 Claims. (Cl. 196-49)
This invention is related to an improved proc
ess for the selective conversion of relatively low
outlined may be employed without departing
from the scope of the present invention. For ex
boiling and high-boiling hydrocarbon oils where
ample, the hydrocarbon oil charging stock for
the process, depending upon its characteristics,
in quick separation is effected between the liquid
5 and vaporous products resulting from conver
sion of the relatively heavy oils, the vaporous‘
products subjected to continued conversion, the
liquid products subjected to further vaporiza
tion, the residual liquid resulting from said fur
10 ther vaporization subjected to coking and the
highly heated products resulting from conversion
of the relatively low-boiling oils utilized as the
heat carrying medium to assist the coking oper
ation.
In one speci?c embodiment, the invention com
prises subjecting a hydrocarbon oil of relatively
high-boiling characteristics to conversion tem
perature at superatmospheric pressure in the
heating coil, introducing the heated products into
a separating chamber also operated at substan
tial superatmospheric pressure wherein vaporous
and liquid conversion products are quickly sepa
rated, subjecting the vaporous products from said
separating chamber to continued conversion in
a reaction chamber operated at substantial su
peratmospheric pressure, introducing the prod
ucts from said reaction chamber into a fractiona
tor wherein their desirable low-boiling com
ponents are separated, as fractionated vapors,
30 from their higher boiling insu?iciently converted
components, which latter are condensed as re
?ux condensate, separating the re?ux condensate
into selected relatively low-boiling and high-boil
ing fractions, subjecting the relatively high-boil
35 ing fraction to said conversion, subjecting the
fractionated vapors to condensation, recovering
the resulting distillate, withdrawing the liquid
conversion products from said separating cham
ber, introducing the same into a reduced pres
40 sure vaporizing chamber, subjecting vapors
evolved in the vaporizing chamber to said frac
tionation, withdrawing non-vaporous residual
liquid from the vaporizing chamber and subject
ing the same to coking in a low pressure coking
45
zone, subjecting the relatively low-boiling frac
tions of the re?ux condensate to more severe con
version conditions of elevated temperature and
superatmospheric pressure in a separate heating
coil, introducing the resulting highly heated prod
50 ucts into direct contact with the residual ma
terials undergoing coking for the purpose of as
sisting their reduction to coke and subjecting
vaporous products of the coking operation to said
fractionation.
Several modi?cations of the operation above
may be subjected to conversion, together with 5
either the low-boiling or the high-boiling frac
tions of the re?ux condensate, or may be supplied
to the fractionator for separation into selected
relatively low-boiling and high-boiling fractions
and subjected to conversion together with the
10
corresponding fractions of the re?ux, condensate
or, when desired, it may be independently sub
jected to conversion in a separate heating coil,
the products from which are discharged into the
separating chamber.
.
15
I am aware that the present process involves
various steps which are not novel in themselves
and that even some of the combinations of steps
employed are not new with the present invention.
The invention is directed to the novel and ad
vantageous combination of a method and means 20
for quickly separating vaporous and liquid con
version products resulting from the conversion
of relatively high-boiling oils accompanied by
continued conversion of the vapors at elevated
temperature and superatmospheric pressure, va
porization of the liquid conversion products at
substantially reduced pressure and coking of the
resulting residual liquid with the assistance of
5
highly heated relatively low-boiling oils from
within the system. It will be apparent that there
is a de?nite cooperation between these various
steps of the process and that they mutually con
tribute to produce the desired ?nal results.
The accompanying diagrammatic drawing il
lustrates one speci?c form of apparatus in which .35
the invention may be carried out. Referring to
the drawing, hydrocarbon oil charging stock for
the process, which may be any desired type of
oil, is supplied through line I and valve 2 to pump
3 by means of which it is fed through line 4 and 40
.
may be directed, all or in part, either through -
line 5 and valve 6 into fractionator l or through
line 8, valve 9 and line I 0 to heating coil II or
from line 8 through lines l2 and I3, valve l4 and
line l5 to heating coil IE or from line l2 through
line I ‘l and valve I8 into heating coil IS. The
method of supplying the charging stock to the
process will depend, primarily, upon its charac
teristics, for example, when the charging stock
is an oil of relatively low-boiling characteristics 5.0
it is preferably supplied to heating coil II or if
of relatively high-boiling characteristics it is
preferably supplied'to heating coil Hi. If, on the
other hand, the charging stock is an oil of rela
2,109,640
2
the invention and may be eliminated, when de
tively wide boiling range it is preferably supplied
to the fractionator and is separated, together
with the insu?iciently converted intermediate
sired, or other suitable well known means of as
sisting separation may be substituted therefor.
