Патент USA US2109773код для вставки
March 1, 1938. R. HARDING. JR ' 2,109,773 ELECTRICAL TRANSMISSION OF IMAGES IN NATURAL COLORS Filed Aug. 20, 1952 2 Sheeté-Sheet 1 OUTPUT / / / 27 ‘ V 29 33 /0 . Z8 \ .\ ,\ \ \ 3/2 AMI? INPUT lNVENTOR RoaaR'r HARDING JR. BY ' ATTORNEY March 1, 1938. R.- HARDING, JR 2,109,773 ELECTRICAL TRANSMISSION OF IMAGES IN NATURAL COLORS ' Filed Aug. 20, 1952 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 kil 28 \. INVENTOR _ ROBERT HARDING JR ATTORNEY 2,109,173 Patented Mar. 1, 1938 v‘ UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE 2,109,773 ELECTRICAL TRANSMISSION OF IMAGES IN NATURAL COLORS Robert Harding, .n-., White Plains, N. ‘1., assignor, by mesne assignments, to National Television gogoration, Wilmington, Del., a corporation of ware Application August 20, 1932, Serial No. 829,581 14 Claims. (01. 178-53) This invention relates to the electrical trans mission of images and has for its principal object the provision of an apparatus for reproducing the images in natural colors. Another object of the invention is to produce a clearer image by eliminating dark lines which often appear in television images. Other objects of the invention will be apparent as the description thereof proceeds. One embodiment of the invention has been illustrated in the accompanying drawings, in which: Fig. 1 is a diagrammatic perspective view, partly in section, of an apparatus embodying the 15 invention; _ . graphic record of the color value of an object. The same optical system as described in that patent may be used with the present invention although the invention is not intended to be lim ited to that particular optical system. Referring now more speci?cally to the draw ings an object It), shown for purposes of illustra tion to be an arrow, is illumined by a bright light II and an optical system I2 is positioned in such a manner as to project images of the arrow 10 upon a‘scanning disc l3 rotatably mounted on a shaft l4 and rotated by a motor not shown in the drawings. The optical system comprises a compound positive lens l5 having a negative lens l6 and a positive lens ll placed in front of the 15 ' Fig. 2 is a perspective view partly in section of a diagrammatic representation of the receiving apparatus; negative lens and positioned therefrom at a dis tance depending upon the distance of the arrow from the lens and the relation between the focal Fig. 3 is a greatly enlarged perspective view I lengths of the members. A plurality of objectives l8, l9, and 20 may 20 20 of the optical system and scanning device of the transmitting apparatus; and Fig. 4 is a sectional end view taken on the line 4-4 of Fig. 3 of the optical system used with the apparatus. 25 ’ Brie?y the invention comprises a transmitting apparatus in which a suitable optical system pro jects a plurality of images of the object to be transmitted upon the operating plane of a scan ning apparatus. By suitable color ?lters these 30 images are given color values and are scanned be positioned between the negative lens and the scanning disc l3. Any number of these objec tive lenses may be used but three is apparently all that is necessary as very natural color eifects may be obtained by using three images giving 25 color values corresponding to the three primary colors. Thus the lens 18 may be provided with a' red color screen 2|, the lensvl9 with a blue violet color screen 22, and the lens 20 with a green color screen 23. by the scanning apparatus similarly to the way " When the lenses are suitably positioned as a single image is scanned by the usual television - clearly explained in the above mentioned patent scanning apparatus. A light sensitive cell re three separate images 24, 25, and 26 with the ceives light impulses from the scanning appa different color values will appear on the scanning disc. Thus if the head 21 of the arrow shown en 35 ratus and translates them into electrical im pulses which in turn, at the receiving end, are larged in Fig. 3 is red, light from this portion caused to modulate a light source, such as a neon will pass through‘ the color screen 2| so that the ' glow lamp. head will appear on the image 24 but the rest In front of the lamp is positioned another of the arrow will be ?ltered out due to the dif 40 scanning device which, running in synchrony ferent color thereof. It the tall 28 is blue-violet 40 it will appear on the image 25 projected through with the transmitting scanning device, recon structs the plurality of images. Color screens the blue-violet screen 22, while if the center part color the images corresponding to the color ~ 29 is green it will appear on the image 26 pro values given to them at the transmitting end, and jected through the green color screen 23. In a suitable optical system, similar to the optical this manner di?erent colored portions of the ar-' system in the transmitting apparatus is pro row will appear in di?erent images and when 50 55 vided for projecting the images in superimposed light from these images passes through the