Патент USA US2110086код для вставки
I March 1, 1938. 2,110,086 H. S. INDGE ABRASIVE WHEEL AND MOUNT THEREFOR Filed June'25, 1935 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 . J K~ \ M H/ // l Nm, 9n, mmv WITNESS - JmzzhéW Em INVENTOR HERBERT 51MB GE BY ,/5;¢QZI_‘/ A'T‘ToRNEY C76. , Margh l, v1938. ' I ' I |-|_ s, [NDGE 2,110,086‘ ABRASIVE WHEEL AND MOUNT THEREFOR Filed June' 25, 1935 2 Sheets-Sheet :2‘ A / _ Wrnwss5 ; ' I ‘ ,JMWM INVENTOR HERBERT 5. INQGE , > . 542M ATTORNEY ' 2,110,086 Patented Mar. 1, 1938‘ Q ‘UNITED ‘STATES ‘PATENT OFFICE 2,110,086 ' ABRASIVE'WHEEL AND MOUNT THEREFOR. - nerberts. Indge, Westboro, Mass, assignor to - Norton Company, Worcester, Mass., a corporal ton of Massachusetts ‘ Application June 25, 1935, Serial No. 28,236 (01. 51-103) This invention relates to abradant wheels and noted that the dressing device is mounted for traverse between the wheels in a rectilinear path, apparatus for mounting them. 2 Claims. One object of the invention is to'provide an abradant wheel of relatively large peripheral 5 surface area. Another object of the invention is to provide a conicalv abradant wheel of relatively great length with relation to its average diam eter. Another, object of the invention is to pro vide a wheel mounting and wheel construction of frusto-conical formwhich shall reduce wheel wastage. Another object of the invention is to provide a wheel construction of interchangeable sections. Other objects will be in part obvious or in part pointed out hereinafter. 15 The invention accordingly consists in the fea tures of construction, combinations of elements and arrangements of parts, as will be exempli?ed in the structure to be hereinafter described, and the scope of the application of which will be in 20 dicated in the following claims. , In the accompanying drawings; in which is dis closed one of many possible embodiments of the mechanical features of the invention, _ Figure 1 is a view of a portion of a continuous 25 lapping machine illustrating a pair of abradant wheels and mounting apparatus therefor applied thereto, one wheel being shown in axial section and the other in front elevation; Figure 2 is a vertical sectional view taken on 30 the ‘line 2-2 of Figure 1; and, insomuch, as herein described, the wheels are mounted for angular adjustment on an axis at right angles to their axis of rotation, dressing or truing of the wheels with such dressing device may produce a concave contour therein if they are skewed with respect to such rectilinear path. Insomuch as I rely for the production of certain e?ects in lapping upon moving abrasive material 10 at an angle to the axis of the work-piece, which is not a right angle, I skew the axes of the wheel spindles with respect to the saidrectilinear path and dress the wheels to produce such concave sur face which generates a true cylindrical surface or 15 leaves a true cylindrical surface on the work piece. So faras certain claims are concerned, therefore, each wheel and each wheel section herein described may be considered to have a slight concavity in its peripheral surface; inso 20 much as ordinarily such concavity is of a slight degree, it has not been illustrated in the drawings, ‘and insomuch as, further, the degree of concav ity is a variable depending upon setting of the wheels and the particular type or work-piece be ing lapped. The present application is directed to the construction and mounting of the wheels per se. _ In the manufacture of abrasive wheels there are and have been certain practical limits on the 30 Figure 3 is a vertical sectional view taken on the . size thereof both in an absolute sense and rela line 3-3 of Figure 1. V tively with respect to the ratio of thickness to diameter. Whatever might be regarded as the limit in either of these respects, it is notthat a " ary 6, 1935, now Patent No. 2,087,874, dated July larger wheel or a thicker wheel could not be 20, 1937, relating to lapping machines. In that made, but that it is not convenient and economi application I have disclosed a lapping machine _ cal to do so. In the case of large wheels and having a pair of frusto-conical lapping wheels wheels which are extremely thick with respect adapted to ?nish a cylindrical work-piece which i to their diameters, a disproportionate number 40 is maintained between the wheels by guides, the might have to be rejected because of the devel 40 work-piece being fed through the machine by opment of cracks in the ?ring or baking or other heat treatment or otherwise; such wheels, how skewing one or both of the wheels. The afore t