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Патент USA US2110080

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1, 1938.
Original Filed Sept. 3, 1935
2 Sheets-Sheet l
1, 19378.
Original Fil'ed Sept. 3, 1935
.55 5.? Z'
2 Sheets-Sheet 2
‘70 5/40"£1 9 i7
{J2 a3
. 34
- ml ‘ii/mmaw/dzly/w
Patented Mar. 1, 1938
Edwin D. Coddington, Douglaston, N. TL, assignor
to Reynolds Corporation, New York, N. Y., a
corporation of Delaware
Original application September 3, 1935, Serial No.
39,022. Divided and this application February
24, 1936, Serial No. 65,481
8 Claims. (Cl. 259-72)
This invention relates to apparatus for the
manufacture of composite structural members
designed to take the place of lumber, and is a
division of my copending application Serial No.
39,022, ?led September 3, 1935.
In the manufacture of such structural mem
bers it is common practice to stuff the imperio
rate sheet metal tubes or casings with a plastic
cementitious ?lling material. This cementitious
10 ?lling material, in order to render it sufficiently
?uent for penetration into all the corners of the
casings (which may assume various cross-sec
tional shapes) is combined with an excess of
water over that required for hardening. Not
15 withstanding this surplus of water, hardening of
the material commences almost immediately aft
er the introduction of water and it has been
found by experience very difficult to avoid adding
more Water to the mixture and remixing in order
20 to- maintain proper plasticity during the ?lling
‘step. This additional water is unnecessary to
promote the hardening action and remixing dis
turbs the particles of material which have at
:tained. intermediate stages of hardness, and by
' reason of this excess of moisture the resulting
product takes a long time to dry. Consequently
the product is inferior to that obtained when the
volume of water combined with the components
of the mixture is such as to avoid over-wetting
of the material and when the water is intro
duced in such a way as to avoid interference with
the, hardening action after its commencement.
The structural units after ?lling are laid aside
bers which overcomes the above objections. Ac
cording to this process the casing is provided
with a multiplicity of perforations, the ?lling
material solidly packed into the casing while in a
dry state, and moisture than introduced through
the perforations into the ?ller so as to supply
the necessary water of crystallization to the same
and render it cohesive. The time interval during
which the casing is subjected to the moistening
operation is carefully regulated so as to avoid
over-wetting of the material. The member is laid
aside for a short time to complete the curing and
hardening of the ?ller, during which interval ex
cess moisture evaporates from the con?ned ma
terial through the perforations in the casing.
As the ?lling material, I prefer to employ a
substantially dry mixture of gypsum, Portland .30
cement and sawdust. This material when wetted ‘
becomes plastic and, upon crystallization of the
gypsum and cement components and drying out
for a time sufficient to allow the ?ller to cure and
of the sawdust, sets into a comparatively hard
the hardening action to continue until the filler
mass composing the core of the member. Such a
becomes transformed into a hard core. This cur
mixture is preferable to one containing silica or
other components of a gritty nature in that it
is more adhesive, by virtue of which fact it clings
more tenaciously to nails which may be driven
ing action proceeds slowly and, depending upon
the nature of the ?ller, may extend over several
weeks or even months.
4. (l
ing, the ?ller may not securely retain nails that
are driven into it as, for example, in the attach
ment of lathing to the building framework.
While it has been heretofore proposed to utilize
as an ingredient of the, ?lling material hydraulic 6::
cement which has the capacity to set in the pres
ence of water, this expedient does not wholly
avoid the difficulty because of the presence of
other components of the ?ller, such as sawdust,
which are unfavorably affected by a surplus of
It is an object of my invention to provide a
process for forming composite structural mem
thereinto and consequently offers appreciable 40
‘Since the excess moisture contained in the ?ller
can evaporate only through the open ends of the
tube, the curing progresses from the ends in
wardly of the tube toward its middle. And, be
dition, the completed structural members may
be sawed to length in substantially the same
cause it requires a longer time for the moisture
manner as lumber.