The liquids separated from the vaporous conver
sion products in chamber 24 are withdrawn from
the lower portion of this zone through line 28
and valve 29 and are introduced into vaporizing
chamber 39. The remainder of the conversion
products supplied to chamber 24, which are pre
products of the process, as will be later more fully
described, into selected relatively low-boiling and
high-boiling fractions which are respectively sub~
jected to separate conversion in heating coils ll
and 16. Whether the charging stock is of low
boiling or high-boiling characteristics or of rela
tively wide boiling range it is within the scope of
the invention to supply it, all or in part, to frac- '
tionator ‘I except in case it contains low-boiling
fractions of inferior quality within the boiling
dominantly vapors, are withdrawn from the
upper portion of this. zone through line 3! and
.valve 32 andare ‘introduced into reaction cham
range of the desired light distillate product of
15 the process.
Since this'product is removed as
the overheat stream from fractionator ‘I and such
materials in the charging stock would contami
nate the product if fed to the fractionator. The
present invention also provides for separate treat
ment of the charging stock without mixing the
same with either the low-boiling or high-boiling
fractions of the reflux condensate. This method
of operation may be accomplished, when desired,
by passing the charging stock, as previously de
scribed, to heating coil l9 and is particularly de
sirable in case the charging stock is an interme
diate .oil such as, ‘for example, gas oil or the like
of lower boiling nature than the re?ux conden
ber 33.
,
_
It will be noted in connection with separating
chamber 24 and reaction chamber 33 that in the
present invention the usual sequence of these
zones is reversed and that instead of employ
ing substantially reduced pressure in the vaporiz
ing chamber relative to that employed in the
reaction chamber, both zones are operated at sub— 20
stantially the same relatively high superatmos
pheric pressure. The arrangement and method
of operation of chambers 24 and 33, as pro
vided by the present invention, offers distinct ad
vantages over ‘the conventional method wherein 25
a high pressure reaction chamber is followed by
a reduced pressure vaporizing and separating
sate supplied to ‘heating coil I6 and of higher
30 boiling nature than the reflux condensate sup
plied to heating coil ll, although separate con
version of the charging'stock, regardless of its
nature; is within the scope of the invention.
When the charging stock is supplied to heat
.35 ing coil l9 it is subjected therein to the desired
conversion temperature, preferably at a substan
tial superatmospheric pressure, by means of heat
supplied from furnace 2B of ‘any suitable form.
The heated oil is discharged from heating coil 19
through line 2|, valve 22 and line 23 into sepa
rating chamber 24.
Relatively ‘high-boiling fractions of the reflux
condensate formed in fractionator '1 are supplied,
‘as will be later more fully described, either alone
or together with the charging stock or high-boil
ing fractions thereof, to ‘heating coil l6 and the
oil passing through this zone is heated to the de-
sired conversion temperature by means of heat
supplied from any suitable form of furnace 25.
The stream of ‘heated materials are discharged
'50 from ‘heating coil l6 preferably at substantial
superatmospheric pressure through line 23 and
valve v26 into separating chamber 24.