said copending application further discloses an ever made, are di?icult to handle while in process This invention is in part disclosed in my co pending application Serial No. 5,271, ?led Febru apparatus for shaping the originally frusto-coni ’ cal wheels so that, despite the fact that they are skewed, they will effectively lap a true cylindrical work-piece. Such shaping modi?es the peripher ' alsurface of each wheel by producing therein a slight concavity. The dressing apparatus dis closed in the copendingapplication will not be described in detail herein particularly insomuch as, so far as the present invention is concerned, , any substitute might be employed; nevertheless, for a clearerunderstanding of the shapes of the 55 wheels according to the present invention, it is of. manufacture, a so-called “green wheel” (an 45 un?red or unbaked wheel form) being an ex tremely delicate thing. Accordingly the forma tion of a wheel of the shape disclosed in the present and in the copending application re ferred to, represented a problem. By the con struction and features hereinafter described I 50 not only solved the above mentioned problem, but have also considerably reduced wheel wastage. Referring now to Figure 1, there is provided in the lapping machine above referred to a base "I rigidly secured to which is a supporting plate ll. 2 2,110,086 This plate II has a milled or planed horizontal vided in an annular member 46 which is secured in the head 3| ?tting in'a cylindrical bore 41 trunnion'l4 having a vertical axis extends down- ' thereof. The annular member 46 has a circular upper surface 1-! 2jupon which rests a table l3. A wardly from the under side of the table I3 and ?ts in a, bore IS in the supporting‘ plate II, and vthus the table‘ I3 is restrained against any hori zontal movement on the plate I 1 except an angu lar movement. The weight of 'the machine parts and the broad surface l2 of the plate II and the 10 cooperating under surface of the table l3 secures the table l3 against any vertical movement or recess 48 for the reception of a cap 49 which keeps grit out of the bearings and oil or grease CR thereinlif desired. In order to take the thrust on the inner race 40 ‘and to position bothraces 40 and 34 upon the spindle 36, the spindle 36 ‘is threaded at 50 and a couple of nuts 5| and 52 are placed on the portion 50, the inner nut 52 be ingin contact with the race 40. Thus‘when the 10 strain. Thus the table-l3 has a ?rmi foundation _ nuts. are tightened thrust is exerted from the and may be moved angularly about the vertical axis of the trunnion I4, but not otherwise. 15 inner‘ nut 52'to the race 40, from there to the sleeve 39 to the inner race 34 and against the The‘ table I3 supports anabrasive wheel and , shoulder 39. Insornuch as the outer races 33 and spindle to be described, and a similar wheel is 44' are held between the recesses 32 and 45, the mounted above it. Considering now the support bearing means described constitutes an anti-fric for the upper wheel, the machine of the copend- _ t'ion radial‘ and, thrust‘bearing for the left-hand ing application referred to has a column attached end of the spindle 36, there being a similar bear ing in the head 3la for the similar spindle 36a. 20 20 to the‘base H), which column is not shown herein as, so far as the features of this invention are concerned, it may be of any desired form, and mounted on the column is a slide adjustable in a vertical direction, on the column, the slide be 25 inglikewise not shown herein, and extending for , wardly from the slide is an overhanging support 20 which may be integral ‘with the slide; thus in a sense the casting 20 shown in the drawings is part of said slide. On the under side of the over 30 hanging support or over-arm 20 is a large ?at plane surface 2| extending approximately over the horizontal upper surface l2 of the supporting The spindle 36 may be driven from inside the head 3|. Keyed to the sleeve 39 is a worm wheel 55 which is driven by a Worm 56 on a shaft 51 whose axis is at right angles to that of the spindle 36. The worm wheel 55 extends through a cutout 25 58 in a sleeve 59, and for the remaining features of the driving mechanism I will now refer to the similar construction in connection with the head . 