adjacent the middle of the tube to effect its escape
than that nearer its ends, it sometimes happens
that'ra structural member is prematurely incor
porated ina building before the drying has pro
ceeded to completion and before the member pos
59 sesses sufficient strength to carry the load it is
called upon to sustain. Thus, a structural mem
ber that may test satisfactorily at points adjacent
its ends may conceivably fail at its middle when
placed under compression due to lack of homo
55 geneity of the ?ller. Or, owing to incomplete dry
frictional resistance to their withdrawal. In ad
The perforations formed in the casing are com
paratively small in size and extend throughout
the length of the member. Preferably they are
punched so as to present burrs upon the innerv
surface of the casing which become embedded in
the ?ller and upon hardening of the latter serve
to anchor the casing to the core. These perfora
tions thus serve the dual function of permitting
moisture to be slowly absorbed by the enclosed
body of cementitious material through the walls
of the casing, and allow the removal of excess
moisture from the material by evaporation.
proximately the proportions, by weight, 55:20z9.
hydration of the filler thus takes place at a com
This material after moistening solidi?es into a
paratively uniform and rapid rate, and the mem
ber may be safely incorporated in a building
relatively hard nailable mass possessing many of
the desirable characteristics of wood, such as
structure a relatively short time after its manu
lightness, nailability, sawability and strength,
The apparatus which I employ for packing the
casing with ?lling material is diagrammatically
composite structural member having perforations
illustrated in Figs. 2 and 3. This mechanism com
prises generally a common hopper 6 into which
Another object of the invention is to provide a
formed in its casing adjacent its middle, and pref 10 erably coextensive with its length, to accomplish
the ?lling material is adapted to be initially de
the purposes above described.
~ livered; a rack case ‘I located below the hopper
A further object of the invention is to provide ' and designed to support in vertical position a
an improved form of apparatus for carrying out series of tubular sheet metal casings l in such a
the processherein disclosed, while another object manner that material flowing out the bottom of
15 of the invention is to provide an improved form
the hopper discharges into the upper 'ends of
of structural element resulting from the novel the casings; a waste collector 8 located below the
process of my invention.
rack box for recovering spilled material; a feeding
The invention will be more clearly understood
mechanism 9 for urging the material from the
from the following detailed description of one hopper into the open ends of the casings; and a
preferred mode of practicing my process, refer— vibrating mechanism H] for reciprocating the rack
ence being had to the annexed drawingsin which:
case ‘I to solidly pack the material within the
Figure l is a composite structural member, of casings.
the stud type, resulting from the practice of the
The hopper‘ ii is supported upon a platform l3
process herein disclosed;
located at the top of a tower, indicated generally
Figure 2 is a front elevation of the apparatus by the reference numeral II. The top of the
for ?lling tubular casings in the manufacture of hopper opens through the upper side of the plat
structural members of the type illustrated in form and is extended in a direction cross-wise
Fig. 1;
thereof. The hopper terminates at its bottom in
Figure 3 is a side elevation of the apparatus of a series of downwardly depending spouts [2 dis
3O Fig. 2;
posed a substantial distance above the ground
Figure 4 is an enlarged perspective View of the level. The series of spouts 12 are arranged in
reciprocating rack case for supporting a series of closely spaced pairs and may be of any suitable
casings during the introduction of ?lling mate
rial thereinto;
Figure 5 illustrates a tub‘ designed for im
mersion of the structural members;
Figure 6 is a detail view of the agitator baskets
to cause ?owing of the material from the hopper;
Figure 7 is a cross-sectional view of a pair of
companion spouts; and
Figure 8 is a detail View of one of the agitator
shape, but desirably corresponding to that shown
in Fig. 7. Each pair of companion spouts is de
signed to feed material into the expanded cross 35
sectional areas of a casing I located upon opposite
sides of its constricted mid-section, and the two
companion spouts together assume the general
contour of the cross-section of a casing, but being
smaller in outline. These spouts are adapted to 40
be used in ?lling all standard sizes and shapes of
In Fig. l is shown one form of composite
structural member, suitable for use as a. building
A bank of casings l is adapted to be supported
in upright position within the rack case ‘I. This
stud, and adapted to be manufactured. by the
rack case comprises a frame open at its top and 45
composed of vertical side members I‘! and a hori
zontal bottom member l8, to which members are
attached a back cover l9 and two hinged out
process of my invention.
