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Патент USA US2109773

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March 1, 1938.
R. HARDING. JR
'
2,109,773
ELECTRICAL TRANSMISSION OF IMAGES IN NATURAL COLORS
Filed Aug. 20, 1952
2 Sheeté-Sheet 1
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lNVENTOR
RoaaR'r HARDING JR.
BY
'
ATTORNEY
March 1, 1938.
R.- HARDING, JR
2,109,773
ELECTRICAL TRANSMISSION OF IMAGES IN NATURAL COLORS
'
Filed Aug. 20, 1952
2 Sheets-Sheet 2
kil
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INVENTOR
_
ROBERT HARDING JR
ATTORNEY
2,109,173
Patented Mar. 1, 1938
v‘ UNITED STATES
PATENT OFFICE
2,109,773
ELECTRICAL TRANSMISSION OF IMAGES
IN NATURAL COLORS
Robert Harding, .n-., White Plains, N. ‘1., assignor,
by mesne assignments, to National Television
gogoration, Wilmington, Del., a corporation of
ware
Application August 20, 1932, Serial No. 829,581
14 Claims. (01. 178-53)
This invention relates to the electrical trans
mission of images and has for its principal object
the provision of an apparatus for reproducing the
images in natural colors.
Another object of the invention is to produce
a clearer image by eliminating dark lines which
often appear in television images.
Other objects of the invention will be apparent
as the description thereof proceeds.
One embodiment of the invention has been
illustrated in the accompanying drawings, in
which:
Fig. 1 is a diagrammatic perspective view,
partly in section, of an apparatus embodying the
15
invention;
_
.
graphic record of the color value of an object.
The same optical system as described in that
patent may be used with the present invention
although the invention is not intended to be lim
ited to that particular optical system.
Referring now more speci?cally to the draw
ings an object It), shown for purposes of illustra
tion to be an arrow, is illumined by a bright
light II and an optical system I2 is positioned in
such a manner as to project images of the arrow 10
upon a‘scanning disc l3 rotatably mounted on
a shaft l4 and rotated by a motor not shown in
the drawings. The optical system comprises a
compound positive lens l5 having a negative lens
l6 and a positive lens ll placed in front of the 15
'
Fig. 2 is a perspective view partly in section of
a diagrammatic representation of the receiving
apparatus;
negative lens and positioned therefrom at a dis
tance depending upon the distance of the arrow
from the lens and the relation between the focal
Fig. 3 is a greatly enlarged perspective view I lengths of the members.
A plurality of objectives l8, l9, and 20 may 20
20 of the optical system and scanning device of the
transmitting apparatus; and
Fig. 4 is a sectional end view taken on the line
4-4 of Fig. 3 of the optical system used with
the apparatus.
25
’
Brie?y the invention comprises a transmitting
apparatus in which a suitable optical system pro
jects a plurality of images of the object to be
transmitted upon the operating plane of a scan
ning apparatus. By suitable color ?lters these
30 images are given color values and are scanned
be positioned between the negative lens and the
scanning disc l3. Any number of these objec
tive lenses may be used but three is apparently
all that is necessary as very natural color eifects
may be obtained by using three images giving 25
color values corresponding to the three primary
colors. Thus the lens 18 may be provided with
a' red color screen 2|, the lensvl9 with a blue
violet color screen 22, and the lens 20 with a
green color screen 23.
by the scanning apparatus similarly to the way "
When the lenses are suitably positioned as
a single image is scanned by the usual television - clearly explained in the above mentioned patent
scanning apparatus. A light sensitive cell re
three separate images 24, 25, and 26 with the
ceives light impulses from the scanning appa
different color values will appear on the scanning
disc. Thus if the head 21 of the arrow shown en
35 ratus and translates them into electrical im
pulses which in turn, at the receiving end, are larged in Fig. 3 is red, light from this portion
caused to modulate a light source, such as a neon will pass through‘ the color screen 2| so that the
' glow lamp.
head will appear on the image 24 but the rest
In front of the lamp is positioned another of the arrow will be ?ltered out due to the dif
40 scanning device which, running in synchrony ferent color thereof. It the tall 28 is blue-violet 40
it will appear on the image 25 projected through
with the transmitting scanning device, recon
structs the plurality of images. Color screens the blue-violet screen 22, while if the center part
color the images corresponding to the color ~ 29 is green it will appear on the image 26 pro
values given to them at the transmitting end, and jected through the green color screen 23. In
a suitable optical system, similar to the optical this manner di?erent colored portions of the ar-'
system in the transmitting apparatus is pro
row will appear in di?erent images and when
50
55
vided for projecting the images in superimposed
light from these images passes through the
relation upon a screen to form a single image.
