Патент USA US2109971код для вставки
March 19 393%.. ' i F. c. HALE ET AL 2,109,973 ‘ SHEPDING MECHANISM OF CIRCULAR LOOMS Filed March 28, 1956 '2 Sheets-Shect' 1 INVENTOR5 .M A TTORNEYS March 1, 193. 2,109,971 F. c. HALE ET AL SHEDDING MECHANISM OF CIRCULAR LOOMS Filed March 28, 1956 F/G.9 F/ m ,. G H 44 . fe l mmpm/u4/ 2 he 8 2 Patented Mar. 1, 1938 2,1,971 UNITED 2,109,971 SHEDDING IWECHANISM 0F CIRCULAR LOOMS Frank Corbyn Hale, Spondon, near Derby, Eng land, and .loanny Jabouley, Villeurbanne, France, assignors to C'elanese Corporation of America, a corporation of Delaware Application March 28, 1936, Serial No. 71,386 In Great Britain April 17, 1935 7 Claims. (Cl. 139-16) This invention relates to improvements in the shedding mechanism of circular looms, especially shedding mechanism of the type comprising a reed-like member having eyed dents adapted to $1 receive some of the warp threads, and pressing with; Figs. 2-4 are part cross-sectional elevations warp threads entered in and restrained by the 10 eyes. While this type of shedding mechanism of details of Fig. 1; Fig. 5 is a plan view of part of Fig. 1; Fig. 6 is a design of a 2:1 twill fabric capable of being produced in the apparatus described with is extremely simple, and satisfactorily over comes the principal dif?culties met with in ef fecting a radial shedding movement of the warps in a circular loom, its scope is extremely lim :15 ited, the ways of entering such a reed being very reference to Figs. 1-5; Figs. '7-11 are illustrations of an alternative detail of Fig. 1; few and the weaves obtainable being only of , The present invention enables the scope of this type of shedding mechanism to be increased by employing at least two banks of reeds dis posed at different distances from the plane in which the shuttles are located and operating with a suitable number of pressing means such as shedding wheels. ‘Thus, if some warp threads 25 are entered in the eyes of one reed while other Warp threads pass between the dents of that reed and in turn are entered in the eyes of an other reed spaced apart from the ?rst, the action of a shedding wheel operating between the two reeds will be to effect a shedding displacement across the path of a shuttle of the warp threads other than those which are entered in reed eyes nearer to the plane of the shuttles than the shed ding wheel, the warp threads entered in such eyes being prevented by such engagement from having any operative displacement with respect to the path of the shuttle. The shedding wheels may operate from inside or outside the warp circle as required. The eyes 40 of the reed dents of the several reeds‘ may, more over, be arranged at different radial distances from the loom axis so that apart from the action of the shedding wheels a shed is formed solely by the entering of the warps through these differ ently disposed eyes. Two sets of warp threads ordinarily kept apart in this way by the reeds themselves to form a shed can be guided into a single sheet by the action of a shedding wheel, for example, to separate these two sets of warp 50 threads from further threads, whether controlled by another reed or not, but passing between the dents of the reeds controlling the two sets of threads. By way of example some forms of apparatus according to the invention will now be. described Fig. 1 is a part cross-sectional elevation of sufficient of a circular loom employing rotating shuttles to illustrate the shedding mechanism 5 according to the invention in connection there means such as a rotatable shedding wheel adapt ed to displace those warp threads which are not entered in the eyes and separate them from the plain or relatively plain types. in greater detail with reference to the accom panying diagrammatic drawings in which:- 15 Fig. 12 is a plan view of part of the loom em ploying the apparatus shown in Figs. 7-11; and Fig. 13 is a design of a 5-shaft satin fabric capable of being produced in the apparatus de scribed with reference to- Figs. 7-11. Referring to Figs. 1-5 warp threads 20 proceed downwardly through a circular spacing comb 2| to the fabric 22 which is wound by suitable take up mechanism (not shown). Weft is laid at the fell 23 of the fabric 22 pro gressively round the loom by a number of shuttles 21!, 25, 26 . . . each of which is positioned with in the warp threads and propelled round the loom by rotatable vane wheels 21, the shape and construction of the vane wheels being such that the vanes of the wheels pass freely through the outer sheet of warp threads 20 into contact with the shuttles without hindering the passage of the warp threads which pass smoothly through the spaces