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Патент USA US2109971

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March 19 393%..
'
i F. c. HALE ET AL
2,109,973
‘ SHEPDING MECHANISM OF CIRCULAR LOOMS
Filed March 28, 1956
'2 Sheets-Shect' 1
INVENTOR5
.M
A TTORNEYS
March 1, 193.
2,109,971
F. c. HALE ET AL
SHEDDING MECHANISM OF CIRCULAR LOOMS
Filed March 28, 1956
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Patented Mar. 1, 1938
2,1,971
UNITED
2,109,971
SHEDDING IWECHANISM 0F CIRCULAR
LOOMS
Frank Corbyn Hale, Spondon, near Derby, Eng
land, and .loanny Jabouley, Villeurbanne,
France, assignors to C'elanese Corporation of
America, a corporation of Delaware
Application March 28, 1936, Serial No. 71,386
In Great Britain April 17, 1935
7 Claims. (Cl. 139-16)
This invention relates to improvements in the
shedding mechanism of circular looms, especially
shedding mechanism of the type comprising a
reed-like member having eyed dents adapted to
$1 receive some of the warp threads, and pressing
with;
Figs. 2-4 are part cross-sectional elevations
warp threads entered in and restrained by the
10 eyes. While this type of shedding mechanism
of details of Fig. 1;
Fig. 5 is a plan view of part of Fig. 1;
Fig. 6 is a design of a 2:1 twill fabric capable
of being produced in the apparatus described with
is extremely simple, and satisfactorily over
comes the principal dif?culties met with in ef
fecting a radial shedding movement of the warps
in a circular loom, its scope is extremely lim
:15 ited, the ways of entering such a reed being very
reference to Figs. 1-5;
Figs. '7-11 are illustrations of an alternative
detail of Fig. 1;
few and the weaves obtainable being only of
,
The present invention enables the scope of this
type of shedding mechanism to be increased by
employing at least two banks of reeds dis
posed at different distances from the plane in
which the shuttles are located and operating with
a suitable number of pressing means such as
shedding wheels. ‘Thus, if some warp threads
25 are entered in the eyes of one reed while other
Warp threads pass between the dents of that
reed and in turn are entered in the eyes of an
other reed spaced apart from the ?rst, the action
of a shedding wheel operating between the two
reeds will be to effect a shedding displacement
across the path of a shuttle of the warp threads
other than those which are entered in reed eyes
nearer to the plane of the shuttles than the shed
ding wheel, the warp threads entered in such
eyes being prevented by such engagement from
having any operative displacement with respect
to the path of the shuttle.
The shedding wheels may operate from inside
or outside the warp circle as required.
The eyes
40 of the reed dents of the several reeds‘ may, more
over, be arranged at different radial distances
from the loom axis so that apart from the action
of the shedding wheels a shed is formed solely
by the entering of the warps through these differ
ently disposed eyes. Two sets of warp threads
ordinarily kept apart in this way by the reeds
themselves to form a shed can be guided into a
single sheet by the action of a shedding wheel,
for example, to separate these two sets of warp
50 threads from further threads, whether controlled
by another reed or not, but passing between the
dents of the reeds controlling the two sets of
threads.
By way of example some forms of apparatus
according to the invention will now be. described
Fig. 1 is a part cross-sectional elevation of
sufficient of a circular loom employing rotating
shuttles to illustrate the shedding mechanism 5
according to the invention in connection there
means such as a rotatable shedding wheel adapt
ed to displace those warp threads which are not
entered in the eyes and separate them from the
plain or relatively plain types.
in greater detail with reference to the accom
panying diagrammatic drawings in which:-
15
Fig. 12 is a plan view of part of the loom em
ploying the apparatus shown in Figs. 7-11; and
Fig. 13 is a design of a 5-shaft satin fabric
capable of being produced in the apparatus de
scribed with reference to- Figs. 7-11.
Referring to Figs. 1-5 warp threads 20 proceed
downwardly through a circular spacing comb 2|
to the fabric 22 which is wound by suitable take
up mechanism (not shown).
Weft is laid at the fell 23 of the fabric 22 pro
gressively round the loom by a number of shuttles
21!, 25, 26 . . . each of which is positioned with
in the warp threads and propelled round the
loom by rotatable vane wheels 21, the shape and
construction of the vane wheels being such that
the vanes of the wheels pass freely through the
outer sheet of warp threads 20 into contact with
the shuttles without hindering the passage of
the warp threads which pass smoothly through
the spaces between the vanes.