Such member comprises
generally a casing i of light, nail-penetrable
sheet metal and a hardened core 2 of cementi
tious material into which nails may be driven
50 without cracking or crumbling the material. In
this form of stud which is more particularly de
members 2i are attached to the back cover I 9
scribed and claimed in my copending application
Serial No. 39,023, the sides 3 of the casing are
forming stalls for receiving and supporting a
plurality of casings l in upright position within
dished while the top and bottom faces 3a are
the rack case in alignment with the spouts l2.
The thickness of the rack case corresponds ap 55
proximately to the width of a casing, so that when
the casings are introduced laterally into the rack
case and the doors 20 are closed, the sides of the
plane. .
In the preliminary stage of manufacture of such
structural members, an elongated strip of sheet
metal is passed between suitable forming rolls
to bend the sheet into the desired cross-sectional
60 contour and, in the form of structural member
shown in the ?gure, to unite the overlapped edges
of the sheet by a lock seam 31) extending length
wise of the member. Any suitable mechanism for
bending the members to shape may be employed,
05 and since such mechanism is well known in the
metal working art. a description of the same is
unnecessary. Either before, during or after for
mation of the casing rows of small perforations 4
are punched at closely spaced intervals along the
70 ‘sides of the casing adjacent its top and bottom.
The casing l which assumes a tubular shape is
adapted to receive a ?lling material. This ?lling
material, as already stated, is preferably com
posed of a substantially dry mixture of gypsum,
75 Portland cement and sawdust represented in ap.~
wardly opening doors 2!] constituting a front
cover. A series of vertically-extending partition 50
casings i will be snugly con?ned between the
front and back covers of the rack case. Latches 60
22 are provided for holding the doors 2!] closed.
When the casings are assembled in the rack case
with the latter in its lowermost position the lower
ends of the standard length casings bear upon
the bottom member l8, while the upper ends of 65
the casings project above the top of the rack
case to a position spaced a slight distance below
the spouts l2. When the rack case moves to its
upper limit of motion the spouts protrude a short
distance within the casings, as indicated in Fig. 6. 70
The rack case is reciprocable in a. vertical di
rection and for this purpose there are provided
pairs of guide plates 25 upon opposite sides of the
rack case rigidly fastened to the tower II and
arranged to embrace the side members and 75
slightly overlap the front face of the rack case,
arms 45 are pivotally mounted at one end upon
as indicated in Fig. 3, but not sui?ciently far
sov asto interfere with the opening and closing
of‘ the doors 20. These guide plates insure
straight-line vertical reciprocation of the rack
a shaft 46 mounted within a bearing 41 which
may be supported upon a table 48 a suitable dis
tance above the level of the platform [3 so that
the arms 45.‘\ do not interfere with the delivery of
material into the hopper 6. The reciprocating
rods 42 are suitably extend-ed vertically upwardly
In order to compact the material introduced
intothe casings through their upper ends, and to.
avoid the. production of "air pockets” in the core,
10 the. vibrationmechanism I0 is designed to im
part a successionv of sharp vertical impulses or
jolts to, the rack case during ?lling of the cas-.
ings. This vibrating mechanism comprises a pair
of generally horizontally-extending arms 21 each
15 of vwhichis pivoted at one extremity to a shaft 281
through the eyes of horizontal pins 49 disposed
within the hopper, and these rods are united with
the free outer ends of the arms 45. These arms, 10
are rocked‘ or oscillated through a small are by
means. of cams. 5B, keyed to a shaft 5! extending
below and transversely of the arms. The shaft
5i: is- mounted in suitable bearings upon the table
48. Shaft 5| is driven by a belt 52 trained over 15
a sheave 53 upon this shaft and a pulley 54
supported within bearings 29 which are, in turn,
fastened to the top of a concrete pier 30. The
keyed‘ toa second shaft which latter is directly
outer‘free ends of the arms are provided with
driven by a motor 55 through suitable speed re
eyes. 3| encircling.- trunnions 32 projecting lat
2.0 erally fromthe side members ll‘ of, the rack case.
A horizontal‘ shaft 33 supported inv bearings 34
upon the top of" the concrete, block 30 extends
transversely below the arms 2-‘! about midway of
their length, and this shaft is rotated by a belt‘
25 35 (Big. 4) extending between pulleys 36 and 31
keyed to theshaft 33-and to a power transmis-.
sion. shaft 38; This power transmission shaft
may-be driven. in any suitable manner, as by a
motor 39, and a suitable clutch (not shown) may
be provided for operatively disengaging the driv
ing: mechanism from shaft 33. Upon the shaft
333 at suitably spaced intervals are ?xed a series
of :cams 4.0»adapted tobear against the underside
of: thepairs. of ' arms 27, these cams being formed
with convolutelcontours, designed, during their
rotation, to-impart a lift to the rack case followed
by a quick drop through a small vertical distance.
