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Патент USA US2109950

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atented Mar. 1, 1938
William A. Rocker, Martinsburg, WV. Ya.
No Drawing. Application June 4, 1934,
Serial No. 729,029
_3 Claims.‘ (01. 99-432)
This invention ‘relates to pectous materials,
Another object is to provide a novel dry pectin
_more particularly to a standardized powdered
or dry pectin.
‘A. further object is to standardize powdered
pectin with materials available at the pectin
Pectin, or vegetable gelatin so.called, is the
jellifying constituent of jams, jellies and marma
lades. It occurs widely in the vegetable king
Yet another object is to provide a dry pectin
dom, as for example in apples, citrus fruits, beets, , product which improves the texture of the con
carrots and the like. One‘of the largest and serve “made therefrom.
most economical sources of pectin is apple pom
>With these and other equally important and
10 ace or mare, the solid apple residue remaining
related objects in view the invention compre- 10
after the expression of ‘the'apple juice.
hends the concept .of standardizing powdered
> At the present time,.pectin'is marketed as a
pectin with a material which comprises "a useful '
component of the final gelatinized product and .
concentrated liquid pectin and as a substantially
pure dry product.‘
one which furthermore is readily available at‘ the
In marketing the dry powdered pectin; par
plant. In its morespeci?c aspects, the invention 15
ticularly in a household package, it is customary ' comprises the preparation of a specially puri?ed
to standardize the product, that is to say, to fruit ?ber and the incorporation of this in pre
adjust the gel strength or ability of the given determined amounts with' dry powdered pectin .
weight or quantity of the product to a predeter- ‘ so as to‘ produce a standardized product.
mined gel strength so that with a given quantity
of material known amounts of sugar, fruit juices
and/or fruit pulp may be employed and standard
recipes may be used.
done in several di?erent ways. As an example,
apple pomace may be treated with cold water
The necessity for standardizing arises largely
to remove all of the-water soluble substances. ,
25 from factors beyond the control of the pectin
After such leaching, the excess water may be '25
manufacturer, such as the character'and degree
of maturity of the fruit orvegetable which consti
removed as by pressing, centrifuging and ' the
like. The residue may then be subjected to the
tutes his starting material. Thus, in practice, .
the pectin obtained from one batch of raw ma»
30 terial may possess a gel strength of seventy; that
is, a pectin of such strength that one pound will
set 70 pounds of sugar, in the presence of suf
action of a solvent which will remove all but the -
cellulosic ?ber and the pectin. This may readily
be done ‘by treating with relatively dilute ethyl 30
alcohol. Such solvent removes vthe undesired
constituents such as tannins, fruit acids, sugars,
?cient acid. Another batch of equal weight may
waxes and the like.
produce a pectin of a gel strength of a higher
35 or lower value. Hence, to market a product
water or alcohol to completely free the pulp from 40 I
traces of the solubilized constituents. The prod
uct resulting from such atreatment, then con
sists of puri?ed cellulose ?bers in which the fruit
pectin is held.
ing this'is to treat the puri?ed pulp with a hot
acidulated aqueous solution for a period of time
to solubilize the ‘pectin. Again, the puri?ed pulp
of sugar and with a material which forms a use
may be heated with water alone at elevated 50
ful and advantageous component of the ?nal
- jam or, .jelly.
Thus the pectin may be brought into solution
by heating the pulp with water in an autoclave
An object of the present invention, therefore,
is to provide a new method of standardizing
This product is then treated to solubilizeand 45
extract the pectin. One method of accomplish
I have found that pectin in the pure ‘dry form
may e?ectively be standardized without the use
sired, the residue may be washed with fresh
While this has been
it. segregation or strati?cation of the sugar and
After extraction, the ‘mass is ?ltered or cen
trifuged to remove residual alcohol and if de
the pectin. ' Unless the sugar is wetted and sub
45 sequently dried .so that the pectin is adhered to
tion, the solvent may be utilized at elevated tem- ~35
effective it introduces a relatively expensive step
in the process, particularly if a real attempt is
made homogeneously to distribute the sugar in
pectin takes place.
To improve the speed and degree of extrac
which vmay be employed in standard recipes, it
is necessary to adjust the gel strength to a de?
nite unit value per given mass of the material.
It has been the practice to standardize po'w
40 dered pectin with, sugar.
In carrying out the present method, dry pow- 20
dered pectin is ?rst produced. This may be'
under a temperature of sixty pounds of steam.’