The vane wheels 21 in association with each
shuttle are mounted on a shaft 28 which is sup
ported by a bracket 29 upstanding from a rotat
able ring M. The ring 30 is driven round the
loom at'the rate at which it is desired to cause
the shuttles to travel from .an electric motor 3|
by means of belt and shaft gearing 32 and a driv
ing pinion 33 which engages teeth 34 formed
round the ring 30. On rotation of the ring 30,
pinions 35 supported thereby and in driving con
nection with the vane wheel shafts 28 through
bevel gearing 36 are carried round the loom in
contact
'ner the
axis of
axes at
with a fixed gear ring 3?. In this man
vane wheels are both carried round the
the loom and driven about their own
the requisite rate to permit the passage
of the warp threads between the vanes.
The shedding of the warp threads 20 to receive
the shuttles 24, 25, 26 . . . is effected in the follow
in? manner:
55
2,109,971
2
In passing downwardly through the spacing
comb 2| to the fabric 22 the warp threads 2|] are
threaded through two banks of spaced reed dents
4|), 4|, which are supported radially with respect
to the loom axis on a spider 42 outstanding from
the central shaft 43 of the loom.
Each dent 40,
4| of each bank is formed with an eye 44 to re
ceive a thread, the eyes in the dents 40 being at a
to ensure proper entry into the middle of the shed
opening by the nose of the shuttle 25, the nose
is inclined inwardly as shown in Figs. 3 and 5.
t the next shuttle 26 the 2:1 weave sequence
is completed by separating the threads 0 from the
threads a and b. In order to effect such separa
tion a shedding wheel 50 supported above the
reed bank 40 by an arm 5| outstanding from a
greater radial distance from the central shaft 43
spider 52 which is freely rotatable about the
than the eyes in the dents 4| to form a relatively
narrow shed opening 38 capable of receiving the
central shaft 43, is disposed so as to press all 10
the threads radially outwards slightly in ad
nose of a shuttle.
In weaving a 2:1 twill fabric, 1. e. one in which
a different thread of a set of three adjacent
15 warp threads is separated from the remaining
two threads at every pick, every third thread (a)
is threaded through the eye 44 of a dent 4U;
every second thread (1)) of each three threads
is threaded through the eye 44 of a dent 4|;
while every remaining thread (c) of each three
vance of shuttle 26. In this manner the threads
0 are pushed radially along the spaces between
the dents 4|], 4|, to the left of the threads 0. and b.
The shed opening 38| thus formed is shown in 15
Fig. 4, and diagrammatically at C.
threads is passed through spaces between the
dents of both banks 40, 4|, and so on round the
loom.
It will thus be seen that while the threads at
25 and b are ?xed with respect to radial movement
at the eyes 44, the threads 0 are capable of mov
ing radially in the spaces between the dents
40, 4|.
-
-
On commencement of weaving, all the threads
are pressed radially inwards progressively round
the loom by a freely rotatable shedding wheel
45 which is mounted above the level of the bank
48 and slightly in advance of shuttle 24, on a
bracket 46 upstanding from a ring 41, the ring
35 41 being supported by pillars 48 on the rotatable
The shed opening 38| is now slightly to the
left of the normal line of the threads a, and in
order to ensure proper entry into the middle of
the shed opening by the nose of shuttle 26 the 20
nose is inclined outwardly as shown in Figs. 4
and 5.
The spider 52 carrying the shedding wheels
50 is driven round the loom at the same rate
as the shedding wheels 45, 42 (i. e. at the speed
of the shuttles) by a wheel 54 which is supported
on an arm 55 outstanding from the spider 52.
The wheel 54 is disposed at the same level as
the wheel 45 and in contact with such wheel
through the warp threads, the pushing of the 30
wheel 54 by the wheel 45 effecting the necessary
drive to the spider.
At the 4th, 5th and 6th shuttles the sequence
of shedding operations is repeated, the corre~
sponding threads being shedded in the same 35
manner as the threads for shuttles 24, 25 and
ring 30.