Thus, when the shaft 331s rotated at ordinary
speed, a succession of‘ vertical impulses is ap
plied: to the rack case.
For. insuring continuous feeding of material
from the hoppers 5 into the-casings, the feeding
duction mechanism. Thus, by operation of the
motor, shaft. 5| is driven so as to rotate cams 5i]v 20'
which, acting against wear plates upon the lower
facesof the arms 45, impart a succession of'quick
rising and falling movements to the arms. In
order to hold the arms in engagement with they
wipers, weighted blocks 55 are mounted upon the
outer ends of the arms.
In those
where the: ?lling of certain of the casings out
runs or precedes the others, individually-opera
ble cranks 4| (Fig. 3) each connected to upright
slidable rods Illb are provided for lifting the arms 301
45 clear of the cams 50 to arrest the ?ow of ma
terial from the hopper. When the crank 4| is
moved in one direction by an operator stationed
on a lowerplatform l3a the rod 4 lb to which the
crank is pivoted is projected upwardly into en-i
gagement with one of the arms 45 of, the feeding
mechanism raising this arm off the cam; while
when the crankv is released the rod Mb drops
down to out-of-the-way position with respect to
this. arm.
Suitable means may be provided for 40
limiting the extent of movement in opposite di
rections of the crank and for retaining it in ad
mechanism 9‘contemplates the provision of a se
justed position.
ries of reciprocating rods 42 eachextending verti
cally downwardly into thehopper 6. Each rod
The bottom of rack case I is formed with cut
outs 60 (Fig. 4) lying outside of the area cov
42‘ adjacent itsTlower‘ end splits into two parallel
branches 'd3-(E'ig. 6-) and fastened upon the bot
ered by the bottoms of the casings occupying the
tom of each. branch is a ?at sided agitator-basket
sifting out of‘ the casings through the perfora
tions 5 during. the ?lling operation falls to the
44'1'of open frame construction having its, sides
501 tapered at an angle corresponding to the inclina
tion ‘of the downwardly converging walls. of the
spouts '12. One of these baskets-is illustrated in
Fig. 8. As shown in this ?gure the open frame
of the-basket is encircledby wires 44a at spaced
551 distances lengthwise ‘of the basket which per
forin'a cutting action upon the material, when
the basket is raised and lowered. Angled rods
?it-attached to the vertical rod 42 and extend
ing to a position adjacent the middle-of the hop
6.0.? per, serve to jostle the material above the bot
tom of the hopper. Thus, upon raising and low
ering,v thebasket in rapid succession a series of
chopping strokes is produced which tumbles the
?lling material down. into and out through the
6.5; open end of the spout, overcoming any tendency
for the material, which'because of possible damp
ness maybe slightly cohesive and non-?uent,
to. clog. Since eachvspout of a pair of spouts
delivers material to opposite sides of the con
width of a casing at approximately the
same speed, the ?lling of each casing proceeds
case, whereby any small amount of material
bottom of the rack case and passes out through 50
the clearance afforded by the cut-outs into the
collecting bin 8 located below the rack case. In
customary practice the lower end of each cas
ing before its assembly in the rack case will be
closed by a metal clip or by a plug of plastic ce
mentitious ?lling material which has been al
lowed to harden so as to prevent the passage of
?lling material out the end of the casing. Fol
lowing the ?lling operation, either before or after
the packed‘ casings are removed from the rack‘ 60
rapidly and uniformly.
case, the upper ends of the casings may be sim
ilarly closed by metal clips or plugs of cemen
titious material to seal the dry ?ller within the
casings. Where the casings to be ?lled are of
non-standard length, it is necessary to provide 65
a‘ support for their lower ends above the bot
tom of the rack case. One such support 56' is
shown in. Fig. 4, and comprises a flat foot 51.