When the various parts of-the apparatus are
scanning device and falls on the light sensitive
cell impulses are produced corresponding to the
properly arranged and properly operated, the
amount of light in each image.
image thrown upon the screen will appear in its
natural colors.
In the patent to Cox No. 1,778,754 an optical
system is shown for splitting up an object ?eld
For this system it is preferable to use a light
sensitive cell which is as nearly as possible equally
responsive to light of different wave lengths,
although this is not absolutely necessary as varia
into three separate images for making a photo
tions of responsiveness in the light sensitive cell
’
_
2
3,109,778
to different wave lengths may be compensated for
by adjusting the density of the color screens
used. The impulses received by the light sensi
tive cell will, therefore, correspond to an area
containing the three separate images. .
may consist of any number of elements and may
be designed to compensate for any of the well
known optical errors, such as coma, aberration,
astigmatism, etc.
As the light impulses are picked up through a
For purposes of illustration a light sensitive. scanning disc at the transmitter by a light sensi
cell 30 of the electrolytic type is shown, although tive cell it will be necessary to illuminate the
any desired type of cell may be used as long as object suiilciently so ‘that enough light reaches
it will respond quickly enough to impulses re
10 ceived by the rapidly rotating scanning device.
A suitable ampli?er 3| is provided for magnify
ing the electrical impulses and such magni?ed
impulses may be sent over the radio or through
wires to the receiving set.
15
The receiving set may comprise a suitable
ampli?er 32 which would include, in the case of
a radio, a radio frequency ampli?er and de
tector, the output of which may be connected
to a device for modulating a light source. In
20 the present instance a neon glow lamp 33 com
prising a pair of spaced apart plates is used, one
of the plates being caused to glow over the en
tire surface thereof when current is run through
the lamp. A receiving scanning disc 34 may be
the cell to produce an impulse. Thus the lights
H are used and are in no way limited as to 10
number, type, or size.
It will thus be seen from the above that I have
provided an apparatus whereby an object may
be scanned by a transmitting device and recon
structed by a receiving device in the natural color
of the object, this being accomplished by means
of a single chain of impulses so that a single wave
length may be used in radio in contra-distinction
to the plurality of channels necessary in devices
already proposed to accomplish thé same purpose. 20
The optical system used in connection with the
transmitter and receiver is simple, easy to con
struct, and easy to adjust so that the apparatus
25 mounted on a shaft 35 so as to rotate close to
is in reality no more complicated than the or
the lamp 33 (preferably closer than is indi
cated in the drawings), the shaft being rotated
by a synchronous motor (not shown) which will
run in synchrony with the motor of the transmit
30 ting station provided the two are connected to
paratus.
the same power supply circuit, or may be caused
to run at synchronous speed by any suitable syn
chronizing apparatus.
‘
When the scanning devices of the transmitting
35 and receiving stations are rotating in synchrony
the triple image will appear in the plane of the
receiving scanning disc if‘ an observer looks
through it toward the glow lamp, this being in
accordance with principles now well known in
40 connection with television. A second optical sys
tem 36 which may be similar to the optical sys
tem l2 may be mounted between a screen 31
and the scanning disc 34 in such a position as to
project the image formed at the scanning disc
45 upon the screen 31. The coplanar lenses 33 and
39 forming part of the optical system 36 are pro
vided respectively with a red color screen 40 and
a green color screen ll (the third lens and color
screen being cut off by the section) thus the
50 images 24', 25' and 26' on the plane of the scan
ning disc are colored'by their respective color
screens so as to produce the arrow ill with its
red head 21, its blue-violet tail 28, and its green
center portion 29.