between the vanes. The vane wheels 21 in association with each shuttle are mounted on a shaft 28 which is sup ported by a bracket 29 upstanding from a rotat able ring M. The ring 30 is driven round the loom at'the rate at which it is desired to cause the shuttles to travel from .an electric motor 3| by means of belt and shaft gearing 32 and a driv ing pinion 33 which engages teeth 34 formed round the ring 30. On rotation of the ring 30, pinions 35 supported thereby and in driving con nection with the vane wheel shafts 28 through bevel gearing 36 are carried round the loom in contact 'ner the axis of axes at with a fixed gear ring 3?. In this man vane wheels are both carried round the the loom and driven about their own the requisite rate to permit the passage of the warp threads between the vanes. The shedding of the warp threads 20 to receive the shuttles 24, 25, 26 . . . is effected in the follow in? manner: 55 2,109,971 2 In passing downwardly through the spacing comb 2| to the fabric 22 the warp threads 2|] are threaded through two banks of spaced reed dents 4|), 4|, which are supported radially with respect to the loom axis on a spider 42 outstanding from the central shaft 43 of the loom. Each dent 40, 4| of each bank is formed with an eye 44 to re ceive a thread, the eyes in the dents 40 being at a to ensure proper entry into the middle of the shed opening by the nose of the shuttle 25, the nose is inclined inwardly as shown in Figs. 3 and 5. t the next shuttle 26 the 2:1 weave sequence is completed by separating the threads 0 from the threads a and b. In order to effect such separa tion a shedding wheel 50 supported above the reed bank 40 by an arm 5| outstanding from a greater radial distance from the central shaft 43 spider 52 which is freely rotatable about the than the eyes in the dents 4| to form a relatively narrow shed opening 38 capable of receiving the central shaft 43, is disposed so as to press all 10 the threads radially outwards slightly in ad nose of a shuttle. In weaving a 2:1 twill fabric, 1. e. one in which a different thread of a set of three adjacent 15 warp threads is separated from the remaining two threads at every pick, every third thread (a) is threaded through the eye 44 of a dent 4U; every second thread (1)) of each three threads is threaded through the eye 44 of a dent 4|; while every remaining thread (c) of each three vance of shuttle 26. In this manner the threads 0 are pushed radially along the spaces between the dents 4|], 4|, to the left of the threads 0. and b. The shed opening 38| thus formed is shown in 15 Fig. 4, and diagrammatically at C. threads is passed through spaces between the dents of both banks 40, 4|, and so on round the loom. It will thus be seen that while the threads at 25 and b are ?xed with respect to radial movement at the eyes 44, the threads 0 are capable of mov ing radially in the spaces between the dents 40, 4|. - - On commencement of weaving, all the threads are pressed radially inwards progressively round the loom by a freely rotatable shedding wheel 45 which is mounted above the level of the bank 48 and slightly in advance of shuttle 24, on a bracket 46 upstanding from a ring 41, the ring 35 41 being supported by pillars 48 on the rotatable The shed opening 38| is now slightly to the left of the normal line of the threads a, and in order to ensure proper entry into the middle of the shed opening by the nose of shuttle 26 the 20 nose is inclined outwardly as shown in Figs. 4 and 5. The spider 52 carrying the shedding wheels 50 is driven round the loom at the same rate as the shedding wheels 45, 42 (i. e. at the speed of the shuttles) by a wheel 54 which is supported on an arm 55 outstanding from the spider 52. The wheel 54 is disposed at the same level as the wheel 45 and in contact with such wheel through the warp threads, the pushing of the 30 wheel 54 by the wheel 45 effecting the necessary drive to the spider. At the 4th, 5th and 6th shuttles the sequence of shedding operations is repeated, the corre~ sponding threads being shedded in the same 35 manner as the threads for shuttles 24, 25 and ring 30. The eyes 44, however, prevent radial shedding 26, respectively. movement of the threads a and b with the re sult that threads 0 only are effectively deflected a 2:1 twill fabric it is necessary to use a num 40 and are pressed along the spaces between the dents 40, 4| substantially into line with threads b leaving shed opening 38 (see A) clear for the entry of the nose of shuttle 24 (indicated by a thick vertical line in Fig. 2). The relatively 45 narrow shed opening 38 is gradually widened to the requisite degree by the pressure on