The eyes 44, however, prevent radial shedding
26, respectively.
movement of the threads a and b with the re
sult that threads 0 only are effectively deflected
a 2:1 twill fabric it is necessary to use a num
40 and are pressed along the spaces between the
dents 40, 4| substantially into line with threads
b leaving shed opening 38 (see A) clear for the
entry of the nose of shuttle 24 (indicated by a
thick vertical line in Fig. 2). The relatively
45 narrow shed opening 38 is gradually widened to
the requisite degree by the pressure on the
threads of the shuttle body itself.
At the next shuttle 25 a similar procedure is
followed, it being necessary at this shuttle how
ever to separate the threads I) from the threads
a and c.
To effect such separation a shedding
wheel 49 is mounted on the ring 41 slightly in
advance of the shuttle 25 and at such a height
from the ring as to protrude inwardly between
55 the reed banks 4|}, 4|. The threads are again
pressed inwardly, the threads 0 and a being
moved radially to a point beyond the threads b
which are prevented from moving by their en
gagement in the eyes 44 of the lower reed bank
4|. In this manner a shed opening |38 (see B)
is formed for the reception of the nose of shut
tle 25, the shed opening being duly widened
by the shuttle itself.
It will be observed that while the threads at
65 are engaged by the eyes 44 of the upper bank of
reeds 40, the restraint due to such engagement
is ineffective to prevent shedding of the threads
when the threads are pressed at a point below
such bank, (see Fig. .3), the threads a‘ passing
70 radially inwards along the spaces between the
dents of the lower reed bank 4|.
Since the threads a and c are pressed radially
inwards beyond the threads b to form a shed,
the shed opening I38 is slightly to the right of
75 the normal\ line of the threads I), and in. order
It will be understood that in the weaving of
ber of shuttles which is a multiple of three. Simi .40
larly the number of warp threads in the loom
should be a multiple of three in order to obtain
a properly woven 2:1 fabric.
It is possible to weave a large range of fabrics
in the same general manner as that described
above, it being necessary, however, to have the
same number of shuttles (or multiple of such
number) as the different shedding movements
in a complete shedding sequence, and a number
of warp threads which is a multiple of the num~ .
ber of the shuttles used.
Figs. 7-12 illustrate the weaving of a 4:1 or
“?ve-shaft” satin fabric.
Referring to Fig. '7 it will be seen that each
thread a, b, c, d, e, of a set of ?ve warp threads ,
is threaded through an eye 44 formed in a dent
of one of a‘series of five reed banks 58, the
threads a passing through the eyes 44 of the
uppermost reed bank, the threads b passing
through the eyes 44 of the second reed bank, 60
the threads 0 passing through the eyes 44 of the
third reed bank, and so on. The ?ve reed banks
are held in the loom in the same manner as the
two banks 40, 4| in Fig. 1.
The eyes 44 of each reed bank are spaced at 65
progressively increasing distances from the loom
axis, commencing from the lowermost bank of
all, in such a manner that the various threads
are held in open formation in partially shedded
relation, as shown in Fig. 7.
The outermost of the thread-openings (65),
(see D) is entered by the nose of the ?rst (60)
of a series of ?ve shuttles 60, 6|, B2, 63, 64, the
shuttle itself pressing open the shed to the requi
site width. The shed opening 65, however, is
2,109,971
formed to the left of the normal line of the warp
threads, and in order to ensure that proper entry
of the nose of the shuttle 60 into the middle of
the opening takes place the nose of the shuttle is
inclined outwardly to such an extent that it enters
the opening squarely and pushes threads at to
the outside of the shuttle, and the remaining
threads to the inside of the shuttle, (see Figs. 7
and 12).
The next four shedding movements (to com
plete the ?ve-shaft sequence) of the warp threads
are'effected by a series of four shedding wheels
66, 69, ‘H, 13. Each shedding wheel is mounted on
the ring 4'! on the outside of the warp circle in
the manner described with reference to the
shedding wheels 45, 49, of Figs. 1-4, the disposi
tion of the wheels being such that the wheel 66
protrudes between the ?rst and second reed
banks, wheel 69 protrudes between the second
and third reed banks, wheel ‘H protrudes between
the third and fourth reed banks, and wheel ‘I3
protrudes between the fourth and ?fth reed
banks. The shedding wheels protrude inwardly
progressively increasing distances commencing
from the ?rst wheel 66, the edge of each wheel
protruding beyond a vertical line passing through
the eyes 44 in the reed bank immediately below
the wheel, for a reason which will be apparent
from the following description.
