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Патент USA US2110149

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March 8, 1938.
H. o. RUGH
Filed Aug. 14, 1935
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‘Patented Mar. 8, 1938
Harry 0. Rugh, Chicago, 111.
Application August 14, 1935, Serial No. 36,114
3 Claims. (Cl. PIS-22)
transmitting station is designated generally by
This invention‘ relates to the coding of mes
sages which are to be transmitted by wire or
over the air between two stations for the pur
pose of maintaining the contents of the message
The invention is particularly adapted for use
in the transmission of messages electrically by
the use of the so-called Baudot method whereby
combinations of electrical impulses constitute
10 signals representing certain characters such as
the letters of the alphabet.
In my prior application, Serial No. 756,057,
?led December 5, 19,34 for Code transmission sys
tem, a system is provided whereby a message to
the numeral l0 and the receiving station by the '
numeral II. The transmitting station embodies
a source of current I2, a series of keys l3, of
which only one is shown, it being understood,
of course, that these keys are part of a tele
graphic typewriter. Each of the keys I3 is pref
erably provided with a stepping pawl M which
is adapted to rotate a ratchet wheel l5 one step
each time the key is depressed to close a pair 10
of contacts l6 and H. The contact I6 is car
ried by a pivoted arm I8'which has a roller [9
riding on the ratchet wheel i5. In addition, the
transmitting instrument embodies a key_ 20 and
1'5 be sent is changed or coded before it reaches - a key 2|, the purpose of which will be more fully 15
explained hereinafter. The keys l3, when de
the actual transmitting stage and is automati
cally decoded at the receiving station for which pressed, are adapted to make contact with cer
it is intended, leaving other receiving stations
toreceive the message in its coded form.
It is the purpose of the present invention to
provide a methodof coding and decoding mes-.
sages under the control of the transmitter sta
tion. In all coding systems utilizing a substi
tuted character for the intended character as
25 in the present case it is possible if the message
is intercepted to trace the substitutions owing
to the recurrence of certain characters such,.i‘or
example, as the vowels of the alphabet.
This method of deciphering codes depends pri
30 marily upon determining the relative frequency
withwhich the characters appear in any message;
The present invention provides means where
by the code may be changed so frequently as to
make it impossible for anyone to decipher the
35 message by obtaining information as to the fre
quency of recurrence of any character.
I have illustrated my invention as applied to
a transmitting system using‘ a single channel or
line between the sending and the receiving sta
40 tion such as is disclosed in the United States
patent to Baudot No. 388,244. The sending and
receiving machines may be generally of the con
struction shown schematically in the drawing,
that is, ordinary telegraphic transmitting and
receiving typewriters or they may be similar to
that shown in the Rugh Patent Number 1,937,983.
The purposes and advantages of the inven
tion will appear more clearly as the description
proceeds in connection with the accompanying
drawing, wherein-
The ?gure is a schematic diagram showing a
transmitting station and a receiving station em
bodying the mechanism necessary to carry out
. the present invention.
Referring now in detail to the drawing, the
tain combinations of stationary contacts of which
there are ?ve in number appearing directly un
der the key I3 and numbered from I to 5. Con
tacts I to 3 lead to a connecting net work 22
where each lead from the contacts is connected
to a stationary contact in each of the three banks
23, 2'4 and 25. It will be noted that the lead
from contact I of key i3 is connected to the
left hand stationary contact inv bank 23 to the
middle and right hand stationary contacts of
bank 24 and to the right hand stationary con
tact of bank 25. As shown, contacts 2 and 3
under key l3 are connected to the banks 23, 24
and 25 of stationary contacts in the following
manner: The lead from contact 2 connects to
the center stationary contact of bank 23, to the
left hand stationary contact of bank 24 and has
no connection to bank 25. The lead from con
tact 3 under key I3 connects to the right hand
stationary contact of bank 23 and to the left
hand and center stationary contacts of bank 25.