the threads of the shuttle body itself. At the next shuttle 25 a similar procedure is followed, it being necessary at this shuttle how ever to separate the threads I) from the threads a and c. To effect such separation a shedding wheel 49 is mounted on the ring 41 slightly in advance of the shuttle 25 and at such a height from the ring as to protrude inwardly between 55 the reed banks 4|}, 4|. The threads are again pressed inwardly, the threads 0 and a being moved radially to a point beyond the threads b which are prevented from moving by their en gagement in the eyes 44 of the lower reed bank 4|. In this manner a shed opening |38 (see B) is formed for the reception of the nose of shut tle 25, the shed opening being duly widened by the shuttle itself. It will be observed that while the threads at 65 are engaged by the eyes 44 of the upper bank of reeds 40, the restraint due to such engagement is ineffective to prevent shedding of the threads when the threads are pressed at a point below such bank, (see Fig. .3), the threads a‘ passing 70 radially inwards along the spaces between the dents of the lower reed bank 4|. Since the threads a and c are pressed radially inwards beyond the threads b to form a shed, the shed opening I38 is slightly to the right of 75 the normal\ line of the threads I), and in. order It will be understood that in the weaving of ber of shuttles which is a multiple of three. Simi .40 larly the number of warp threads in the loom should be a multiple of three in order to obtain a properly woven 2:1 fabric. It is possible to weave a large range of fabrics in the same general manner as that described above, it being necessary, however, to have the same number of shuttles (or multiple of such number) as the different shedding movements in a complete shedding sequence, and a number of warp threads which is a multiple of the num~ . ber of the shuttles used. Figs. 7-12 illustrate the weaving of a 4:1 or “?ve-shaft” satin fabric. Referring to Fig. '7 it will be seen that each thread a, b, c, d, e, of a set of ?ve warp threads , is threaded through an eye 44 formed in a dent of one of a‘series of five reed banks 58, the threads a passing through the eyes 44 of the uppermost reed bank, the threads b passing through the eyes 44 of the second reed bank, 60 the threads 0 passing through the eyes 44 of the third reed bank, and so on. The ?ve reed banks are held in the loom in the same manner as the two banks 40, 4| in Fig. 1. The eyes 44 of each reed bank are spaced at 65 progressively increasing distances from the loom axis, commencing from the lowermost bank of all, in such a manner that the various threads are held in open formation in partially shedded relation, as shown in Fig. 7. The outermost of the thread-openings (65), (see D) is entered by the nose of the ?rst (60) of a series of ?ve shuttles 60, 6|, B2, 63, 64, the shuttle itself pressing open the shed to the requi site width. The shed opening 65, however, is 2,109,971 formed to the left of the normal line of the warp threads, and in order to ensure that proper entry of the nose of the shuttle 60 into the middle of the opening takes place the nose of the shuttle is inclined outwardly to such an extent that it enters the opening squarely and pushes threads at to the outside of the shuttle, and the remaining threads to the inside of the shuttle, (see Figs. 7 and 12). The next four shedding movements (to com plete the ?ve-shaft sequence) of the warp threads are'effected by a series of four shedding wheels 66, 69, ‘H, 13. Each shedding wheel is mounted on the ring 4'! on the outside of the warp circle in the manner described with reference to the shedding wheels 45, 49, of Figs. 1-4, the disposi tion of the wheels being such that the wheel 66 protrudes between the ?rst and second reed banks, wheel 69 protrudes between the second and third reed banks, wheel ‘H protrudes between the third and fourth reed banks, and wheel ‘I3 protrudes between the fourth and ?fth reed banks. The shedding wheels protrude inwardly progressively increasing distances commencing from the ?rst wheel 66, the edge of each wheel protruding beyond a vertical line passing through the eyes 44 in the reed bank immediately below the wheel, for a reason which will be apparent from the following description. At the next shuttle (6!) the threads b are separated from the remaining threads by the shedding wheel 66, the threads b, being con trolled as to radial movement by the eyes 44 of the second reed bank, remaining in their normal line while the threads at, c are pressed radially in wards to form a shed opening 61 for the recep tion of the shuttle nose. The shed opening 