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Патент USA US2110086

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I March 1, 1938.
Filed June'25, 1935
2 Sheets-Sheet 1
. J
l Nm, 9n, mmv
, Margh l, v1938.
I |-|_ s, [NDGE
Filed June' 25, 1935
2 Sheets-Sheet :2‘
> . 542M
Patented Mar. 1, 1938‘ Q
- nerberts. Indge, Westboro, Mass, assignor to
Norton Company, Worcester, Mass., a corporal
ton of Massachusetts
‘ Application June 25,
1935, Serial No. 28,236
(01. 51-103)
This invention relates to abradant wheels and noted that the dressing device is mounted for
traverse between the wheels in a rectilinear path,
apparatus for mounting them.
2 Claims.
One object of the invention is to'provide an
abradant wheel of relatively large peripheral
5 surface area. Another object of the invention is
to provide a conicalv abradant wheel of relatively
great length with relation to its average diam
eter. Another, object of the invention is to pro
vide a wheel mounting and wheel construction
of frusto-conical formwhich shall reduce wheel
wastage. Another object of the invention is to
provide a wheel construction of interchangeable
sections. Other objects will be in part obvious
or in part pointed out hereinafter.
The invention accordingly consists in the fea
tures of construction, combinations of elements
and arrangements of parts, as will be exempli?ed
in the structure to be hereinafter described, and
the scope of the application of which will be in
20 dicated in the following claims.
, In the accompanying drawings; in which is dis
closed one of many possible embodiments of the
mechanical features of the invention,
Figure 1 is a view of a portion of a continuous
25 lapping machine illustrating a pair of abradant
wheels and mounting apparatus therefor applied
thereto, one wheel being shown in axial section
and the other in front elevation;
Figure 2 is a vertical sectional view taken on
30 the ‘line 2-2 of Figure 1;
and, insomuch, as herein described, the wheels
are mounted for angular adjustment on an axis
at right angles to their axis of rotation, dressing
or truing of the wheels with such dressing device
may produce a concave contour therein if they
are skewed with respect to such rectilinear path.
Insomuch as I rely for the production of certain
e?ects in lapping upon moving abrasive material 10
at an angle to the axis of the work-piece, which
is not a right angle, I skew the axes of the wheel
spindles with respect to the saidrectilinear path
and dress the wheels to produce such concave sur
face which generates a true cylindrical surface or 15
leaves a true cylindrical surface on the work
piece. So faras certain claims are concerned,
therefore, each wheel and each wheel section
herein described may be considered to have a
slight concavity in its peripheral surface; inso 20
much as ordinarily such concavity is of a slight
degree, it has not been illustrated in the drawings,
‘and insomuch as, further, the degree of concav
ity is a variable depending upon setting of the
wheels and the particular type or work-piece be
ing lapped. The present application is directed
to the construction and mounting of the wheels
per se.
_ In the manufacture of abrasive wheels there
are and have been certain practical limits on the 30
Figure 3 is a vertical sectional view taken on the . size thereof both in an absolute sense and rela
line 3-3 of Figure 1.
tively with respect to the ratio of thickness to
diameter. Whatever might be regarded as the
limit in either of these respects, it is notthat a
" ary 6, 1935, now Patent No. 2,087,874, dated July larger wheel or a thicker wheel could not be
20, 1937, relating to lapping machines. In that made, but that it is not convenient and economi
application I have disclosed a lapping machine _ cal to do so. In the case of large wheels and
having a pair of frusto-conical lapping wheels wheels which are extremely thick with respect
adapted to ?nish a cylindrical work-piece which i to their diameters, a disproportionate number
40 is maintained between the wheels by guides, the might have to be rejected because of the devel 40
work-piece being fed through the machine by opment of cracks in the ?ring or baking or other
heat treatment or otherwise; such wheels, how
skewing one or both of the wheels. The afore
t said copending application further discloses an ever made, are di?icult to handle while in process
This invention is in part disclosed in my co
pending application Serial No. 5,271, ?led Febru
apparatus for shaping the originally frusto-coni
’ cal wheels so that, despite the fact that they are
skewed, they will effectively lap a true cylindrical
work-piece. Such shaping modi?es the peripher
' alsurface of each wheel by producing therein a
slight concavity.
