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Патент USA US2109649

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March l, 1938.
M. F; RATHER
2,109,649
CONTROL FOR AIR CONDITIONING -SYSTEMS
Filed July 17, 1936
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Gttornegs,
March ~1„ 1938.
'
M_ F, RATHER
2,109,649
CONTROL FOR AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEMS
Filed July 17, 1936
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2 Sheets-Sheet 2
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THERMOSTAT
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CONDITIONING
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42
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SUMMER-WINTER.
-
THERMOSTAT
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41
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y v
Gttorneg's
Patented Mar. l, 1938
2,109,649
UNITED STATESv PATENT' oFFIcE
2,109,649
coN'rRoL Fon AIR CONDITIONING
SYSTEMS
,
f -Maxwell F. Rather, Cleveland, Ohio, assignor to
Johnson Service Company, Milwaukee, Wis., a
corporation of Wisconsin
v
Application July 17, 193s, serial No. 91,247
' 9 Claims.
(Cl. 23e-1)
This invention relates to air conditioning and
particularly to systems where a single condi
tioner supplies conditioned air to two` zones.
In installations of this type the >demands made
.5 for conditioned air by the two zones vary rela
tively to one another from time to time so that in
order to apply the output of the conditioner to
best eiîect it is necessary to divide the output
directed to the two zones in varying proportions.
10
One object of the present invention is to divide
the output under the control of the differential
in condition in the two zones. Temperature will
be assumed _as the controlling condition for pur
pose of explanation.
.
'
for the two simultaneously operated three-way
poppet valves used in the structure of Fig. 1. »
Fig. 5 shows an alternative damper structure
which can be used with the structures of Figs.
1 and
Referring
2.
x first to Fig. '1, Al5 represents condi
tioning means for heating (and if desired humidi
ci
fying) air passing through it in Winter, and lfor
cooling and dehumidifying air passing through it
in summer..- Its construction and mode of opera
tion are immaterial so long as it has these alter
native functions. A circulating fan is normally
included in such a conditioner but is not illus
trated as a distinct element.
A branch 'l delivers conditioned air to one zone
Generally stated they heat and humidity l A and a branch 8 delivers conditioned fair to the
Modern year round conditioning systems op
erate reversely under winter and summer condi
-tions.
in winter and cool and dehumidify in summer.
Where control is by regulating the flow of con
20 ditioned air to the two zones the control must be
reversed for _the two seasons. For example, if
temperature diiîerential be adopted as the con-trolling factor a fall of temperature would be.,
corrected by an increase in the flow of condi
25 tioned air, whereas in .summer a fall would be
corrected by a. decrease. ~ This implies a reversal
of`~~the proportioning action. To meet this re
quirement the present invention provides’fora
reversal of the diñ’erential effect as between win
30 ter and summer conditions.
As a refinement, means responsive to Voutdoor »
conditions (usually temperature) are provided to
eifect the reversal as suchtemperaturevpasses
above and below a chosen value.
35
`
.~
-
It should be. observed that this invention is not
concerned with control of the total perfomance
of the conditioner, but rather with proportioning
the total output. between zones or points of use.
Hence to simplify the description it will be as
sumed that the conditioner has a constant out?
put, though that -condition is` not essential. In
other words the invention does not inhibit the
' use of means to regulate the total performance of
45
the conditioner, but is not directly concerned with
such means.
.
-
Practical embodiments of the invention will now
be described with reference to the accompanying
drawings, in which,--
I
other zone B: AL` splitter damper 9 urged to its
neutral or mid-position by spring | I may be shift
ed to vary the relative proportions sent to zone A
and zone B of the total conditioned air available. 20
Manually adjustable louver dampers |2 control
the amount of fresh air drawn into the condi
_ tiener. Other manually operable dampers I3 are
closed when the conditioner is operating, but may
be open when the system operates merely to venL
tilate vand the conditioner is out of action.
A return duct Il leads back to-conditioner 6 Y
-from zone A and a return duct I5 from zone B.