Heating coils l6 and 19 may be operated at
55 substantially the same or under different pressure
conditions and preferably the pressure employed
in separating chamber 24 is substantially the
chamber, particularly in conjunction with the
other features of the present invention. The use
of high superatmospheric pressure in the sepa 30
rating chamber precludes any substantial va
porization in this zone and permits quicker and
more complete separation of vaporous and liquid
products than when their separation is attempted
at substantially reduced pressure. The use of 35
a separating chamber ahead of the reaction
chamber also precludes any excessive further
conversion of residual liquid products, which is
oftenv the case when the entire stream of heated
products from the heating coil is passed through 40
a relatively large high-pressure reaction cham
ber before liquid and vaporous products are sep
arated, and since, in the present invention, the
liquid conversion products are quickly separated
from the stream of heated products from the 45
heating coils without being subjected to con
tinued conversion time in the reaction chamber,
'
more severe conversion conditions may be em
ployed in the heating coils than could be other
wise safely employed without the danger of ex 50
cessive coke and gas formation from excessive
conversion of the residualv liquid. However, the
use of a high-pressure reaction chamber, such as
chamber 33, following the separating zone in
sures continued conversion of the vaporous prod
55
ucts to the desired degree. The use of more se—
vere conversion conditions in the heating coils
favors the production of motor fuel of higher
same as that at the outlet from the heating coil
antiknock value, particularly in conjunction with
employing the lowest pressure. However, when continued conversion of the vaporous products 60
desired, a somewhat reduced superatmospheric
the reaction chamber. Particular attention is
pressure relative to that employed at the outlet "in
directed to the fact that without the steps pro
from the heating coils may be utilized in cham
by the present invention, which will be later
-ber24. In the particular case ‘here illustrated, vided
described in more detail, for further treatment of
a suitable ba?ie 21 is provided in chamber 24 so the liquid conversion products following their re 65
that the heated mixture of ‘liquids and vapors moval from the separating chamber, the use of
entering this zone passes ?rst downward on one
a high-pressure separating chamber ahead of the
side of the chamber to its lower portion wherein
chamber would not be desirable since the
a major portion of the liquid conversion products reaction
liquid removed by such. high-pressure reaction
are separated fromthe vapors, the latter passing chamber contains in addition to heavy residue, 70
together with they remainder of the entrained lower boiling components which are desirable as
liquid in an upward direction on the opposite side crackingstock. If the liquid conversion products
of the chamber. This reversal of flow within
24 were removed from the system
chamber 24 serves to'assist quick separation'of from-chamber
without adequate further treatment their de
vaporous and liquidconversion products in this sirable lower'boiling components could not be re 75
75
zone but is not intended as a limiting feature of
2,109,640
turned, as provided by the present invention, to
further conversion within the system and the
yield of the desired light distillate product would
be materially reduced.
Chamber 33, as already indicated, is prefer
ably operated at substantially the same pressure
as that employed in chamber 24 and the hot con
version products supplied to this zone, as previ
ously described, are subjected during their pas
10 sage therethrough to continued conversion for
a predetermined time. The resulting products
are discharged, in the case here illustrated, from
the lower portion of chamber 33 through line 34
and valve 35 into fractionator '| and it is within
15 the scope of the invention, although not illus
trated, to cool the products discharged from the
reaction chamber sufficiently to retard or arrest
their further conversion in order to prevent
their excessive conversion and to preclude the
20 appreciable formation and deposition of coke or
heavy residual materials such as tar and the
like in line 34. This may be accomplished, for
example, by indirect cooling of the material leav
ing chamber 33 in any suitable well known man
25 ner, not illustrated, or by directly commingling
with these materials in the lower portion of
chamber 33 on in line 34 suitable cooling oil such
as, for example, charging stock and/or a regu
lated portion or selected fractions of the re?ux
These fea
tures are not new except in combination with the
30 condensate formed in fractionator 7.
other features of the invention and for the sake
of simplicity are not illustrated.
The vaporous products supplied to fraction
35 ator 1 (including the conversion products from
reaction chamber 33 and other vaporous prod
ucts supplied to this zone, as will be later more
fully described) are subjected to fractionation
therein for the separation of their low-boiling
40 components from their insu?iciently converted
higher boiling components, which latter are con
densed in the fractionator as re?ux condensate.
The fractionated vapors of the desired end-boil
ing point, which comprise the desired low-boil
45 ing product of the process, such as, for example,
good quality motor fuel, are withdrawn together
with uncondensable gas produced by the process
from the upper portion of f-ractionator 7 through
line 36 and valve 31 to- be subjected to condensa
50 tion and cooling in condenser 38. The resulting
distillate and gas passes through line 39 and
valve 40 to collection and separation in receiver
4|. Uncondensable gas may be released from the
receiver through line 42 and valve 43. The dis
55 tillate may be withdrawn from receiver 4|
through line 44 and valve 45 to storage or to any
desired further treatment. When desired, a reg
ulated portion of the distillate collected in re
ceiver 4| may be recirculated by well known
60 means, not illustrated, to the upper portion of
fractionator 1 to serve as a cooling and re?uxing
medium to assist fractionation of the vapors in
this zone and to maintain the desired vapor out
let temperature.