The dressing apparatus dis
closed in the copendingapplication will not be
described in detail herein particularly insomuch
as, so far as the present invention is concerned,
, any substitute might be employed; nevertheless,
for a clearerunderstanding of the shapes of the
55 wheels according to the present invention, it is
of. manufacture, a so-called “green wheel” (an 45
un?red or unbaked wheel form) being an ex
tremely delicate thing. Accordingly the forma
tion of a wheel of the shape disclosed in the
present and in the copending application re
ferred to, represented a problem. By the con
struction and features hereinafter described I 50
not only solved the above mentioned problem, but
have also considerably reduced wheel wastage.
Referring now to Figure 1, there is provided in
the lapping machine above referred to a base "I
rigidly secured to which is a supporting plate ll.
This plate II has a milled or planed horizontal
vided in an annular member 46 which is secured
in the head 3| ?tting in'a cylindrical bore 41
trunnion'l4 having a vertical axis extends down- ' thereof. The annular member 46 has a circular
upper surface 1-! 2jupon which rests a table l3. A
wardly from the under side of the table I3 and
?ts in a, bore IS in the supporting‘ plate II, and
vthus the table‘ I3 is restrained against any hori
zontal movement on the plate I 1 except an angu
lar movement. The weight of 'the machine parts
and the broad surface l2 of the plate II and the
10 cooperating under surface of the table l3 secures
the table l3 against any vertical movement or
recess 48 for the reception of a cap 49 which
keeps grit out of the bearings and oil or grease CR
thereinlif desired. In order to take the thrust
on the inner race 40 ‘and to position bothraces
40 and 34 upon the spindle 36, the spindle 36 ‘is
threaded at 50 and a couple of nuts 5| and 52
are placed on the portion 50, the inner nut 52 be
ingin contact with the race 40. Thus‘when the
strain. Thus the table-l3 has a ?rmi foundation _ nuts. are tightened thrust is exerted from the
and may be moved angularly about the vertical
axis of the trunnion I4, but not otherwise.
inner‘ nut 52'to the race 40, from there to the
sleeve 39 to the inner race 34 and against the
The‘ table I3 supports anabrasive wheel and , shoulder 39. Insornuch as the outer races 33 and
spindle to be described, and a similar wheel is 44' are held between the recesses 32 and 45, the
mounted above it. Considering now the support
bearing means described constitutes an anti-fric
for the upper wheel, the machine of the copend- _
t'ion radial‘ and, thrust‘bearing for the left-hand
ing application referred to has a column attached
end of the spindle 36, there being a similar bear
ing in the head 3la for the similar spindle 36a. 20
20 to the‘base H), which column is not shown herein
as, so far as the features of this invention are
concerned, it may be of any desired form, and
mounted on the column is a slide adjustable in
a vertical direction, on the column, the slide be
25 inglikewise not shown herein, and extending for
, wardly from the slide is an overhanging support
20 which may be integral ‘with the slide; thus in
a sense the casting 20 shown in the drawings is
part of said slide. On the under side of the over
30 hanging support or over-arm 20 is a large ?at
plane surface 2| extending approximately over
the horizontal upper surface l2 of the supporting
The spindle 36 may be driven from inside the
head 3|. Keyed to the sleeve 39 is a worm wheel
55 which is driven by a Worm 56 on a shaft 51
whose axis is at right angles to that of the spindle
36. The worm wheel 55 extends through a cutout 25
58 in a sleeve 59, and for the remaining features
of the driving mechanism I will now refer to the
similar construction in connection with the head .
3_la, as illustrated in the cross-sectional view of
Figure 3. The spindle 36a has keyed thereto a 30
sleeve 39a to which is keyed a worm wheel 55a'
plate ll. Held against this surface 2| is a table
which is driven by a worm 56a keyed to a shaft
51a. There is a. cutout 58a in a sleeve 59a which
22, and a trunnion 23 ?tting in a bore 24. mounts
has a ?ange portion 60a that is bolted to the head
35 the table 22 for angular adjustment.