The solution produced in eithercase, which 55
2,109,?50: .
contains the ‘solubilized pectin, is then separated
. from the 'pulp. This may be done by ?ltering
and this facilitates the solution of the pectin. If
greater dispersive characteristics are desired, the
puri?ed pulp, before ?nal drying, may be wetted
in any suitable ?lter. The clear ?ltrate is then . with a solution containing such a predetermined
concentrated as by reduced pressure evaporation ,amount of sugar as will e?ectively disperse the
and the pectin precipitated by adding a suitable
precipitant such. as alcohol. The precipitated
pectin is then separated from the solution and
Similarly, if desired, the ?nal standardized
product may contain a predetermined amount of
a suitable acid suchas' malic, tartaric, citric etc., A sample of this dried product is then tested so
that upon making a jelly or jam from the
10 by established
. product, it is necessary only to add the fruit juice
strength. Thereafter, it is standardized to ad
and/or pulp and the requisite quantity of sugar.
just, it to the particular strength desired.
the manner known to those skilled in the art,
, The standardizing material employed in the
may be impregnated with the acid so as to
present invention‘, comprises the puri?ed de ' pulp
be uniformly distributed through the standard 15
pectinized fruit ?bers produced during the proc
The residue remaining after the pectin. ..ized mass. Likewise, other adiuvants may be
‘ _
solubilizing treatment'and ?ltration ‘comprises
included in the ?nal product such as gas evolv
substantially pure fruit or vegetable cellulose
since it has been so treated that sugars, acids,
ing compounds or other similar substances which
facilitate the dissolution of the pectin in the
20 tannins,1waxes and the like as well as pectins are
It will thus be seen that the present method
removed. This material is naturally a constit ‘
ent of all jams, and forms a useful ingredient of
any conserve since it gives a.body or texture
to the jelly or jam. Since it is completelyr de
25. ?avored and desugared;-it introduces no compli
cations either in respect to the quantity or e?ect
of the sweetening and ?avoring agents employed
in'the actual manufacture of the jelly or jam.
In preparing this puri?ed pulp for use as a
standardizing medium, the ?lter press residue is
thoroughly dried and then reduced to any de
sired degree of ?neness. If desired, the particle
size may be reduced to< substantially colloidal
dimensions as for example by trituratirig the
35 pulp in a colloid mill and‘then drying and ?nd
ing the mass.
ultimate liquid mass.
insures improved and novel results. ' The pectin
may effectively be standardized with a feadily
available and cheap material which material, in
addition to its standardizing function, also serves 25
as a dispersive agent ‘for the pectin. The stand
ardizing material forms an advantageous com
ponent of the ?nal jelly like product and, fur
thermore, forms an excellent carrier material for
theincorporation of sugar and/or acid in the
?nal product.
Therefore, while a preferred modi?cation of
the invention has been described, it is to be under
stood that this is given merely to explain the
underlying‘ principles involved. Thus, in lieu of 35
ethyl alcohol, any. other-suitable solvent may be
employed, such as methyl or hutyl alcohol, sui
?ber is‘theh added in the phuric
ether, petroleum ether and the like. Also,
requisite quantity to
dry pectin to bring the setting strength of any thestahdardizing ?bers may consist of citrus
unit mass to the desired point. The two mate ' fruit or other fruit or vegetable ?bers or any
rials may homogeneously be incorporated in any admixture of these is considered not to be limited
to the particular steps and speci?c materials de
suitable miidngmachine. _
If desired, before mixing the puri?ed pulp, the scribed except as such limitations are clearly im
Such finely divided
substance may be slightly wetted and after ad
mixture with the “powdered pectin, may be dried
so that the pectin is uniformly distributed
through and adhered on the fibers.
I It will be apparent that such a product pre
sents an ideal materialior a household package.
58 it may be, utilized for the preparation of jams.
jellies and the like by incorporating it in a liquid
mass containing fr?it flavors and/or ‘pulp to
gether with the requisite quantities of afcid and
to It will be appreciated that the present process
may be modi?ed so as to produce-standardized
dry pectin having other characteristics. Thus.
posed by the appended claims.
I claim:
1. That method of standardizing powdered
pectin which comprises ‘adding thereto a prede
terminated amount of alcohol extracted depecti
nized puri?ed fruit ?bers together with a small
amount of a. pectin dispersing agent which agent
impregnated in the said ?bers.
2. An article of commerce comprising a pure
drypowdered pectin intimately mixed with a
predetermined quantity of desugared, depecti
nized apple ?bers which are impregnated with a 65
predetermined quantity of arr/acid.
3. An article of commerce comprising a pure
for example, there may be incorporated in the dry powdered pectin intimately mixed with a
mass a predetermined quantity of an'agent which predetermined quantitytof desugared, 'depecti
will disperse the pectin when it is added to water . nized apple ?bers, which ?bers are impregnated
with a predetermined quantity of a pectin dis
to make a jam or jelly,- althougli it is to be under
stoodthat the uniformly ‘distributed ?bers them- , persing agent and an acid.
selves insure a degree of mechanical dispersion
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