relation upon a screen to form a single image. When the various parts of-the apparatus are scanning device and falls on the light sensitive cell impulses are produced corresponding to the properly arranged and properly operated, the amount of light in each image. image thrown upon the screen will appear in its natural colors. In the patent to Cox No. 1,778,754 an optical system is shown for splitting up an object ?eld For this system it is preferable to use a light sensitive cell which is as nearly as possible equally responsive to light of different wave lengths, although this is not absolutely necessary as varia into three separate images for making a photo tions of responsiveness in the light sensitive cell ’ _ 2 3,109,778 to different wave lengths may be compensated for by adjusting the density of the color screens used. The impulses received by the light sensi tive cell will, therefore, correspond to an area containing the three separate images. . may consist of any number of elements and may be designed to compensate for any of the well known optical errors, such as coma, aberration, astigmatism, etc. As the light impulses are picked up through a For purposes of illustration a light sensitive. scanning disc at the transmitter by a light sensi cell 30 of the electrolytic type is shown, although tive cell it will be necessary to illuminate the any desired type of cell may be used as long as object suiilciently so ‘that enough light reaches it will respond quickly enough to impulses re 10 ceived by the rapidly rotating scanning device. A suitable ampli?er 3| is provided for magnify ing the electrical impulses and such magni?ed impulses may be sent over the radio or through wires to the receiving set. 15 The receiving set may comprise a suitable ampli?er 32 which would include, in the case of a radio, a radio frequency ampli?er and de tector, the output of which may be connected to a device for modulating a light source. In 20 the present instance a neon glow lamp 33 com prising a pair of spaced apart plates is used, one of the plates being caused to glow over the en tire surface thereof when current is run through the lamp. A receiving scanning disc 34 may be the cell to produce an impulse. Thus the lights H are used and are in no way limited as to 10 number, type, or size. It will thus be seen from the above that I have provided an apparatus whereby an object may be scanned by a transmitting device and recon structed by a receiving device in the natural color of the object, this being accomplished by means of a single chain of impulses so that a single wave length may be used in radio in contra-distinction to the plurality of channels necessary in devices already proposed to accomplish thé same purpose. 20 The optical system used in connection with the transmitter and receiver is simple, easy to con struct, and easy to adjust so that the apparatus 25 mounted on a shaft 35 so as to rotate close to is in reality no more complicated than the or the lamp 33 (preferably closer than is indi cated in the drawings), the shaft being rotated by a synchronous motor (not shown) which will run in synchrony with the motor of the transmit 30 ting station provided the two are connected to paratus. the same power supply circuit, or may be caused to run at synchronous speed by any suitable syn chronizing apparatus. ‘ When the scanning devices of the transmitting 35 and receiving stations are rotating in synchrony the triple image will appear in the plane of the receiving scanning disc if‘ an observer looks through it toward the glow lamp, this being in accordance with principles now well known in 40 connection with television. A second optical sys tem 36 which may be similar to the optical sys tem l2 may be mounted between a screen 31 and the scanning disc 34 in such a position as to project the image formed at the scanning disc 45 upon the screen 31. The coplanar lenses 33 and 39 forming part of the optical system 36 are pro vided respectively with a red color screen 40 and a green color screen ll (the third lens and color screen being cut off by the section) thus the 50 images 24', 25' and 26' on the plane of the scan ning disc are colored'by their respective color screens so as to produce the arrow ill with its red head 21, its blue-violet tail 28, and its green center portion 29. 55 Inasmuch as accuracy of the image formed will depend largely on the color of the light used for producing the television signal a light having as white a discharge as possible is preferable, al though the predominate color of the discharge, 60 as for instance a neon reddish glow, may be com pensated for by suitable adjustment of the color ?lters in the optical system. _ Any type of scanning device may be used with the invention but I have illustrated scanning 65 discs inasmuch as they are well understoodin the art at the present time and need no detailed description. The optical system is shown as mounted in a sleeve so as to form one ?xed unit and ordinari 70 ly such a construction will suffice as the focal distances may easily be predetermined in a tele vision apparatus. It is to be understood, how ever, that adjusting devices may be provided to alter the spacing of the various lens elements. 