The table
22 is prevented from falling and is held against
the surface 2| by means of cooperating segmental
guiding surfaces 25 and 26. The trunnion 23 may
be provided with radial supporting plates 21 to
assist in supporting the load. The upper and
lower abrading wheels 30 and 30a respectively
are, atvleast initially ‘in this embodiment of the
invention, frusto cones, and they and the jour
naling means for them and their mounting upon
45 their spindles being similar, I have Shown only
the upper wheel 30 in cross-section and it should
3la by bolts 610., there being a shoulder 62a 35
which ?ts in a bore 63a in the head 3la.
the sleeve 59a is held in a ?xed position in the
head 3Ia, and the other end of the sleeve 59a
?ts in a bore 64a in the other side of the head Ma.
The worm 56a abuts a shoulder 65a on the 40
shaft 51a, this shoulder receiving the driving
thrust. The other end of the worm 56a abuts
a sleeve 66a on the shaft 51a. The shaft 51a has
a reduced portion 61a which is threaded at the
end. A lock nut 68a holds an inner race 69a of 45
a ball‘bearing on the reduced portion 61a, but a
be understood that the journaling means and
spindle supports for the lower wheel 30a is simi—
slight clearance is provided, as shown. The thrust
frusto-conical wheels 30 and 30a. are oppositely
reversed for any reason, the slight left-hand
thrust of the worm 56a. is taken by thesleeve
66a, transmitted to the inner race 69a, and taken
by bearing balls ‘Ila and thus transmitted to an
outer race 12a. and thence to a bearing cap 13a. 55
on the shaft 51a is taken by the bearings of a
lar to, that for the upper wheel 30. , It will also be , driving motor ‘Illa but when the motor is slow
50 noted from inspection of the drawings that the ing down, or when the thrust on the worm 56a is 60
disposed and the locus of the abrading throat is‘
between the wheels, the work guides not ‘being
shown herein.
Still referring to Figure 1, ‘extending down
wardly from the table 22 and desirably integral
with his a head 3|.
Likewise a head 3la ex
tends upwardly from the table l3. Each head
is hollow as shown in the case of the head 3|,
00 and formed on the inside thereof is a roller bear-,
ing race recess 32. ‘The "outer race 33 of a roller
The outer race 12a is positioned in a recess-14a
in the sleeve 59a and held therein by a shoulder
15a or the bearing cap 13a. The bearing cap may
be held in position by bolts 16a. Thus the ball
bearing consisting of races 69a, 12d and balls 60
‘Ila is essentially a radial bearing,
The other end of the shaft 510. passes through
a stu?ing box 30a that is bolted by bolts 8la to
bearing seats in the recess 32 while the inner
race 34 seats on-a cylindrical portion 35 pro-.
vided on a spindle 3G. Conical rollers 3'll are , the sleeve 59a, the stu?ing box having a head
82a located in a recess 83a in thesleeve 59a and 65
65 shown located between the races 33 and 34.
, The inner race 34‘ is held on the spindle 36 by having also packing 84a to keep oil or grease in
means of a shoulder 38 .on the spindlepat one the unit to lubricate all the parts referredto.
side of the race‘ 34, and a sleeve 39 on the other The inner end of the stu?ing box 80a abuts an
sidethereof. The thrust on the sleeve 39 is outer race 85a of a ball bearing whose inner race
86a. is mounted on thesshaft 51a, there being
70 taken by an inner race 40 of a. second roller bear
ing which is mounted on a cylindrical portion bearing balls 81a between these races. The race 70
4| of the spindle 36 and which also abuts a square 85a is held in position also by a shoulder 88a in
shoulder 42 on the spindle.
Conical rollers 43
are located between the inner race 40 and an
race 44 which is seated in a recess 45 pro
the sleeve 59a. The bearing just described con
stitutes another antiefriction radial bearing for
the shaft 51a. The shaft 51a is driven by the 76
2,1 10,086
motor 10a through a coupling 90a. The motor portion I I5 of which is supported and j'ournaled in
10a is'moun'ted‘on a platform 9Ia which is inte
the head I".
gral with an extension 92a of the table I3. Thus
Considering now the journals for the outer
the drive is not interfered with by adjustments ends of the inner spindles, and referring to the
in angular position of the wheel 30a.