upon which the lower end of a casing is adapted‘
to rest. This foot is attached at‘its bottom to 70
a screw-threaded shaft 58 freely passing through
a plate 59' and retained in vertical adjustment
In order to reciprocatethe rods 42; I provide
a mechanism somewhat. similar to thevibrating,
mechanism» l0. rIYhat is, a. series ofthorizontal;
with respect thereto by nuts mounted upon said,
shaft and engaging the top and bottom-of this:
plate. Plate 59_v may be; slid horizontally, into 75.
any'pair of a plurality of spaced pairs of slots
59a formedin the sides of the casing stalls, so
that by engaging the plate with an appropriate
pair. of slots and adjusting the screw-threaded
ing, wall boards or secondary framing members
to the members.
bers'now being ready for the introduction of
moisture into the ?lling material. In order to
, According to the present method of fabrica
tion, these objections are eliminated for the rea
son that the perforations. not only provide for
the most effective introduction of liquid into the
?lling material, but they also contribute to the
rapid and uniform abstraction of moisture there-1
from, enabling a member to be safely incor
porated in a building a short time after its manu 1O
facture. Furthermore, while curing of the core
may continue after the member is placed into
obtain a structural member in which the core is
of maximum strength. and of homogeneous con
service, nevertheless by virtue of‘aerati’on of. the
filler by the perforationsli, complete'curing is
Cl shaft of the support, the upper end of a short
casing may be disposed in proper relation to the
pair of companion spouts l2.
After .‘the casings have been ?lled the door of
the rack case is openedand the structural mem
10 bers are removed onto a platform 6 l, these mem~
sistency throughout its length, it ‘is ‘necessary
that .the introduction of water into and removal
of'exce'ss moisture from the core should proceed
in a gentle and ‘uniform manner. For example,
instead of ?ooding the core, best results are ob
20. tained if the water is allowed to gradually per
colate into the body of material and in limited
quantity so as not to greatly exceed the amount
attained much more speedily than has been pos
sible in the past with composite structural mem
bers employing imperforate casings.v
My invention is not limited to the production
of structural members of the form illustrated'in
Fig. 1 but may be used with any type of com
posite members in which a hardenedv core ?lls a
protective tubular, metal casing.
required for complete hydration of the gypsum
It will'be obvious'that variations in the mode
and cement. This objective I accomplish by vir
25. tue of the perforations 4 provided in the casing.
of practicing the process described abovegand
After the perforated casings have been packed
‘with material and their ends closed by clips or
hardened plugs. of cementitious material, they
are stacked upon an open frame 64 and the
301 frame is lowered into a tub 65 ?lled with water,
as shown in Fig. 5. The water is introduced into
the tubby an inlet pipe 66 and removed there
from via an outlet pipe 61 flowing to waste, the
flow ‘through these pipes being controlled by
35; suitable valves.
The structural members are
that various changes in-structure and design of '
the mechanism for carrying out the process, as
well as in the product obtained therefrom; may
be made without departing from the spirit of my
What I claim is:
' 1. An apparatus
I .
for fabricating
structural members comprising a, frame for sup
porting a tubular perforated sheet metalcasing
in vertical position, said frame being open at
its top and having closures for its sides, means 35.
allowed to remain in the bath for about one
for releasing the closure for one’ of the sides to
half hour (the time being variable and dependent
permit introducing: and removing casings lat
upon such factors as the number and sizeof the
erally of the frame, guides located upon opposite
sides of the frame for restraining the frame
against lateral displacement, av hopper disposed 40
above the frame having a discharge spout located
at a point above the frame, and in line with the
top of the casing, means closing the bottom of the
casing, means for imparting vibratory motion to
the frame, and means for insuringa continuous 4:5
perforations and the cross-sectional dimensions
40 of the members) during which: time the water
slowly passes through the perforations and per
meates the whole body of the ‘material without
developing a cutting action or without otherwise
interfering with the natural repose of the mate
rial within the casing. The members are then
removed from the bath and laid aside for sev
eral days to allow excess moisture to evaporate
from the ?lling material. Crystallization takes
place gradually and uniformly without disrup
‘ -. tion of the internal structure'of the core, accom4
panied by a slight swelling to solidly ?ll out the
interior of the casing-
Composite structural members according to
past practice have required a/relatively long pe
‘riod for curing, since (1) the filler necessarily
has contained an excessive amount of moisture
so as to rendergit sufficiently plastic for con
venient introduction into the vcasings, and (2),
due to the absence of means for aerating the
?ller (the latter heretoforehaving beenpracti
cally sealed against the atmosphere except at
the two open ends of the casing), a protracted
period has been required to allow evaporation
'of excess moisture from the material adjacent
‘the middle of the members. As a consequence,
such structural members have often been in
corporated in buildings before they have pos
sessed suf?cient strength to enable them to with—
stand the loads, either in. compression or shear,
for which they were designed. And even if the
member did not completely fail, nevertheless
~ such delayed curing'and ‘drying of the members
have given rise to other objections, such as the
inability of the members. to frictionally retain
; nails driven thereinto in the attachment of lath
flow of material fromthe hopper into the casing.