3_la, as illustrated in the cross-sectional view of Figure 3. The spindle 36a has keyed thereto a 30 sleeve 39a to which is keyed a worm wheel 55a' plate ll. Held against this surface 2| is a table which is driven by a worm 56a keyed to a shaft 51a. There is a. cutout 58a in a sleeve 59a which 22, and a trunnion 23 ?tting in a bore 24. mounts has a ?ange portion 60a that is bolted to the head 35 the table 22 for angular adjustment. The table 22 is prevented from falling and is held against the surface 2| by means of cooperating segmental guiding surfaces 25 and 26. The trunnion 23 may be provided with radial supporting plates 21 to assist in supporting the load. The upper and lower abrading wheels 30 and 30a respectively are, atvleast initially ‘in this embodiment of the invention, frusto cones, and they and the jour naling means for them and their mounting upon 45 their spindles being similar, I have Shown only the upper wheel 30 in cross-section and it should 3la by bolts 610., there being a shoulder 62a 35 which ?ts in a bore 63a in the head 3la. Thus the sleeve 59a is held in a ?xed position in the head 3Ia, and the other end of the sleeve 59a ?ts in a bore 64a in the other side of the head Ma. The worm 56a abuts a shoulder 65a on the 40 shaft 51a, this shoulder receiving the driving thrust. The other end of the worm 56a abuts a sleeve 66a on the shaft 51a. The shaft 51a has a reduced portion 61a which is threaded at the end. A lock nut 68a holds an inner race 69a of 45 a ball‘bearing on the reduced portion 61a, but a be understood that the journaling means and spindle supports for the lower wheel 30a is simi— slight clearance is provided, as shown. The thrust frusto-conical wheels 30 and 30a. are oppositely reversed for any reason, the slight left-hand thrust of the worm 56a. is taken by thesleeve 66a, transmitted to the inner race 69a, and taken by bearing balls ‘Ila and thus transmitted to an outer race 12a. and thence to a bearing cap 13a. 55 on the shaft 51a is taken by the bearings of a lar to, that for the upper wheel 30. , It will also be , driving motor ‘Illa but when the motor is slow 50 noted from inspection of the drawings that the ing down, or when the thrust on the worm 56a is 60 disposed and the locus of the abrading throat is‘ between the wheels, the work guides not ‘being shown herein. Still referring to Figure 1, ‘extending down wardly from the table 22 and desirably integral with his a head 3|. Likewise a head 3la ex tends upwardly from the table l3. Each head is hollow as shown in the case of the head 3|, 00 and formed on the inside thereof is a roller bear-, ing race recess 32. ‘The "outer race 33 of a roller The outer race 12a is positioned in a recess-14a in the sleeve 59a and held therein by a shoulder 15a or the bearing cap 13a. The bearing cap may be held in position by bolts 16a. Thus the ball bearing consisting of races 69a, 12d and balls 60 ‘Ila is essentially a radial bearing, The other end of the shaft 510. passes through a stu?ing box 30a that is bolted by bolts 8la to bearing seats in the recess 32 while the inner race 34 seats on-a cylindrical portion 35 pro-. vided on a spindle 3G. Conical rollers 3'll are , the sleeve 59a, the stu?ing box having a head 82a located in a recess 83a in thesleeve 59a and 65 65 shown located between the races 33 and 34. , The inner race 34‘ is held on the spindle 36 by having also packing 84a to keep oil or grease in means of a shoulder 38 .on the spindlepat one the unit to lubricate all the parts referredto. side of the race‘ 34, and a sleeve 39 on the other The inner end of the stu?ing box 80a abuts an sidethereof. The thrust on the sleeve 39 is outer race 85a of a ball bearing whose inner race 86a. is mounted on thesshaft 51a, there being 70 taken by an inner race 40 of a. second roller bear ing which is mounted on a cylindrical portion bearing balls 81a between these races. The race 70 4| of the spindle 36 and which also abuts a square 85a is held in position also by a shoulder 88a in shoulder 42 on the spindle. Conical rollers 43 are located between the inner race 40 and an ' outer‘ race 44 which is seated in a recess 45 pro 76 the sleeve 59a. The bearing just described con stitutes another antiefriction radial bearing for the shaft 51a. The shaft 51a is driven by the 76 4 I 3 2,1 10,086 motor 10a through a coupling 90a. The motor portion I I5 of which is supported and j'ournaled in 10a is'moun'ted‘on a platform 9Ia which is inte the head I". ' ' gral with an extension 92a of the table I3. Thus Considering now the journals for the outer the drive is not interfered with by adjustments ends of the inner spindles, and referring to the in angular position of the wheel 30a. . upper right-hand part of Figure 1 and also to Considering again the upper spindle 36, the Figure 2, a cylindrical recess I 20 is formed in the head I", which recess is open at the right "mechanism for driving it is similar to that al ready described, although .a different means of hand end and has a shoulder I2I and an annular allowing for adjustments in the angular position ?ange I22 at the left-hand end. An outer cas 10.. of the wheel 30 may be provided, for example as ing member I23 '?ts in the recess I20 against 10 'shown'in the copending application referred to. the shoulder I2I and thismember I23 has on In order to seal oil or grease in the roller bear either side thereof annular plates I24. An outer ings described and to keep grit therefrom, packing I race I25 ?ts between these three last mentioned 95 and a gland 96 may be provided. The gland\ parts between which outer race I25 and an inner 96 consists of nearly over-lapping annular por race I26 are-located cylindrical rolls I21. The 15 tions on the outside of the head 3| and on a ?ange ‘portion 91 of a hollow spindle or sleeve 99 which inner race I26 is press-?tted upon a sleeve I20 is connected to the driving and supporting spin- There is a clearance between the annular plates I24. and the sleeve I28 while a nut I29 main dle 36 by a spline connection I00. 20 ' ‘ Still considering the upper part of Figure 1, upon the hollow spindle99 I mount a plurality of abrasive wheels IOI, I02, I03, I04, I05, I06, I01 and I08. , Each of these is a frusto-cone with an axial bore just ?tting the outside of the hollow spindle 99. The small end of the wheel IOI has a diameter-just equal to that of the large end of the wheel I02, and all the others down to the end wheel I08 have diameters equal to that of which removably ?ts the reduced portion “5. tains the assembly of the anti-friction bearing 20 when it is slid off the reduced portion H5. A hearing cap I30 ?tting in the recess I20 together with the annular ?ange, I22 seals the bearing for retention of oil or grease and the exclusion of grit, while'it is noted that'the ?ange I 22 is just 25 clear of the sleeve I28. By reason of the construction described, the head .I-I‘I may be slid off theend of the spindle the large ends of the adjacent wheels respec- I 36 at any time. The bearing just described is 30 tively. Preferably each wheel is of the same a radial bearing and takes no thrust, and prefer 30 thickness as all- the others. While this inven - ably the heads I I1 and I I‘Ia are not clamped upon tion contemplates the use of any kind of wheel the ways H6, H8 and “611, Had, thus permit so far as composition vis concerned, I have ting the parts to ?nd their natural position with achieved excellent results in a. l’apping machine out strain, and also allowing for expansion and using ?ne grain silicon carbide in- a shellac bond. contraction of the metal. However, I may pro 35 Other grain may be used, as alumina, emery, vide suitable stops not shown, to prevent the corundum, garnet, quartz, and other bonds, as heads I II and “Ta from moving out so far as ceramic, rubber, synthetic resins, sodium silicate. In the assembly of the entire wheel 30, the com 40 ponent wheels I 0| to I08 are slipped onto the spindle 99 in the order described and shown, and with the wheel IOI against the ?ange 9'I. Desir » ably the sides of each wheel excepting the large side of the wheel IM and the small side of the wheel I 08 are coated with a suitable cement, such as, in the case of shellac bonded wheels, a coat ing of shellac. A washer I09 and a nut IIO ?t ting on a threaded portion III of the spindle 99 secure the individual wheels together as a unit 50 and compress the cement so ‘that it will set. Be fore explaining the features of the wheel 30 fur ther, I shall complete the description of the to drop the spindles. . The sleeve I28 being on the reduced portion I I5 with a press fit, by means of a lead hammer 40 either head may be moved outwardly to free the end of the spindle 36 or‘36a as the case may be. The bearings including the rollers B'I'and 43 are . built to withstand the strain of the weight of spindles and wheels without any outer support, as these hearings are double radial ‘and thrust bearings spaced a substantial distance apart. Consequently it is a simple matter to place the wheels IOI to I08 or IOIa to I08a upon the spin- . dle 99 or 99a and secure them in place with the 50 washer I09 and nut H0 or washer I09a and nut “Ba. 7 mounting means. The wheels having been assembled, the ma Still referring to the upper part of Figure 1, the - chine may be used as described in the copend O1 Gil spindle 36 adjacent the right hand end of the outer hollow spindle 99 has a threaded portion II2 on which is located a nut II3 which clamps