Mounted in these ducts are intermediate acting
(sometimes called progressively acting) pneu 30
matic 'thermostats IS and I'l. These thermostats
sense Athe temperature in the respective zones,
and location on the return ducts` is well recog-A
nized in -the -art as the approximate lequivalent
of location in the zone itse‘l .
’
The damper s is actuated tnroughinnk‘ la and ,
lever4|9 by two opposed diaphragm motors whose diaphragme appear at 2|- and 22. ' The . dia
phragms operate through a thrust member 23
pivoted to lever I9. They are sustained by hous~
ing 2l to which lever I9 is pivoted and their work
ing spaces are enclosed by caps ,25;
.
The thermostats I6 and Il receive air through
supply line 26 and in response .to similar varia
tions of temperature establish similarly varying _
pressures in their branch lines 21 and 28. Each '
branch line 21 and 28 is connected to two three
Fig. 1 is a diagrammatic plan view, largely in4 way valves 29 and 3| of thedouble-beat poppet
50 s‘ection, showing the control applied to a single vtype._ Valve 29 is shiftable to connect lines 2l
and 28 selectively with the working space of dia
year-round conditioner serving two zones.
Fig. 2 is a similar view showing an equivalent
system using a different type of therìnostat.
Figs. 3 and 4 show the system of Fig. 1 modiñed
ci Ul by the substitution of a single multiple way cock
phragm 2| while valve 3| is shiftable to connect
them selectively with the working space of dla
phragm 22.
,
The valves 29 and 3|. are operated in unison by
motors 32 and 33 connected= to line 34. The con
2,109,649
2
source 43 at say |1 pounds gage, or a source 44
nections to valves 29 and 3| are such that when
line 21 is connected to the Working space of dia
phragm 2| line 28 is connected to the working
space of diaphragm 22, and vice versa.
A manually operable multiple Way valve 35
connects line 34 selectively to supply line 26, via
branch 36 (summer setting) or to atmosphere via
port 31 (winter setting) or to the branch line 38
of a. positive acting outdoor thermostat 39 which
at say I3 pounds gage. The change in the supply
pressure, as will be understood, performs the
selection between the winter thermostatic ele
ment and the summer thermostatic element, of
the thermostats |60. and |1a, shifting them so
that both are set for summer conditions or both
are set for winter conditions, as the case may be.
The motor 42 is »connected to the branch line
45 of an outdoor positive acting thermostat 46 10
which receives its pressure supply from the source
receives its air supply from supply line 26. This
last is the automatic setting and when outdoor
43.
temperature is above a chosen value, say ’70° ther
mostat 39 puts line 34 under pressure to estab
lish summer conditions, while when outdoor tem
15 perature is below '10° it vents line 34 to establish
winter conditions.
the motor 42 under pressure or vents the pressure
from the motor, sluiting the valve 4| to change 15
the supply of pressure to the summer-winter
thermostats. The action of this device is the
-
The operation of the system above outlined is
as follows:
same as that already described.
.
If the system is operating under winter condi
is made by substituting reversely arranged ther 20
mostatic elements rather than by reversing the
connections of the thermostats to the differential
motor, but the differential action is present, as
be furnishing heated air, the damper 9 will op
erate to divert more air to whichever of the zones
is at the lower temperature and send equal quan
before, and the effect of reversal is exactly the '
tities of air to the two zones if they are at the
25 same temperature.
Figs. 3 and 4 show winter and summer condi
tions i‘or a modiñed form of the system shown in
Fig. 1. Here a single four-way valve 41 is sub
stituted for the two three-way valves 29 and 3|
of Fig. 1. Since the three-way valves 29 and 3| 30
were operated in unison, a single four-way valve
can be made to perform the samefunction.
In Figs. 3 and 4 the thermostat I6b corresponds
to the thermostat I6 of Fig. 1, and the thermostat
|1b corresponds to the thermostat I1 of Fig. 1. 35
ever of the two zones is at the higher tempera
ture. It will be observed that the two thermo
stats I6 and I1 operate as a differential thermo
static controller responsive to the temperature
difference between the two zones.
Various other differential thermostatic ar
The differential diaphragm motor, indicated
generally by the numeral 24b applied to the hous
ing, is identical with the motor 24 shown in Fig.
rangements might be evolved, and they fall with
in the broad scope of the invention.