65
In accordance with the features of the pres
ent invention, the re?ux condensate formed in
fractionator '| is separated by fractional distilla
tion in this zone into selected relatively low-boil
ing and high-boiling fractions. The high-boil
70 ing fractions are withdrawn from the lower por
tion of the fractionator through line 46 and valve
4'! to pump 48 by means of which they are re
turned through line I5 and valve 49 to heating
coil i6 for further conversion, as already de
75 scribed.
The selected relatively low-boiling
3 .
fractions of the re?ux condensate may be with
drawn from one or a plurality of suitable inter
mediate points in fractionator '| and pass, for
example, through line 50 and valve 5| to pump
52 by means of which they are supplied through
line 53, valve 54 and line ID to heating coil II
for further conversion, either alone or together
with hydrocarbon oil charging stock for the proc
ess, which may be supplied to this zone, when
desired, as previously described.
Chamber 30 is preferably operated at a sub_'
stantially reduced pressure relative to that em
ployed in chamber 24 by means of which the liq
uid conversion products supplied to this zone
10
from chamber 24, as previously described, are 15
subjected to appreciable further vaporization for
the purpose of separating the heavy high coke
i‘ocrming components of the liquid conversion
products from their lower boiling components
which may be successfully subjected to further 20
conversion within the system for the production ’
of additional yields of desirable low-boiling ma
terials. The vapors evolved from chamber 30
are withdrawn therefrom through line 5| and
valve 62 and are directed through line 63 to 25
fractionation in fractionator 1. The residual
liquid conversion products remaining unvapor~
ized in chamber 36' are withdrawn from the lower
portion of this zone through line 64 and a regu
lated portion thereof may, when desired, be (ii 30
rected through valve 65 in this line to cooling and
storage or elsewhere, as desired. However, a
regulated portion or all of the residual liquid
withdrawn from chamber 30 is subjected to cok
ing within the system and in the cas'e here illus 35
trated residual liquid may be diverted from line
64 through line 56 and valve 6? to pump 68 by
means of which it is fed through line 69 and,
valve ill’ and may be directed into coking cham
ber 55 at any desired point in this zone by means 40
of any one, any combination or all of the various
lines 58 controlled by valves 59.
Heating coil H is located within a furnace 55
of any suitable form, by means of which the oil
passing through the heating coil is subjected to 45
the desired conditions of conversion tempera
ture and pressure. Preferably, a substantial su
peratmospheric pressure is employed at the out
let from heating coil | i and the stream of highly.
heated products are discharged from this zone 50
through line 56 and valve 51. Preferably, in case
a high superatmospheric pressure is employed
in heating coil | i, the pressure imposed upon the
stream of highly heated oil leaving this zone is
substantially reduced as it passes through valve 55
51 so that it may be introduced into coking‘
chamber 60, which is preferably operated at sub
stantially atmospheric or relatively low superat
mospheric pressure. The stream of highly heated
products from heating coil || may be introduced
into the coking chamber at any desired point
in this zone, a plurality of suitable lines 53 con
trolled by valves 59 being provided in the case
here illustrated for this purpose.
Preferably,
this material is either introduced into direct con
tact with the materials undergoing coking in
chamber Si! or is commingled, prior to its intro-
duction into the coking chamber, with the resid
ual liquid from chamber 35 supplied‘to this zone,
in which latter case the commingled materials
may also be introduced into the coking chamber
through any or all of the various lines 58 con~>
trolled by valves 59.
The coke produced in chamber 60 may be
allowed to accumulate within this zone to- be rye-,7‘?
2,109,640
4
moved therefrom after the operation of the
chamber is completed and, when desired, a plu
rality of coking chambers similar to chamber 60,
but not illustrated, may be employed and may be
simultaneously operated or, preferably, are alter
nately operated, cleaned and prepared for fur
ther operation so that the duration of the oper
ating cycle of the process is not limited by the
capacity of the coking chamber. Chamber 6!!
10 is provided with a suitable drain-line ‘H con
trolled by valve 12 which may also serve as a
means of introducing steam, water or any other
heating coils. The reaction chamber is prefer
ably operated at substantially the same pressure
as that employed in the separating chamber.