61, like the shed opening 65, is to the left of the normal line of the warp threads, though at a lesser radial distance from the loom axis than the shed opening 65. The nose of shuttle 6! is therefore inclined outwardly slightly (see Fig. 12) in order to enter the middle of the shed opening. At shuttle 62 the threads 0‘ are separated from the threads 11, b, d, e, by the shedding wheel 69, the wheel pushing the threads (1, b, d inwardly beyond the threads 0 which are restrained by the eyes 44 of the third reed bank. The shed opening 10 thus formed for the reception of the nose of shuttle 62 is substantially evenly dis posed with respect to the normal line of the warp threads, and consequently the nose of shuttle $2 is not inclined ‘but coincides with the normal line of the warp threads, as shown clearly in Figs. 9 and 12. At shuttle 63 the threads d are separated from the threads a, b, o, e, by the shedding wheel ‘H, the Wheel pressing threads a, b, c inwardly be 60 yond the threads d which are restrained by the eyes M of the fourth reed bank. The shed open ing 12 thus formed for the reception of the shut tle 63 is slightly to the right of the normal line of the warp threads, and in this case the nose of the shuttle is inclined in the same direction (see Figs. 10 and 12) for the reason explained with reference to the shuttles 60, El. At the last shuttle (64) of the series the threads e are separated from the remaining threads by the shedding wheel 13, the wheel pressing threads at, b, c‘, d inwardly beyond the threads e' which are restrained by the eyes 44 of the ?fth reed bank. The shed opening it thus formed is more to the right of the normal line of the warp threads and nearer to the loom axis than the 3 shed opening 72, and the nose of shuttle 64 is inclined inwardly more than that of shuttle 63 to ensure proper entry into the opening, (see Figs‘. 11 and 12) . - At the 6th, 7th, 8th, 9th and 10th shuttles the sequence of operations is repeated, the threads 5 being shedded as for shuttles 6!], 6!, 62, 63 and 64, respectively. It is to be oberved in connection with Figs. 2-4 and 7-11 that the reed banks 40, Ill and 58 10 are spaced at a su?icient distance apart to obvi ate the necessity of extreme bending of the warp threads. By suitably spacing the ?ve reed banks the tension in the warp threads can be maintained suf?ciently high for correct weaving 15 to be effected without subjecting any of the threads to excessive tension during the shedding movements. It will be appreciated from the foregoing de scription with reference to Figs. 7-12 that since at any particular shuttle the same shedding movement is effected repeatedly, the number of warp threads in the loom must be divisible by ?ve. The number of shuttles, therefore, must also be divisible by ?ve. Thus 10 shuttles may be em 25 ployed round the loom periphery, or a greater number of shuttles (being a multiple of ?ve) may be employed with a correspondingly greater out put of fabric. While the invention has been described with 30 reference to a loom employing rotating shuttles, it will be understood that it could be applied with equal facility to a loom‘ having stationary shut tles and rotating warps, or a loom in which both the shuttles and the warps rotate. 35 The arrangements of 2:1 and 4:1 shedding mechanism described above are particularly ad vantageous in looms in which the shuttles are positioned by vane wheels, since at any one shuttle only a third of the total number of warp threads in 2:1 weaving, and a ?fth of the total number of warp threads in 4:1 weaving, lie outside the shuttle, and, consequently, the fewest possible number of the warps is exposed to possible dam age by the vane wheels. The shedding wheels should have smoothly rounded edges, and should preferably be of sub stantial depth and fabric-covered as described in U. S. Patent No. 2,008,913. Having described our invention what we desire 50 to secure by Letters Patent is: 1. In a circular loom of the type employing a plurality of shuttles, at least two‘ banks of reeds comprising eyed dents to receive selected warp threads and disposed at different distances from 55 the plane in which the shuttles are located, and shedding means adapted to move warp threads radially from their normal line and each asso ciated with a shuttle and slightly in advance thereof, each shedding means being so arranged 60 that at least one of the banks of reeds is between it and the plane of the shuttles, the radial move ment of warp threads other than those entered in reed eyes nearer to the plane of the shuttles than the shedding means causing said movement 65 forming a shed for the reception of the associated shuttle. 