At the next shuttle (6!) the threads b are
separated from the remaining threads by the
shedding wheel 66, the threads b, being con
trolled as to radial movement by the eyes 44 of the
second reed bank, remaining in their normal line
while the threads at, c are pressed radially in
wards to form a shed opening 61 for the recep
tion of the shuttle nose.
The shed opening 61, like the shed opening 65,
is to the left of the normal line of the warp
threads, though at a lesser radial distance from
the loom axis than the shed opening 65. The
nose of shuttle 6! is therefore inclined outwardly
slightly (see Fig. 12) in order to enter the middle
of the shed opening.
At shuttle 62 the threads 0‘ are separated from
the threads 11, b, d, e, by the shedding wheel 69,
the wheel pushing the threads (1, b, d inwardly
beyond the threads 0 which are restrained by
the eyes 44 of the third reed bank. The shed
opening 10 thus formed for the reception of the
nose of shuttle 62 is substantially evenly dis
posed with respect to the normal line of the warp
threads, and consequently the nose of shuttle $2
is not inclined ‘but coincides with the normal line
of the warp threads, as shown clearly in Figs. 9
and 12.
At shuttle 63 the threads d are separated from
the threads a, b, o, e, by the shedding wheel ‘H,
the Wheel pressing threads a, b, c inwardly be
60 yond the threads d which are restrained by the
eyes M of the fourth reed bank. The shed open
ing 12 thus formed for the reception of the shut
tle 63 is slightly to the right of the normal line
of the warp threads, and in this case the nose
of the shuttle is inclined in the same direction
(see Figs. 10 and 12) for the reason explained
with reference to the shuttles 60, El.
At the last shuttle (64) of the series the threads
e are separated from the remaining threads by
the shedding wheel 13, the wheel pressing threads
at, b, c‘, d inwardly beyond the threads e' which
are restrained by the eyes 44 of the ?fth reed
bank. The shed opening it thus formed is more
to the right of the normal line of the warp
threads and nearer to the loom axis than the
3
shed opening 72, and the nose of shuttle 64 is
inclined inwardly more than that of shuttle 63
to ensure proper entry into the opening, (see
Figs‘. 11 and 12) .
-
At the 6th, 7th, 8th, 9th and 10th shuttles the
sequence of operations is repeated, the threads 5
being shedded as for shuttles 6!], 6!, 62, 63 and 64,
respectively.
It is to be oberved in connection with Figs.
2-4 and 7-11 that the reed banks 40, Ill and 58 10
are spaced at a su?icient distance apart to obvi
ate the necessity of extreme bending of the
warp threads. By suitably spacing the ?ve reed
banks the tension in the warp threads can be
maintained suf?ciently high for correct weaving 15
to be effected without subjecting any of the
threads to excessive tension during the shedding
movements.
It will be appreciated from the foregoing de
scription with reference to Figs. 7-12 that since
at any particular shuttle the same shedding
movement is effected repeatedly, the number of
warp threads in the loom must be divisible by ?ve.
The number of shuttles, therefore, must also be
divisible by ?ve. Thus 10 shuttles may be em 25
ployed round the loom periphery, or a greater
number of shuttles (being a multiple of ?ve) may
be employed with a correspondingly greater out
put of fabric.
While the invention has been described with 30
reference to a loom employing rotating shuttles,
it will be understood that it could be applied with
equal facility to a loom‘ having stationary shut
tles and rotating warps, or a loom in which both
the shuttles and the warps rotate.
35
The arrangements of 2:1 and 4:1 shedding
mechanism described above are particularly ad
vantageous in looms in which the shuttles are
positioned by vane wheels, since at any one shuttle
only a third of the total number of warp threads
in 2:1 weaving, and a ?fth of the total number
of warp threads in 4:1 weaving, lie outside the
shuttle, and, consequently, the fewest possible
number of the warps is exposed to possible dam
age by the vane wheels.