The vaporizing chamber to which liquid con
version products from the separating chamber
are supplied preferably employs a substantially
reduced pressure relative to that employed in
the separating chamber which may range, for
example, from 100 pounds or thereabouts per
square inch to substantially atmospheric pres 10
siu'e. Any desired pressure within substantially
this same range may be employed in the coking
chamber and this zone may, when desired, utilize
its operation is completed and after it has been . either a lower or higher pressure than that em 15
ployed in the vaporizing chamber. The heating
15 isolated from the rest of the system in order to
coil to which the relatively low-boiling fractions
suitable cooling medium into the chamber after
hasten cooling and facilitate cleaning of the
chamber. The vaporous products of the coking
operation are withdrawn from the upper por
tion of chamber 60 through line '53 and may be
20 directed through line 63 and» valve ‘H! to fraction
ation in fractionator 1. However, the vaporous
products from the coking zone will normally con
tain a certain amount of entrained particles of
high coke~forming materials such as tars, pitches
25 and the like and in order to separate these ma
terials from the vapors, prior to their introduc
tion into the fractionator, the vapors from cok
ing chamber 60 are preferably directed through
valve 15 in line 13 into chamber 30.
30
Suitable fractionating means or baffles of any
desired form may, when desired, be provided in
the upper portion of chamber 30 to assist in affect
ing relatively clean separation of vaporous and
residual liquid products in this zone. By means
of the method of operation just described in a
relatively heavy high coke-forming component
of the vaporous products from the coking zone
are collected in chamber 30, together with the
residual liquid resulting from the partial vapori
40 zation in this zone of the liquid conversion prod
ucts from chamber 24, and may be returned there
with to coking chamber 60 for further treatment
and eventual reduction to coke, while the total
vaporous products from chamber 30 are directed
45 through line 6|, valve 62 and line 63 to frac
tionation in fractionator 1.
In a process of the character illustrated and
above described, the preferred range of operating
conditions may be approximately as follows:
50 When a separate heating coil is employed for con
version of the charging stock the conversion con
ditions employed therein may vary over a rela
tively wide range, depending upon the nature of
the charging stock, the conversion temperature
55 measured at the outlet from the heating coil
ranging, for example, from 850 to 950° F., pref
erably with a substantial superatmospheric pres
sure at this point in the system of from 100 to
500 pounds, or more, per square inch, substan
60 tially the same range of conditions may be em
ployed at the outlet from the heating coil to
which the relatively high-boiling fractions of
the re?ux condensate are supplied although nor
mally different conversion conditions are em
65 ployed in each of the heating coils when both
zones are utilized. The pressure employed in
the separating chamber may also'range, for ex
ample, from 100 to 500 pounds, or thereabouts,
per square inch, and ordinarily is approximately
70 the same as that employed in the charging stock
or heavy re?ux heating coil, whichever heating
coil employs the lowest pressure. However, when
desired, the separating chamber may be operated
at a somewhat reduced superatmospheric pres
sure relative to the pressures employed in both
of the re?ux condensate are supplied may utilize
an outlet conversion temperature ranging, for
example, from 900 to 1050° F., or thereabouts.
Preferably a substantial superatmospheric pres 20
sure of the order of 300 to 1000 pounds, or there
abouts, per square inch, is employed at the out
let from the light oil heating coil, although lower
pressures down to substantially atmospheric pres
sure may be employed in this zone, when desired. 25
The fractionating, condensing and collecting
portions of the system may employ pressure sub
stantially the same or somewhat lower than the
pressure employed in the vaporizing or coking
chamber whichever employs the lowest pressure. 30
As a speci?c example of one of the many pos
sible operations of the process of the present in
vention as it may be practiced in an apparatus
such as illustrated and above described, the
charging stock, which comprises a Mid-Continent 35
gas oil of about 32° A. P. I. gravity, is independ
ently subjected in the heating coil to a conver
sion temperature, measured at the outlet there
from, of approximately 950° F., at a superat
mospheric pressure of about 350 pounds per r40
square inch. High-boiling fractions of the re
flux condensate from the fractionator of the sys
tem, containing not over approximately 5 per
cent of materials boiling below 600° F., are sub
jected in a separate heating coil to an outlet con
version temperature of approximately 935° F., at
a superatmospheric pressure of about 350 pounds
per square inch and the heated products from
both'the heavy re?ux and raw oil heating coils
are introduced into a separating chamber also :50
maintained at a superatmospheric pressure of
about 350l pounds per square inch. Substantially
the same pressure is employed in the reaction
chamber to which vaporous products from the
separating chamber are supplied and the mate 55
rials leaving the reaction chamber are cooled,
prior to, their introduction into» the fractionator, V
to a temperature of approximately ‘760° F. Liq
uid conversion products are withdrawn from the
separating chamber and subjected to further va
porization in a vaporizing chamber operated at
a superatmospheric pressure of approximately 30
pounds per square inch.