' Turning now to Fig. 2, the parts identified by
the reference numerals 6 to I5 inclusive are the
40 same as before, and so far as they are visible in
the drawings, are given similar reference
1. The four-way valve 41 may be shifted either
manually or by a motor controlled by an outdoor 40
thermostat, not shown. In these ñgures the
parts similar to those shown in Figure l are given
Instead of ~ the
similar reference numerals with the letter b
thermostats I6 and I1 use is made of two con
throughout.
vertible summer-winter thermostats, the thermo
~
Fig. 5 illustrates merely the substitution ' of
45 stat |6a being mounted in the zone A and the
progressively acting louver dampers _for the split-I
thermostat |1a -in zone B. They might equally
The louver dampers 9c, which con
trol ñow to zone A, open as the louver dampersA
9d, which control iiow to zone B, close. This
reverse action is produced by a connecting link 50
|8c. The differential is developed by a diiïer
ential motor 24e, as in’ the other figures. A
spring |Ic urges the various louver dampers to
their normal or equal flow conditions.
While a number of diiîerent embodiments have
been illustrated to make clear the fact that the
invention is capable of various mechanical ex
pressions, other arrangements too numerous toA
‘ ter damper.
well be mounted in the return ducts in a manner
similar to that shown in Fig. 1.
The thermostats |670. and I'Ia are of the type
described and claimed in the patent to Otto, No.
2,021,263, November 19, 1935, and illustrated in
detail in Fig. 1 of that patent.4 Generally stated,
they include two reversely acting thermostatic
elements, one to control heating and the other to
control cooling by regulating the leak port which
exercises its control through the progressive relay.
Selection between the two thermostatic units in
each thermostat is made by changing the pres
sure of the air supplied to the thermostat.
25
same.
On the other hand, if the system is operating
under summer conditions the operation of .the
damper will be exactly the reverse of that just
described, that is it would send more air to which
numerals with the letter a.
'
The shift from summer to Winter conditions
20 tions, at which time the conditioning unit would
35
As the outdoor temperature passes a chosen
value, say 70°, the thermostat 46 either places
'
Since the thermostats themselves effect the
necessary reversal by selection between the two
thermostatic units, it is unnecessary to reverse
mention, are possible within the broad scope of .
the invention. This contemplates, first, propor
60
tioning the flow to two zones in response to a
differential of condition between those zones, and,
second, such a reversal of the diiïerential control
that it may eiîect regulation in two senses, each
one of which is inverse with reference to the 65
other.
their connections to the diaphragm motor. Con
sequently the branch line 21a of thermostat Ilia
65 is connected to the working space of diaphragm
2Ia and the branch line 28a. of the thermostat
`While control by temperature diiîerential is
|1a is connected to the working space of the
convenient, and is expected to be the commer
diaphragm 22a. The diaphragm motor com
cially most usual form, the principles of the in
prising the parts |8a. to 25a is identical with the vention are applicable to .control by other atmos-_ 70
diaphragm
motor
having
similarly
numbered
70
pheric conditions variable by the conditioner,
parts in Fig. 1.
`
To perform _the selection a three-way valve 4| > such as relative humidity.
What is claimed is,
is operated by a motor 42 to connect selectively
1. 'I'he combination of means for supplying
with the supply line 26a. leading -to the two
`conditioned air to two zones; means for varying
thermostats,
either
of
two
pressure'
sources,l
a.
75
3
~ 2,109,649
the relative proportions of the total supply of
conditioned air delivered to the respective zones;
means responsive to the diiïerential between sim
ilar atmospheric conditions'in said two zones for
controlling saidvarying means; and means for re
versing the effect of said differential on saidA
varying means, whereby the proportioning action
is reversed with respect to such atmospheric con
dition.