75 Also any of the lenses illustrated and described dinary television transmitting‘and receiving ap 25 An ordinary television apparatus, especially where a scanning disc is used for transmission and reception, has a tendency to produce an im age having black horizontal lines across it caused 30 by the space between successive holes in the scan ning disc as they move across the image ?eld; and this is more or less true with any scanning system. It will be noted in the present inven tion that inasmuch as three images are formed at the plane of the transmitting scanning ap paratus the dark streak across each image will have to occur at exactly the same position for these streaks to appear on the ?nished image when the three images are superimposed at the 40 receiving station on the screen. Inasmuch as it is practically impossible to cause these dark lines to fall at the same position on each image, due to the fact that each of the three images is scanned by different holes in the scanning disc, these dark lines will be completely balanced out when the three images are superimposed on the receiving screen. This is considered an import ant point as the lines formed across the image are objectionable and appear to be inherent with 60 most scanning devices. While the primary ob ject of the invention is to produce an image in natural colors it may be used, however, for the sole purpose of eliminating these dark lines, in which case the colored screens would be entirely omitted and the image would appear in black and white. Many modi?cations of the invention may be resorted to without departing from the spirit thereof, and I do not, therefore, desire to limit 60 myself to what has been shown and described except as such limitations occur in the appended claims. ‘ What I desire to claim and secure by Letters 65 Patent is: 1. In an apparatus of the class described means to simultaneously form a plurality of images of an object each having a different color value thereof, a single means to repeatedly scan the plurality of images, single means to translate the 70 light impulses produced by said scanning means into electrical impulses, means at the receiving end to translate said electrical impulses into light impulses, means operated in synchrony with said ?rst scanning means to repeatedly scan said 75 3 2,109,773 light impulses, means to color the plurality of images formed at the plane of the scanning means similarly to the coloring of the light im pulses from the corresponding images at the transmitting scanning means, and means to su perimpose the plurality of images formed at the plane of the scanning means to form a single image. 2. In a device of the class described means to simultaneously form a plurality of images of an object ?eld, means to give said images separate color values, single means to repeatedly scan said images, single means to translate the succession of light impulses produced by said scanning 15 means into electrical impulses, means at the re ceiving end of the apparatus to translate said electrical impulses into light impulses, means to repeatedly scan’ the light impulses so produced, means to project the plurality of images formed 20 at the scanning means upon a screen in super imposed relation, and means to color said images in correspondence to said ?rst coloring means. 3. In a television transmitting set, optical means for condensing an object ?eld, means to simultaneously form a plurality of images of the object ?eld, means to give each of said im ages a different color value, means to repeatedly scan said colored images, and single means to translate the light impulses produced by said 30 scanning ‘means into electrical impulses. 4. In a television receiving apparatus, single means to translate the incoming television sig nal into modulated light, means to repeatedly scan a predetermined area of said light, means to project portions of the image formed at said scanning means in superimposed relation upon a screen, and means to give each portion so pro jected a different color value. ' 5. In an apparatus of the class described means 40 to simultaneously form a plurality of images of an object ?eld, means to give each image an independent color value, means to repeatedly break said images up into a plurality of succes sive electrical impulses, single means to translate 45 said electrical impulses into light impulses, means to repeatedly rearrange said light impulses to ?eld, means to project said object ?eld to form an image in space, means to split up said pro jected image into a plurality of separate simi lar images, means to give each of said images a di?erent color value, single means to repeat edly scan the plurality of images thus formed, and a light sensitive cell positioned so as to be in?uenced by said scanning means. 