A series of wiper arms 26, 21 and 28 are piv
oted on a suitable support (not shown) and are
also connected to an operating bar 29 which is
movable to shift contacts 26, 2'! and 28 in unison
from one of the stationary contacts to another of
the banks 23, 24 and 25. The contact members
26‘, 21 and 28 are directly connected to segments 45
i, 2 and 3 of a distributor 30.
This distributor
is of the well known type including six sections
insulated from each other and a wiper arm 3!
having a brush 32» adapted to contact the sev
eral sections as the arm 3! is rotated. The wiper
arm 3! is normally held in stop position by a
stop pawl 33 so that it will engage the starting
section 6. When contact is made between con
tacts i6 and I1, current is supplied from battery
I? to a relay 34 for withdrawing the stop pawl 33
to permit rotation of the arm 3|. It is under
stood, of course, that suitable means are provided
for rotation of the arm 3| as is well understood
in the art. A transmission line 35 connects the
arm 3| with an arm 36 of a second distributor
31 at receiving station. The arm 36 has a brush
38 thereon and is also held by a stop pawl 39
similar in all respects to stop pawl 33. Also, when
current is supplied to arm 3| from battery |2, the
10 path of the current extends from arm 3| to arm
36, the brush 38 and the stationary contact 36
on the distributor 31 through a relay 46 to ground,
to thereby release stop pawl 39 at the same time
stop pawl 33 is released. In the normal opera
15 tion of an electrical transmitting device of this
character the depression of a key, such as | 3,
would result in starting both arms 3| and 36 in
motion and at the same time the key depressed
would close one or more of the contacts | to 5
associated therewith. Assuming that contact |
is closed by depressing key l3, it will be noted that
a circuit is made from battery |2 through key
|3, contact | and the left hand contact of the
stationary bank 23, movable contact 26 and seg
25 ment I of the distributor 36. Now, when arm 3|
contacts the segment I of the distributor 30, the
circuit is extended through brush 32, arm 3| and
the transmission line 35 to arm 36. Arm 36 has
at this time, however, also arrived upon segment
30 I of the distributor 31. The circuit is therefore
extended through arm 36 and its brush 38 and
segment I to movable contact 4| in a bank of
movable contacts 4|, 42 and 43 at the receiving
station ||. These contacts at the receiving sta
35 tion are also connected to an operating arm 44
so that they may be moved in unison over the
banks 45, 46 and 41 of stationary contacts at the
receiving station. Banks of contacts 45, 46 and
41 at the receiving station are connected to a
40 plurality of relays I, 2 and 3 at the receiving
station and these relays control suitable arms
such as 48 for operating typing keys 49 to im
print a character upon a sheet of paper which
may be provided on the roll 50. The details of
45 this mechanism, however, are well known in the
art and will not be described herein. The cir
cuit as traced thus far will, of course, be com
pleted to ground at relay | to cause the actuation
at the receiving station of the key corresponding
50 to key l3 at the transmitting station.
The banks of contacts 45, 46, and 41 at the
receiving station are connected to relays I, 2,
and 3 in the same manner as the banks of sta
tionary contacts 23, 24, and 25 are connected to
55 the contacts | to 3 under the key l3, thus pro
ducing a network which is the duplicate oi.’ the
network 22.