The shedding wheels should have smoothly
rounded edges, and should preferably be of sub
stantial depth and fabric-covered as described in
U. S. Patent No. 2,008,913.
Having described our invention what we desire 50
to secure by Letters Patent is:
1. In a circular loom of the type employing a
plurality of shuttles, at least two‘ banks of reeds
comprising eyed dents to receive selected warp
threads and disposed at different distances from 55
the plane in which the shuttles are located, and
shedding means adapted to move warp threads
radially from their normal line and each asso
ciated with a shuttle and slightly in advance
thereof, each shedding means being so arranged 60
that at least one of the banks of reeds is between
it and the plane of the shuttles, the radial move
ment of warp threads other than those entered
in reed eyes nearer to the plane of the shuttles
than the shedding means causing said movement 65
forming a shed for the reception of the associated
shuttle.
2. In a circular loom of the type employing
a plurality of shuttles, at least two banks of
reeds comprising eyed dents to receive selected
warp threads and disposed at diiferent distances 70
from the plane in which the shuttles are located,
the eyes of each bank being at different radial
distances from the loom axis so that the selected
warp threads are held in separated relation to
2,109,971
4
form a shed, and shedding means adapted to
move warp threads radially from their normal
line and each associated with a shuttle and slightly
in advance thereof, each shedding means being
so arranged that at least one of the banks of reeds
is between it and the plane of the shuttles, the
radial movement of warp threads other than
those entered in reed eyes nearer to the plane
of the shuttles than the shedding means causing
said movement forming a di?erent shed for the
reception of the particular shuttle in association
with such shedding means.
3. In a circular loom of the type employing a
plurality of shuttles, means including a ring be
tween which and the warp threads there is rela
tive circular motion about the loom axis for po—
sitioning the shuttles within the warp threads,
at least two banks of reeds comprising eyed dents
to receive selected warp threads and disposed at
different distances from the plane in which the
shuttles are located, shedding wheels in associa
tion with the ring and adapted to move warp
threads radially from their normal line progres
sively round the loom, each of said shedding
wheels being disposed slightly in advance of a
shuttle and so arranged that at least one of the
banks of reeds is between it and the plane of the
shuttles, the radial movement of warp threads
other than those entered in reed eyes nearer to
30 the plane of the shuttles than the shedding wheel
causing said movement forming a continuous
shed in advance of the shuttle in association with
such shedding wheel.
4. In a circular loom of the type employing a
plurality of shuttles, a plurality of banks of reeds
comprising eyed dents to receive selected warp
threads and disposed at different distances from
the plane in which the shuttles are located, the
eyes of each bank being at a radial distance from
the loom axis which progressively increases from
the bank nearest to the plane of the shuttles to
the bank furthest from such plane so that the
selected warp threads are held in separated re
lation to form a shed, and shedding wheels dis
posed outside the warp circle and adapted to move
46 warp threads radially inwards from their normal
40
line and each associated with a shuttle and
slightly in advance thereof, each shedding wheel
being so arranged as to protrude inwardly be
tween adjacent reed banks beyond the eyes of
the adjacent reed bank nearest the plane of the
shuttles, the radial movement of warp threads
other than those entered in reed eyes nearer to
the plane of the shuttles than the shedding wheel
causing said movement forming a di?erent shed
for the reception of the shuttle in association
10
with such shedding wheel.
5. Apparatus according to claim 1, wherein
the noses of predetermined shuttles are formed
so as to lie at a radial distance from the loom
axis di?erent from that of the normal line of
the warp threads in order that such shuttles can
enter the middle of sheds formed by the de?ec
tion of some of the warp threads from their nor
mal line.
6. Method of weaving tubular fabric, which
comprises pressing from their normal line warp 20
threads arranged in the form of a cylinder, at
di?erent positions round the periphery of the
cylinder, diiferent pressing positions being at dif
ferent distances from the fell of the fabric, hold
ing selected warp threads at points between the
different pressing positions and the fell of the
fabric so as to separate the selected threads from
the remaining threads and thereby to form sheds,
and laying weft in the sheds so formed.
7. Method of weaving tubular fabric, which
comprises selecting warp threads from a sheet of
warp threads arranged in the form of a cylin
der, holding the selected threads at points dif
ferently spaced from the fell of the fabric and
at different radial distances from the axis of the ‘
cylinder, at different positions round the periph
ery of the cylinder, so as to divide the warp
threads into sheds, laying weft in said sheds,
pressing the warp threads radially at positions
between the holding points so as to de?ect from 40
their normal line threads not held between the
pressing positions and the fell of the fabric and
thereby to form further sheds, and laying weft
in said further sheds.
45
FRANK CORBYN HALE.
J OANNY JABOULEY.
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