2. An apparatus forv fabricating. composite
structural members comprising a frame for sup
porting a plurality of tubular perforated sheet
metal casings in vertical position,,said frame be 50
ing open at its topand having closures for its
sides, means for releasingnthe closure for one
of the sides to permit introducing. and removing
casings laterally of the frame, guides located upon
opposite sides of the frame for restraining the 55
frame against lateral displacement, a hopper dis
posed above the frame having'a plurality of ,dis
charge spouts located above the frame and in line
with the tops of thecasings, means closing the
bottoms of the casings, means for imparting vi
bratory motion to the frame, an agitator asso
ciated with each spout for insuring a continuous
flow of material from the hopper into each casing,
and means for selectively arresting certain of said,
agitators independently of the other agitators.
3. An apparatus for fabricatingv composite
structural members comprising a frame, a rack
provided by the frame for supporting. a plurality,
of tubular metal casings in vertical position and
permitting the introduction and removal of the
casings laterally of the rack, guides located upon 70
opposite sides of the frame forrestraining the
frame against lateral-displacement, a hopper dis
posed above the frame having. a plurality of dis
charge spouts located, abovethe frame andin
line with the tops of the casings, means for im~
parting vibratory movement to the frame com
prising a pair of pivoted arms engaging opposite
sides of the frame, a cam engaging one of said
arms, means for rotating said cam, and agitators
associated with each of said spouts for insuring a
continuous ?ow of material from the hopper into
each casing, said agitators each comprising a
tapered, open basket located within the spout
and means for reciprocating the basket.
4. An apparatus for fabricating composite
structural members comprising a frame, a rack
provided by the frame for supporting a plurality
of tubular metal casings in vertical position and
15 permitting the introduction and removal of the
casings laterally of the rack, guides located upon
opposite sides of the frame for restraining the
frame against lateral displacement, a hopper dis
posed above the frame having a plurality of dis
charge spouts located above the frame and in line
with the tops of the casings, means for impart
ing vibratory motion to the frame, agitators for
insuring a continuous flow of material from the
hopper into each casing, said agitators each com
prising a tapered basket having strands of Wire
Wrapped thereon in spaced relation and means
for reciprocating the agitator.
5. An apparatus for fabricating composite
structural members comprising a rectangular
34) box-shaped frame for supporting a plurality of
tubular metal casings in vertical position, said
frame being open at its top and having closures
for its sides, means releasably retaining the clo
sure for one of the sides to permit introducing and
removing casings laterally of the frame, guides
located upon opposite sides of the frame for re
straining the frame against lateral displacement,
a hopper disposed above the frame having a
plurality of discharge spouts located above the
frame and in line with the tops of the casings, a
supporting platform upon the frame closing the 10
bottoms of the casings, a plurality of spacing
members upon the frame to retain the casings in
separated upright position and means for im
parting vibratory motion to the frame.
6. An apparatus as de?ned in claim 5 in which
the spacing members comprise portions for divid
ing the frame into a plurality of stalls each de
signed to snugly receive a casing.
7. An apparatus as de?ned in claim 5 in which
a pair of discharge spouts are arranged so as to
deliver material into the upper ends of a single
casing for the uniform ?lling of casings having
cross-sections of varying widths.
8. An apparatus as de?ned in claim 5 in which
the spacing members comprise portions for divid
ing the frame into a plurality of stalls each de
signed to snugly receive a casing and a plate
adapted to be adjustably positioned at different
elevations within a stall for supporting a casing
of shorter than standard length.
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