10
`
_
'
2. 'I'he combination of means for supplying
conditioned air to two zones; means for varying
the relative proportions of the total supplyiof
conditioned air delivered to the respective zones;
‘means responsive to the diiïerential between simi
lar atmospheric conditions in said two zones for
controlling said varying' means; means for re
versing the effect of said differential on said vary
air delivered to the respective zones; two thermo
stats, one subject to the temperature in each
zone and each including two relatively `reversely
acting thermostatic elements and selector means
to render such elements active selectively; actu
ating means for said varyingmeans responsive
to the differential between the indications of the
thermostats in the two zones; and a common
actuating means. for the selector means of the"
thermostats in the two tones.v
7. The combination of means for'supplyingy 10
conditioned air to two zones; means'for‘varying
the relative proportions of the total -conditioned '
air delivered to the respective zones; two thermo
stats, one subject to the temperature >in each
zone and each including two relatively reversely
acting thermostatic elements and selector means
ing means; and means rresponsive to outdoor to render such elements active` selectively; actu
temperature and eiîective as such temperaturev ating means for said varying means responsive to
20 passes above and below a chosen value` to actu
the differential between the indications of the 20
ate reversely said reversing means.
thermostats in the two zones; a common actuat
3. The combination of means for supplying ing means for the selector means of the- thermo
conditioned air to two zones; means for varying stats in-the two zones; and means responsive to
the relative proportions of the total conditioned outdoor temperatureand effective as such tem
25 air delivered to the respective zones; pneumatic
perature passes above and below a chosen value
thermostats, one subject to the temperature in to actuate reversely said `common actuating 25
each zone and each including ,a source of pres
sure iluid and thermostatic valve means serving
8. The combination of means for supplying
to develop a pneumatic pressure which varies in
conditioned air to two zones; means for varying -` '
30 relation to the temperature to which the thermo
the relative proportions of the total conditioned 30
static valve means responds; motor means ar
air delivered to the respective zones; two pneu
ranged to actuate said varying means and re
matic leak> port thermostats one subject to the'
sponsive to the differential of said pressures; and temperature
in each zone, and each including
means for reversing the effect of said differential
35 on said motor, whereby the proportioning action two relatively reversely acting leak controlling
thermostatic elements, a supply connection, a 35
is reversed with respect to temperature.
branch connection in which control of the leak
4. The combination of means for supplying establishes variable pressure, and means respon
' conditioned air to two zones; means for varying
the relative proportions of the total conditioned sive to the pressure in said supply connection for
40 air delivered to the respective zones; pneumatic rendering said elements operative selectively;
actuating means for said varying means respon
thermostats, one subject to the temperature in sive to the differential of pressures in the branch 40
each zone and each serving to develop a pneu
connections of the two thermostats; and means
matic pressure which varies in relation vto the for
changing the supply pressure.
temperature to which it responds; motor means
9. The'combination of means for supplying
45 arranged to actuate said varying means and re
sponsive to the differential of said pressures; conditioned air to two zones; means for varying 45
means for reversing the eiîect of said differential ` the relative proportions of the total conditioned
on said motor; and means responsive to outdoor air delivered to the respective zones; two Apneu
temperature and eiîective as such temperature A matic leak port thermostats, one sub-ject _to the
means.
50 passes above and below a chosen value to actu
y
.
temperature in each zone, and each including two
relatively reversely acting leak controlling ther 50
ate reversely said reversing means.
5. The combination of means for supplying mostatic elements; a supply connection; a branch
conditioned air to two zones; means for varying connection in which control of the leak estab
the relative proportions of the total conditioned y lishes variable pressure, and means responsive to
55 air delivered to the respective zones; two thermo
the pressure in said supply connection for ren
stats, one subject to the temperature in each zone dering said elements operative selectively; actu 55
and each including two relatively reversely acting ating means for said varying means responsive
thermostatic elements and selector means to to the diiïerential of pressures in the branch con
render such elements active selectively; and actu
nections of the two thermostats; means for
60 ating means for said varying means responsive changing the supply pressure; and- means re
to the differential between the indications of the sponsive to outdoor temperature and effective as 60
thermostats in the two zones.
l
such temperature passes above and below a
6. The combination of means for supplying chosen value to actuate -said supply pressure
conditioned air to two zones; means for varying changing means.
'
the relative proportions of the total conditioned
MAXWELL
RATHER.
65
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