10. In a television receiving apparatus a lamp for producing modulated light, means to repeat 10 edly scan the light so produced, a screen spaced from said scanning means, and an optical system between said screen and said scanning means, said optical system including a plurality of co planar objectives adapted to superimpose the im 15 ages of separate areas of said scanning device to form a single composite image on said screen. 11. In an apparatus‘of the class described an object ?eld, an optical system positioned so as to receive light from said object ?eld, said optical 20 system comprising an objective, and a plurality of smaller coplanar objectives arranged so as to project into space a plurality of images of said object ?eld, single means to repeatedly scan said projected images, single means to translate 25 the succession of light impulses by said scanning means into electrical impulses, means at the re ceiving end of said apparatus to translate said electrical impulses into modulated light impulses, means to repeatedly scan said modulated light, 30 said scanning means being driven in synchrony with said ?rst mentioned scanning means, where by said plurality of images will form. on said second mentioned scanning means, a screen po sitioned from said scanning means, an optical 35 system between said screen and said scanning means, said optical system comprising a plural ity of coplanar objective and a single large objec tive so arranged that the plurality of images formed at the plane of said scanning means are 40 superimposed upon said screen to form a single image, and means to impart a different color value to each of said images before superposi tion. ' . 12. In an apparatus of the class described an 45 form the original plurality of images, means to ' object ?eld, means to simultaneously project a color each image corresponding to its equivalent original image, and means to superimpose said images to form a single image. 6. In a television transmitting device means to simultaneously form a plurality of images from an object ?eld, means to give each of said im ages an independent color value, and single means to repeatedly break up said plurality of images 55 into successive electrical impulses. 7. In a television receiving apparatus, single means to translate composite incoming electri cal impulses into modulated light, means to re peatedly rearrange said light impulses to form an image, means to give portions of said image different color values, and means to superimpose said portions of said image to form a single com~ posite image. 8. In .a device of the class described an object ?eld, anoptical system positioned so as to form an image of said object ?eld, a plurality of co planar objectives included in said optical sys tem for splitting the light rays so as to form a plurality of images of said object ?eld, a color screen in the path of light rays passing through each of said coplanar objectives so as to give each of said images a different color value, and single means to repeatedly scan the images so formed. 9. In a device of the class described an object 75 plurality of images of said object ?eld into space, single means to repeatedly scan said images, means to translate the light impulses produced by said scanning means into electrical impulses, 50 means at the receiving end of said apparatus to translate the electrical impulses into modulated light impulses, means to repeatedly scan the modulated light impulses, a screen positioned from said second scanning means, and means to 55 project portions of the image formed at said scanning means in superimposed relation upon said screen. 13. An apparatus of the class described com prising means to simultaneously form a plurality 60 of complete images of a complete object ?eld, the image of ‘which is to be'transmitted, means to give each image an independent color ‘value, means to repeatedly break said images up into a plurality of electrical impulses, single means to 65 translate said electrical impulses into light im- ~ pulses, means to repeatedly rearrange said light impulses to form the original plurality of com plete images, means to color each image cor responding to its equivalent original image, and means to superimpose said images to form a complete image of the object ?eld. ‘ 14. In an apparatus of the class described means to simultaneously form a plurality or complete images of a complete object ?eld, the 75 4 2,109,773 image of which is to be transmitted, and to posi rearrange saidiight impulses to form the original tion such images in a group but not in a straight line, means to give each image an independent color value, means to repeatedly break said im ages up into a plurality of successive electrical impulses, single means to translate said electrical plurality of images, means to color each image impulses into light impulses, means to repeatedly corresponding to its equivalent original image and means to superimpose said images to form a single complete image of the complete object 5 ?eld. ROBERT HARDING, J R.