55
Inasmuch as accuracy of the image formed
will depend largely on the color of the light used
for producing the television signal a light having
as white a discharge as possible is preferable, al
though the predominate color of the discharge,
60 as for instance a neon reddish glow, may be com
pensated for by suitable adjustment of the color
?lters in the optical system.
_
Any type of scanning device may be used with
the invention but I have illustrated scanning
65 discs inasmuch as they are well understoodin
the art at the present time and need no detailed
description.
The optical system is shown as mounted in a
sleeve so as to form one ?xed unit and ordinari
70 ly such a construction will suffice as the focal
distances may easily be predetermined in a tele
vision apparatus. It is to be understood, how
ever, that adjusting devices may be provided to
alter the spacing of the various lens elements.
75 Also any of the lenses illustrated and described
dinary television transmitting‘and receiving ap 25
An ordinary television apparatus, especially
where a scanning disc is used for transmission
and reception, has a tendency to produce an im
age having black horizontal lines across it caused 30
by the space between successive holes in the scan
ning disc as they move across the image ?eld;
and this is more or less true with any scanning
system. It will be noted in the present inven
tion that inasmuch as three images are formed
at the plane of the transmitting scanning ap
paratus the dark streak across each image will
have to occur at exactly the same position for
these streaks to appear on the ?nished image
when the three images are superimposed at the 40
receiving station on the screen. Inasmuch as
it is practically impossible to cause these dark
lines to fall at the same position on each image,
due to the fact that each of the three images is
scanned by different holes in the scanning disc,
these dark lines will be completely balanced out
when the three images are superimposed on the
receiving screen. This is considered an import
ant point as the lines formed across the image
are objectionable and appear to be inherent with 60
most scanning devices. While the primary ob
ject of the invention is to produce an image in
natural colors it may be used, however, for the
sole purpose of eliminating these dark lines, in
which case the colored screens would be entirely
omitted and the image would appear in black
and white.
Many modi?cations of the invention may be
resorted to without departing from the spirit
thereof, and I do not, therefore, desire to limit 60
myself to what has been shown and described
except as such limitations occur in the appended
claims.
‘
What I desire to claim and secure by Letters
65
Patent is:
1. In an apparatus of the class described means
to simultaneously form a plurality of images of
an object each having a different color value
thereof, a single means to repeatedly scan the
plurality of images, single means to translate the 70
light impulses produced by said scanning means
into electrical impulses, means at the receiving
end to translate said electrical impulses into light
impulses, means operated in synchrony with said
?rst scanning means to repeatedly scan said 75
3
2,109,773
light impulses, means to color the plurality of
images formed at the plane of the scanning
means similarly to the coloring of the light im
pulses from the corresponding images at the
transmitting scanning means, and means to su
perimpose the plurality of images formed at the
plane of the scanning means to form a single
image.
2. In a device of the class described means to
simultaneously form a plurality of images of an
object ?eld, means to give said images separate
color values, single means to repeatedly scan said
images, single means to translate the succession
of light impulses produced by said scanning
15 means into electrical impulses, means at the re
ceiving end of the apparatus to translate said
electrical impulses into light impulses, means
to repeatedly scan’ the light impulses so produced,
means to project the plurality of images formed
20 at the scanning means upon a screen in super
imposed relation, and means to color said images
in correspondence to said ?rst coloring means.
3. In a television transmitting set, optical
means for condensing an object ?eld, means to
simultaneously form a plurality of images of
the object ?eld, means to give each of said im
ages a different color value, means to repeatedly
scan said colored images, and single means to
translate the light impulses produced by said
30 scanning ‘means into electrical impulses.
4. In a television receiving apparatus, single
means to translate the incoming television sig
nal into modulated light, means to repeatedly
scan a predetermined area of said light, means
to project portions of the image formed at said
scanning means in superimposed relation upon
a screen, and means to give each portion so pro
jected a different color value.
'
5. In an apparatus of the class described means
40 to simultaneously form a plurality of images of
an object ?eld, means to give each image an
independent color value, means to repeatedly
break said images up into a plurality of succes
sive electrical impulses, single means to translate
45 said electrical impulses into light impulses, means
to repeatedly rearrange said light impulses to
?eld, means to project said object ?eld to form
an image in space, means to split up said pro
jected image into a plurality of separate simi
lar images, means to give each of said images
a di?erent color value, single means to repeat
edly scan the plurality of images thus formed,
and a light sensitive cell positioned so as to be
in?uenced by said scanning means.