In the present method of coding messages, I
employ means for actuating the bars 29 and 44
60 to shift movable contacts 26, 21 and 28 at the
transmitting station and movable contacts 4|,
42 and 43 at the receiving station at the will of
the transmitter so that these movable contacts
may be shifted to any desired position on their
65 stationary banks of contacts as frequently as is
desired by the transmitter of the messages. In
order to accomplish this result, the keys 20 and
2| are provided at the transmitting station and
key 20 is adapted to contact a contact 4 beneath
70 it for directly connecting battery l2 to segment
4 upon the distributor 30. The key 20 is also
provided with a contact 5| for engaging a sta
tionary contact 52 to connect battery |2 to a relay
53 for energizing this relay. When the relay 53
is energized it attracts a spring held armature 54
which, in turn, operates a pawl 55 movable be
tween a pair of steps 56 and 51 to cause this pawl
to a ratchet segment 58, which segment is piv
oted at 59 and is connected by link 60 to the
bar 29. Thus, when the pawl 55 is moved down,
it will move the bar 29 to shift contacts 26, 21
and 28 on to the middle contacts of the respec
tive banks 23, 24 and 25. The keys 26 and 2| are
also provided with suitable pawls, like H, to en
gage corresponding ratchet wheels |5 on the shaft
I5’ so as to close contacts l6 and I1 when either
key is depressed to thus cause the rotation of
wiper arms 3| and 36. When the wiper arms 3|
and 36 arrive at the fourth segments of their dis—
tributors, they complete a circuit from battery
|2 through key 20 and contact 4 associated there
with, segment 4 and wiper arm 3| of the dis
tributor 30, line 35, arm 36 and segment 4 of dis
tributor 31 to relay number 4 and ground. Re
lay number 4 controls a stepping arm 6| at the
receiving station so that when relay 4 is ener
gized it attracts this arm to close a contact 62
thereon with a contact 63 leading to a relay 64.
The relay 64 operates a stepping mechanism con
sisting of an armature 65 and a pawl 66 engaging 25
a ratchet segment 61 pivoted at 68 to a suitable
support not shown. The ratchet segment 61 is
connected by a link 69 to the bar 44 so as to con
trol the movement of the movable contacts 4|, 42
and 43. Thus, when the movable contacts 26, 30
21 and 28 are moved to the middle contacts of
their respective banks, the movable contacts 4|,
42 and 43 also are moved to the middle contacts
of their respective banks. Relay 64 is energized
from a battery l2’ at the receiving station.
It is evident from the connection of the con
tacts |, 2 and 3 associated with the keys |3
with their respective banks 23, 24 and 25 and
the connection of‘ relays of |, 2 and 3 at the
receiving station with their respective banks 45, 40
46 and 41 of stationary contacts that the im
pulses transmitted over line 35 will not be the
same as when the movable contacts 26, 21 and
28 and 4|, 42 and 43 were on the left hand sta
tionary contacts of their respective banks. 45
Therefore, impulses transmitted for a given key
l3 although receivable at the receiving station
H to again actuate the same relay, will not do
so upon some other receiving station which has
not been correspondingly shifted. Thus, the op
erator at the transmitting station can, by actua
tion of the key 26, cause changes in the impulses
transmitted by the impression of any particular
key |3 as often as he desires and corresponding 55
changes will be set up at the receiving station.
I have shown only three stationary contacts in
each bank at the sending and the receiving sta
tions, although it is evident that there may be
any desired number within the limits of the 60
combinations of the ?ve groups of impulses used.
The key 2| is utilized to return the stepping
mechanism for the bars 29 and 44 to starting
position whenever desired. Thus, this key 2|
connects through contact 5 the source of cur 65
rent |2 to segment 5 on the distributor 30 and
correspondingly the relay 5 at the receiving sta
tion is connected to segment 5 on the distributor
31 to control an arm 10 which, in turn, controls
the connection of battery l2’ through contacts 70
1| to a release relay 12. The contacts 13 and
14 associated with the key 2|, control connec
tion of the battery [2 to a release relay 15. When
release relays 12 and 15 are energized, they
attract the pivoted armatures 16 and 11 asso 75
ciated therewith which pivoted armatures are
really holding pawls engaging the ratchet seg
ments 61 and 58 and when these pawls are at
tracted by their respective relays they also actu
ate the pawls 55 and 66 by means of the pins
18 and 19 thereon to release these pawls from
the segments 58 and 6'! permitting the segments
to return to zero or starting position, due to the
springs 80 and 8| associated therewith.