. upper right-hand part of Figure 1 and also to Considering again the upper spindle 36, the Figure 2, a cylindrical recess I 20 is formed in
the head I", which recess is open at the right
"mechanism for driving it is similar to that al
ready described, although .a different means of hand end and has a shoulder I2I and an annular
allowing for adjustments in the angular position ?ange I22 at the left-hand end. An outer cas
10.. of the wheel 30 may be provided, for example as ing member I23 '?ts in the recess I20 against 10
'shown'in the copending application referred to. the shoulder I2I and thismember I23 has on
In order to seal oil or grease in the roller bear
either side thereof annular plates I24. An outer
ings described and to keep grit therefrom, packing I race I25 ?ts between these three last mentioned
95 and a gland 96 may be provided. The gland\ parts between which outer race I25 and an inner
96 consists of nearly over-lapping annular por
race I26 are-located cylindrical rolls I21. The 15
tions on the outside of the head 3| and on a ?ange
‘portion 91 of a hollow spindle or sleeve 99 which
inner race I26 is press-?tted upon a sleeve I20
is connected to the driving and supporting spin-
There is a clearance between the annular plates
I24. and the sleeve I28 while a nut I29 main
dle 36 by a spline connection I00.
Still considering the upper part of Figure 1,
upon the hollow spindle99 I mount a plurality
of abrasive wheels IOI, I02, I03, I04, I05, I06,
I01 and I08. , Each of these is a frusto-cone with
an axial bore just ?tting the outside of the hollow
spindle 99. The small end of the wheel IOI has
a diameter-just equal to that of the large end of
the wheel I02, and all the others down to the
end wheel I08 have diameters equal to that of
which removably ?ts the reduced portion “5.
tains the assembly of the anti-friction bearing 20
when it is slid off the reduced portion H5. A
hearing cap I30 ?tting in the recess I20 together
with the annular ?ange, I22 seals the bearing for
retention of oil or grease and the exclusion of
grit, while'it is noted that'the ?ange I 22 is just 25
clear of the sleeve I28.
By reason of the construction described, the
head .I-I‘I may be slid off theend of the spindle
the large ends of the adjacent wheels respec- I 36 at any time. The bearing just described is
30 tively. Preferably each wheel is of the same
a radial bearing and takes no thrust, and prefer 30
thickness as all- the others. While this inven - ably the heads I I1 and I I‘Ia are not clamped upon
tion contemplates the use of any kind of wheel the ways H6, H8 and “611, Had, thus permit
so far as composition vis concerned, I have ting the parts to ?nd their natural position with
achieved excellent results in a. l’apping machine out strain, and also allowing for expansion and
using ?ne grain silicon carbide in- a shellac bond. contraction of the metal. However, I may pro 35
Other grain may be used, as alumina, emery, vide suitable stops not shown, to prevent the
corundum, garnet, quartz, and other bonds, as heads I II and “Ta from moving out so far as
ceramic, rubber, synthetic resins, sodium silicate.
In the assembly of the entire wheel 30, the com
40 ponent wheels I 0| to I08 are slipped onto the
spindle 99 in the order described and shown, and
with the wheel IOI against the ?ange 9'I. Desir
» ably the sides of each wheel excepting the large
side of the wheel IM and the small side of the
wheel I 08 are coated with a suitable cement, such
as, in the case of shellac bonded wheels, a coat
ing of shellac. A washer I09 and a nut IIO ?t
ting on a threaded portion III of the spindle 99
secure the individual wheels together as a unit
50 and compress the cement so ‘that it will set. Be
fore explaining the features of the wheel 30 fur
ther, I shall complete the description of the
to drop the spindles.
The sleeve I28 being on the reduced portion
I I5 with a press fit, by means of a lead hammer 40
either head may be moved outwardly to free the
end of the spindle 36 or‘36a as the case may be.
The bearings including the rollers B'I'and 43 are .
built to withstand the strain of the weight of
spindles and wheels without any outer support,
as these hearings are double radial ‘and thrust
bearings spaced a substantial distance apart.
Consequently it is a simple matter to place the
wheels IOI to I08 or IOIa to I08a upon the spin- .
dle 99 or 99a and secure them in place with the 50
washer I09 and nut H0 or washer I09a and
nut “Ba.
mounting means.