The non-vaporous re
sidual liquid from the vaporizing chamber is di
rected to a coking chamber operated at a super
65
atmospheric pressure of approximately 50 pounds
per square inch. Low-boiling fractions of the
re?ux condensate from the fractionator of the
system, having a boiling range of approximately
400‘ to 600° F., are subjected in a separate heat 70
ing coil to a conversion temperature of approxi
mately 970° F., at a superatmospheric pressure
of about 600 pounds per square inch and the
highly heated products from this zone are intro
duced into direct contact with the residual mate
2,109,640
rials undergoing coking in the coking chamber.
Vaporous'productsfrom the coking chamber are
supplied to the vaporizing chamber and the va
pors from the vaporizing chamber are directed to
the fractionator of the system which is operated
at substantially the same pressure as that em
ployed in the vaporizing chamber. This opera
tion may yield, per barrel of charging stock, ap
proximately 67 percent of 400° F., end-point
motor fuel having an octane number of approx
imately 70 and about 54 pounds of coke of sub
stantially uniform ' quality, good structural
strength and low volatility, the remainder is
chargeable, principally, to uncondensable gas.
15 ~ I claim as my invention :,
~ 1. A process for the conversion of hydrocarbon
oils which comprises subjecting a relatively high
boiling oil from within the systemto conversion
20
temperature at superatmospheric pressure in a
heating coil, introducing the heated products into
a separating chamber also operated at substan
tial superatmospheric pressure wherein vaporous
and liquid conversion products are quickly sep
arated, introducing vaporous conversion products
25 from the separating chamber into a reaction
chamber, also operated at substantial superat
mospheric pressure, wherein they are subjected
to continued conversion, introducing the resulting
30
products from. the reaction chamber into a frac
tlonator wherein they are subjected to fractiona
tion for the separation of re?ux condensate, com
prising their insu?‘iciently converted components,
from their desirable lower boiling components,
process is subjected in another separate heating
coil to independently controlled conversion con
ditions of elevated temperature and superatmos
pheric pressure and the heated products there
from are introduced into‘ the separating chame
ber;
'
'6. A process of the character de?ned in claim 1
wherein hydrocarbon oil charging stock for the
process is separated into selected relatively high
boiling and low-boiling fractions, the high-boil
ing fractions supplied to the ?rst mentioned heat 10
ing coil and the low-boiling fractions supplied to
the last mentioned heating coil.
'
7. A conversion process which comprises heat
ing hydrocarbon oil‘to cracking temperature un
der pressure in a heating coil, introducing the '15
heated oil into a separating chamber maintained
under cracking conditions of temperature and
pressure and separating vapors from unvaporized
oil therein, subjecting the separated vaporsto
continued reaction under cracking conditions of 20
temperature and pressure and subsequently in
troducing the same to a fractionating zone, re
moving the unvaporized oil from the separating
chamber and ?ash distilling the same by pres
sure reduction thereby forming additional Vapors 25
and residue, introducing such additional vapors
to the fractionating zone, distilling said residue
to coke and supplying resultant vapors to the
fractionating zone, fractionating the commingled
vapors in the fractionating zone and separating. 30
therefrom a relatively heavy re?ux condensate
subjecting fractionated Vapors of the desired end
35 boiling point to condensation, recovering the re
sulting distillate, withdrawing liquid conversion
products from the separating chamber and in
troducing them into a vaporizing chamber op
erated at substantially reduced pressure relative
40 to that employed in the separating chamber,
whereby they are subjected to appreciable fur
ther vaporization, withdrawing non-vaporous re
sidual liquid from the vaporizing chamber and
introducing the same into a coking chamber, sep
45 arating said re?ux condensate into selected rela
tively low-boiling and high-boiling fractions, re
turning the high-boiling fractions to the heating
coil for further conversion, subjecting the low
boiling fractions to independently controlled
50 more severe conversion conditions in a separate
heating coil, introducing the highly heated prod
ucts from said separate heating coil into the cok~
ing chamber to serve as a heat carrying medium
for assisting the coking operation and directing
55 the vaporous products from said coking and va
porizing steps to the fractionator for treatment
together with the conversion products from the
reaction chamber.