the spindle 99 against a shoulder I“ on the spin dle 36 adjacent the ?ange 91. At the right-hand 60 end of the spindle 36 is a reduced cylindrical _ portion I-I5. Referring now to the upper right hand part and also to the lower left-hand part of Figure 1, and also to Figure 2, the table I3 ing application referred to. As the machine is_ used, the. wheels-will be dressed and trued from time to time to take care of ‘wheel wear and ad— justments‘. Each different position of skew of the wheels on the axes I 4 and 23 respectively requires a new truing of the wheels in, order to achieve 00 the best results in lapping. Consequently from the above causes and also by reason of normal wheel wear, the respective wheels ,30 and 300. are has attached to it ways II6a and the table 22 . continually becoming smaller in diameter. When 65 has attached to it ways H6. These are in the form of dove-tailed members, and small heads “Ia and III respectively have complementary slideways H811 and H8 so that the heads I" and H10. aretslidable, parallel to the axes of the wheels 30 and 30a on the tables 22 and I3 respectively. These heads III and “la are provided‘ with anti-friction bearings to journal the ends of the inner spindles, as shown in the 75 case of the spindle 36 in Figure 1; the reduced the work-pieces are about to contact the wash 65 ers I09 and "39a, I remove the wheels 30 and 30a (or only one of them if only one is considerably reducedjn diameter) and the sections may be readily separated by knocking them with a lead hammer, as the cement is not and should not be 70 a permanent adhesive. However, I prefer merely to knock off the small section I08 or I 03a, and then I slide a new~unused ‘section IOI or IOIa upon the spindle 99 or 99a coating the small face thereof with a cement. and then slide the 76 4 2,110,986. , It will thus be seenthat there has been proold sectio'ns llll to I01 inclusive, or “lid to lMa. inclusive upon the spindle 99 or 980. I then 1 vided by this invention an apparatus and a com tighten up the nut H0 or lllla as before. The , posite wheel in which the variousobjects here result is a, fresh wheel, which may be trued to inabove set forth together with many thorough exact frusto-conical or other spiral form or shape, ly practical advantages are successfully achieved. and the total discarded or unused wheel volume As many possible embodiments may be made of ' is indicated by the very close. cross-hatching on the above invention, and as many changes might section IN on Figure 1. How this compares with bemade in the embodiment above set forth, it is what would be discarded, were unit wheels used “ as be understood that all matter hereinbefore set can be- appreciated by reference to‘ Figure 1, forth, or shown in the accompanying drawings, 10 drawing lines from the outside of ?ange 91 to the 'is to be interpreted as illustrative and not in a . outside of washer lll9.- Furthermore, by means limiting sense. I claim:— ' of the construction described, the renewal of 1. In apparatus of the class described, a pair wheels may be, made ‘very quickly. Preferably 15 wheels are renewed when all sections have been ‘of tables in parallel relationship, a pair 6f ?xed >10 worn so that their large diameters are equal to , headsone on each table, a pair of movable heads the original size of their small diameters, as by , one on each table, spindles journaled, in said this procedure a minimum of dressing or truing heads, each spindle extending between a ?xed is required. A circle may'be painted on each head and a movable head and each movable head wheel, on the small side thereof, to represent being movable in the direction of the spindle axis, 20 this diameter for thesmall wheel I08 or I080, and the fixed head on one table being opposite since eventually every wheel moves to that posi-' the movable head on the other table, and frusto tion. It will be noted that all nuts have been shown as spanner nuts which facilitates the as 25 sembly and disassembly of the parts. conical abrasive wheels mounted on said spindles with the large end of one wheel opposite the small wheel of the other. ' “ 2. In apparatus‘ as claimed in claim 1, the com Although I have described the assembly of the wheels 30 and 30a upon‘ the spindles 99 and 99a‘ bination with the parts therein speci?ed of a plu with the latter upon the spindles 36 and 360., it rality' of frusto-conical abrasive sections consti is quite convenient \to remove the latter spindles tuting the frusto-conical abrasive wheels. 30 from the former spindles for this purpose. HERBERT s. INDGE.