2. In a circular loom of the type employing a plurality of shuttles, at least two banks of reeds comprising eyed dents to receive selected warp threads and disposed at diiferent distances 70 from the plane in which the shuttles are located, the eyes of each bank being at different radial distances from the loom axis so that the selected warp threads are held in separated relation to 2,109,971 4 form a shed, and shedding means adapted to move warp threads radially from their normal line and each associated with a shuttle and slightly in advance thereof, each shedding means being so arranged that at least one of the banks of reeds is between it and the plane of the shuttles, the radial movement of warp threads other than those entered in reed eyes nearer to the plane of the shuttles than the shedding means causing said movement forming a di?erent shed for the reception of the particular shuttle in association with such shedding means. 3. In a circular loom of the type employing a plurality of shuttles, means including a ring be tween which and the warp threads there is rela tive circular motion about the loom axis for po— sitioning the shuttles within the warp threads, at least two banks of reeds comprising eyed dents to receive selected warp threads and disposed at different distances from the plane in which the shuttles are located, shedding wheels in associa tion with the ring and adapted to move warp threads radially from their normal line progres sively round the loom, each of said shedding wheels being disposed slightly in advance of a shuttle and so arranged that at least one of the banks of reeds is between it and the plane of the shuttles, the radial movement of warp threads other than those entered in reed eyes nearer to 30 the plane of the shuttles than the shedding wheel causing said movement forming a continuous shed in advance of the shuttle in association with such shedding wheel. 4. In a circular loom of the type employing a plurality of shuttles, a plurality of banks of reeds comprising eyed dents to receive selected warp threads and disposed at different distances from the plane in which the shuttles are located, the eyes of each bank being at a radial distance from the loom axis which progressively increases from the bank nearest to the plane of the shuttles to the bank furthest from such plane so that the selected warp threads are held in separated re lation to form a shed, and shedding wheels dis posed outside the warp circle and adapted to move 46 warp threads radially inwards from their normal 40 line and each associated with a shuttle and slightly in advance thereof, each shedding wheel being so arranged as to protrude inwardly be tween adjacent reed banks beyond the eyes of the adjacent reed bank nearest the plane of the shuttles, the radial movement of warp threads other than those entered in reed eyes nearer to the plane of the shuttles than the shedding wheel causing said movement forming a di?erent shed for the reception of the shuttle in association 10 with such shedding wheel. 5. Apparatus according to claim 1, wherein the noses of predetermined shuttles are formed so as to lie at a radial distance from the loom axis di?erent from that of the normal line of the warp threads in order that such shuttles can enter the middle of sheds formed by the de?ec tion of some of the warp threads from their nor mal line. 6. Method of weaving tubular fabric, which comprises pressing from their normal line warp 20 threads arranged in the form of a cylinder, at di?erent positions round the periphery of the cylinder, diiferent pressing positions being at dif ferent distances from the fell of the fabric, hold ing selected warp threads at points between the different pressing positions and the fell of the fabric so as to separate the selected threads from the remaining threads and thereby to form sheds, and laying weft in the sheds so formed. 7. Method of weaving tubular fabric, which comprises selecting warp threads from a sheet of warp threads arranged in the form of a cylin der, holding the selected threads at points dif ferently spaced from the fell of the fabric and at different radial distances from the axis of the ‘ cylinder, at different positions round the periph ery of the cylinder, so as to divide the warp threads into sheds, laying weft in said sheds, pressing the warp threads radially at positions between the holding points so as to de?ect from 40 their normal line threads not held between the pressing positions and the fell of the fabric and thereby to form further sheds, and laying weft in said further sheds. 45 FRANK CORBYN HALE. J OANNY JABOULEY.