2. A process of the character de?ned in claim 1
60 wherein the volatilized materials from the coking
chamber are introduced into the vaporizing
chamber to effect separation therein of the va
pors and high coke~forming materials and the
commingled vaporous products are directed from
65 the vaporizing chamber to the fractionator.
3. A process of the character de?ned in claim 1
wherein hydrocarbon oil charging stock for the
process is supplied to the ?rst mentioned heating
coil.
4. A process of the character de?ned in claim 1
wherein hydrocarbon oil charging stock for the
process is supplied to the last mentioned heating
coil.
5. A process of the character de?ned in claim 1
75
wherein hydrocarbon oil charging stock for the
said heating coil,
passing the lighter re?ux condensate through a
second heating coil and heating the same there 35
in to higher cracking temperature than the oil
in the ?rst-named coil, discharging resultant
heated products fromv the second coil into con
tact with said residue being distilled to coke to
40
assist the coking thereof, and ?nally condensing
and collecting the fractionated vapors.
8. A conversion process which comprises heat
ing hydrocarbon oil to cracking temperature
under pressure in a heating coil, introducing the‘
45
heated oil into a separating chamber main
tained under cracking conditions of temperature
and pressure and separating vapors from un
vaporized oil therein, subjecting the separated
vapors to continued reaction under cracking
conditions of temperature and pressure and sub 50
sequently introducing the same to a fractionat
ing zone, removing the unvaporized oil from the
separating chamber and ?ash distilling the same
by pressure reduction thereby forming addi
tional vapors and residue, introducing such
additional vapors to the fractionating zone, dis
tilling said residue to coke and supplying re
sultant vapors to the fraction'ating'zone, frac
tionating the commingled vapors in the fraction
ating zone and separating therefrom a relatively
heavy re?ux condensate and a lighter re?ux
condensate, passing such heavy and light re?ux
condensate respectively through a second and a
third heating coil and subjecting the same there-' 65
in to cracking conditions of temperature and
pressure, the lighter re?ux condensate in the
third coil being heated to higher, temperature ,
than the heavy re?ux condensate in the second
coil, discharging the heated heavy re?ux con~ 70
densate from the second coil into the separating
chamber, introducing the heated light re?ux con
densate from the third coil into contact with said
residue being distilled to coke to assist the coking
75
6
2,109,640
thereof, and ?nally condensing and collecting the
fractionated vapors.
' 9’. A conversion process which comprises heat
ing hydrocarbon oil to cracking temperature
M131
19‘
under pressure in a heating coil and separating
the same into vapors and unvaporized oil in a
separating chamber, ?ash distilling the unva
porized oil in a ?ashing zone maintained under
lower'pressure than the separating chamber, re
moving resultant ?ash residue from the ?ashing
zone and distilling the same to coke in a coking
zone, passing the vapors evolved in the coking
zone through the ?ashing zone to separate heavy
coke-forming, constituents therefrom, combining
vapors from the ?ashing zone with the ?rst
named‘ vapors and fractionating the resultant
mixture ‘to form a relatively heavy re?ux con
de'nsate and a lighter re?ux condensate, return
ing such heavy condensate to the heating coil,
_ , passing the lighter condensate through a second
heating coil maintained at higher cracking tem
perature than‘ the ?rst-named coil and then
introducing the same to the coking zone, and
?nally condensing the fractionated vapors.
10. A conversion process which comprises heat
ing hydrocarbon oil to cracking temperature
under pressure in a heating coil, separating re
sultant vapors and unvaporized oil, subjecting
said vapors to continued reaction under cracking
conditions of temperature and pressure, ?ash
distilling said unvaporized oil by pressure reduc
tion in a ?ashing zone, removing resultant ?ash 10
residue from the ?ashing zone and distilling the
same to coke in a coking zone, passing the
vapors evolved in the coking zone through the
?ashing zone to separate heavy coke-forming
constituents therefrom, combining vapors from 15,
the ?ashing zone with the ?rst-named vapors
after said continued. reaction of the latter, frac
tionating the resultant mixture to condense:
heavier fractions thereof and supplying result
ant re?ux condensate to the heating coil, and; 20v
?nally condensing’ the fractionated vapors.
'
JACOB BENJAMIN HElD.
Документ
Категория
Без категории
Просмотров
0
Размер файла
1 023 Кб
Теги
1/--страниц
Пожаловаться на содержимое документа