10. In a television receiving apparatus a lamp
for producing modulated light, means to repeat 10
edly scan the light so produced, a screen spaced
from said scanning means, and an optical system
between said screen and said scanning means,
said optical system including a plurality of co
planar objectives adapted to superimpose the im 15
ages of separate areas of said scanning device to
form a single composite image on said screen.
11. In an apparatus‘of the class described an
object ?eld, an optical system positioned so as
to receive light from said object ?eld, said optical 20
system comprising an objective, and a plurality
of smaller coplanar objectives arranged so as
to project into space a plurality of images of
said object ?eld, single means to repeatedly scan
said projected images, single means to translate 25
the succession of light impulses by said scanning
means into electrical impulses, means at the re
ceiving end of said apparatus to translate said
electrical impulses into modulated light impulses,
means to repeatedly scan said modulated light, 30
said scanning means being driven in synchrony
with said ?rst mentioned scanning means, where
by said plurality of images will form. on said
second mentioned scanning means, a screen po
sitioned from said scanning means, an optical 35
system between said screen and said scanning
means, said optical system comprising a plural
ity of coplanar objective and a single large objec
tive so arranged that the plurality of images
formed at the plane of said scanning means are 40
superimposed upon said screen to form a single
image, and means to impart a different color
value to each of said images before superposi
tion.
'
.
12. In an apparatus of the class described an 45
form the original plurality of images, means to ' object ?eld, means to simultaneously project a
color each image corresponding to its equivalent
original image, and means to superimpose said
images to form a single image.
6. In a television transmitting device means
to simultaneously form a plurality of images from
an object ?eld, means to give each of said im
ages an independent color value, and single means
to repeatedly break up said plurality of images
55
into successive electrical impulses.
7. In a television receiving apparatus, single
means to translate composite incoming electri
cal impulses into modulated light, means to re
peatedly rearrange said light impulses to form
an image, means to give portions of said image
different color values, and means to superimpose
said portions of said image to form a single com~
posite image.
8. In .a device of the class described an object
?eld, anoptical system positioned so as to form
an image of said object ?eld, a plurality of co
planar objectives included in said optical sys
tem for splitting the light rays so as to form a
plurality of images of said object ?eld, a color
screen in the path of light rays passing through
each of said coplanar objectives so as to give each
of said images a different color value, and single
means to repeatedly scan the images so formed.
9. In a device of the class described an object
75
plurality of images of said object ?eld into space,
single means to repeatedly scan said images,
means to translate the light impulses produced
by said scanning means into electrical impulses, 50
means at the receiving end of said apparatus to
translate the electrical impulses into modulated
light impulses, means to repeatedly scan the
modulated light impulses, a screen positioned
from said second scanning means, and means to 55
project portions of the image formed at said
scanning means in superimposed relation upon
said screen.
13. An apparatus of the class described com
prising means to simultaneously form a plurality 60
of complete images of a complete object ?eld,
the image of ‘which is to be'transmitted, means
to give each image an independent color ‘value,
means to repeatedly break said images up into a
plurality of electrical impulses, single means to 65
translate said electrical impulses into light im- ~
pulses, means to repeatedly rearrange said light
impulses to form the original plurality of com
plete images, means to color each image cor
responding to its equivalent original image, and
means to superimpose said images to form a
complete image of the object ?eld.
‘
14. In an apparatus of the class described
means to simultaneously form a plurality or
complete images of a complete object ?eld, the 75
4
2,109,773
image of which is to be transmitted, and to posi
rearrange saidiight impulses to form the original
tion such images in a group but not in a straight
line, means to give each image an independent
color value, means to repeatedly break said im
ages up into a plurality of successive electrical
impulses, single means to translate said electrical
plurality of images, means to color each image
impulses into light impulses, means to repeatedly
corresponding to its equivalent original image
and means to superimpose said images to form a
single complete image of the complete object 5
?eld.
ROBERT HARDING, J R.
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