The wheels having been assembled, the ma
Still referring to the upper part of Figure 1, the - chine may be used as described in the copend
O1 Gil spindle 36 adjacent the right hand end of the
outer hollow spindle 99 has a threaded portion
II2 on which is located a nut II3 which clamps
the spindle 99 against a shoulder I“ on the spin
dle 36 adjacent the ?ange 91. At the right-hand
60 end of the spindle 36 is a reduced cylindrical
_ portion I-I5. Referring now to the upper right
hand part and also to the lower left-hand part
of Figure 1, and also to Figure 2, the table I3
ing application referred to. As the machine is_
used, the. wheels-will be dressed and trued from
time to time to take care of ‘wheel wear and ad—
justments‘. Each different position of skew of the
wheels on the axes I 4 and 23 respectively requires
a new truing of the wheels in, order to achieve 00
the best results in lapping. Consequently from
the above causes and also by reason of normal
wheel wear, the respective wheels ,30 and 300. are
has attached to it ways II6a and the table 22 . continually becoming smaller in diameter. When
65 has attached to it ways H6.
These are in the
form of dove-tailed members, and small heads
“Ia and III respectively have complementary
slideways H811 and H8 so that the heads I"
and H10. aretslidable, parallel to the axes of
the wheels 30 and 30a on the tables 22 and I3
respectively. These heads III and “la are
provided‘ with anti-friction bearings to journal
the ends of the inner spindles, as shown in the
75 case of the spindle 36 in Figure 1; the reduced
the work-pieces are about to contact the wash 65
ers I09 and "39a, I remove the wheels 30 and 30a
(or only one of them if only one is considerably
reducedjn diameter) and the sections may be
readily separated by knocking them with a lead
hammer, as the cement is not and should not be 70
a permanent adhesive. However, I prefer merely
to knock off the small section I08 or I 03a, and
then I slide a new~unused ‘section IOI or IOIa
upon the spindle 99 or 99a coating the small
face thereof with a cement. and then slide the 76
2,110,986. ,
It will thus be seenthat there has been proold sectio'ns llll to I01 inclusive, or “lid to lMa.
inclusive upon the spindle 99 or 980.
I then 1 vided by this invention an apparatus and a com
tighten up the nut H0 or lllla as before. The , posite wheel in which the variousobjects here
result is a, fresh wheel, which may be trued to inabove set forth together with many thorough
exact frusto-conical or other spiral form or shape, ly practical advantages are successfully achieved.
and the total discarded or unused wheel volume As many possible embodiments may be made of '
is indicated by the very close. cross-hatching on the above invention, and as many changes might
section IN on Figure 1. How this compares with bemade in the embodiment above set forth, it is
what would be discarded, were unit wheels used “ as be understood that all matter hereinbefore set
can be- appreciated by reference to‘ Figure 1, forth, or shown in the accompanying drawings, 10
drawing lines from the outside of ?ange 91 to the 'is to be interpreted as illustrative and not in a
outside of washer lll9.- Furthermore, by means limiting sense.
I claim:—
of the construction described, the renewal of
1. In apparatus of the class described, a pair
wheels may be, made ‘very quickly. Preferably
15 wheels are renewed when all sections have been ‘of tables in parallel relationship, a pair 6f ?xed
worn so that their large diameters are equal to , headsone on each table, a pair of movable heads
the original size of their small diameters, as by , one on each table, spindles journaled, in said
this procedure a minimum of dressing or truing heads, each spindle extending between a ?xed
is required. A circle may'be painted on each head and a movable head and each movable head
wheel, on the small side thereof, to represent
being movable in the direction of the spindle axis, 20
this diameter for thesmall wheel I08 or I080,
and the fixed head on one table being opposite
since eventually every wheel moves to that posi-' the movable head on the other table, and frusto
tion. It will be noted that all nuts have been
shown as spanner nuts which facilitates the as
25 sembly and disassembly of the parts.
conical abrasive wheels mounted on said spindles
with the large end of one wheel opposite the small
wheel of the other.
2. In apparatus‘ as claimed in claim 1, the com
Although I have described the assembly of the
wheels 30 and 30a upon‘ the spindles 99 and 99a‘ bination with the parts therein speci?ed of a plu
with the latter upon the spindles 36 and 360., it rality' of frusto-conical abrasive sections consti
is quite convenient \to remove the latter spindles tuting the frusto-conical abrasive wheels.
30 from the former spindles for this purpose.
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