From the above description it is believed that
the diagrammatic sketch will be sufliciently clear
to indicate how the operator at a transmission
station l0 may change the code by which he is
transmitting a message as frequently as he de
sires by manipulation of the step key 20 and the
zero or return key 2|.
The code will be corre
spondingly changed at the receiving station al
though the message sent would, if picked up by
someone else from the line 35, be wholly unin
20 telligible. The code changes may be made at
de?nite intervals, that is to say, for every word
1. A system for the secret transmission of
messages which comprises a sending station,
means for translating the characters of a mes—
sage into combinations of electrical impulses at
the sending station, means at the sending sta
tion for transposing the order of the impulses
in the combinations before transmission thereof,
a receiving station having means to receive im
pulses in the order in which they are transmitted,
means at the receiving station for restoring the 10
order of impulses, control means at the sending
station for said restoring means, a character
selecting means at the receiving station actuated
by the impulses after they have passed through
said restoring means, said transposing and re 15
storing means comprising duplicate net works
at the sending and receiving stations respectively
and having banks of stationary contacts con
nected in multiple to the translating means and
the selecting means respectively, and movable 20
contact members movable over the contacts of
or for every ten characters or in any manner, v said banks by actuation of said control means.
the operator sees ?t. Hence, no sequence of
2. In a system of the character described, a
repetition of characterswould be of any aid in
25 deciphering the message.
sending station, means at the sending station
for translating the characters of a message into 25
I have discovered that the same system may
combinations of electrical impulses, a receiving be used by the receiver of a message to decode station having means to receive the impulses in
the message provided he has a duplicate of the
the order in which they are transmitted, char
apparatus shown in the drawing, that is, a trans , acter selecting means at the-receiving station
30 mitting instrument and a receiving instrument
actuated by the impulses, and manually operable 30
and provided he knows the intervals at which control means at the sending station for effect
the codes were changed and the changes made. ing in rapid succession a plurality of different
To decode the message in this fashion, it is only transpositions in the order of impulses in the
necessary for the receiver of the message who has combinations before transmission thereof, said
received it without it going through a decoding receiving station having a device for restoring
receiver, such as II, to transmit the message as
the order of impulses, and said control means
received in the code on his local transmitter being operatively connected to said restoring
_to his local receiver, making the same changes means whereby to cause said restoring means
in the code as were made by the transmitter in to be correspondingly changed for each transg
originally sending the message. If the code
change has only been a simple transposition
such, for example, as connectingcontact I asso
' ciated with the key l3 to segment 2 of the trans
mitting distributor and ‘contact 2 of the key
45 bank with segment I of the distributor, these
changes will come correct upon the message be
ing transmitted through the transmitting system
one time. 1 The more complicated changes, how
ever, require continued running of the message
50 two or three or more times through the trans
mitter with the operator continuing to make the
same code changes as were made originally when
the message was sent. Ultimately, the diiferent
groups of the entire message will be decoded until
it reads exactly like it was sent by the original
operator at the transmitting station.
position eii’ected at the sending station.
3. In a method of secretly transmitting a coded
message ‘and decoding the same when received
which comprises setting up at a sending station
combinations of electrical impulses representing
the characters of the message, and transmitting 45
said impulses to a receiving station, and select
ing characters at the receiving station by means
of the received impulses, those steps in the
method which comprise transposing the order of
the impulses in the combinations before trans 50
mission thereof, continuously and repeatedly
changing the order of transposition at the send
ing station, selecting characters at the receiving
station by means of the impulses as received in
their transposed order whereby to form a mes 55
sage in code, and thereafter decoding the mes
From the above description it is believed that I sage at the receiving station by transmitting the’
the features of the present method of transmit
ting coded messages will be clear to those skilled
60 in this art and the advantages thereof, readily
Having thus described the invention, what I
claim as new and desire to secure by Letters
Patent is:
message consisting of the characters formed by
the received transposed impulses through a local
transmitting and receiving system, and effecting 60
the same changes in transposition of the order
of impulses as were effected at the original send
ing station before transmitting the message.
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