Патент USA US2110149код для вставки
March 8, 1938. 2,110,149‘ H. o. RUGH ' CODE TRANSMI'SSION SYSTEM Filed Aug. 14, 1935 fnuenilar- 1' gar)? 0. f1’uy/ZL ‘Patented Mar. 8, 1938 2,110,149 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE 2,110,149 CODE TRANSMISSION SYSTEM Harry 0. Rugh, Chicago, 111. Application August 14, 1935, Serial No. 36,114 3 Claims. (Cl. PIS-22) transmitting station is designated generally by This invention‘ relates to the coding of mes sages which are to be transmitted by wire or over the air between two stations for the pur pose of maintaining the contents of the message 5 secret. 4 The invention is particularly adapted for use in the transmission of messages electrically by the use of the so-called Baudot method whereby combinations of electrical impulses constitute 10 signals representing certain characters such as the letters of the alphabet. In my prior application, Serial No. 756,057, ?led December 5, 19,34 for Code transmission sys tem, a system is provided whereby a message to the numeral l0 and the receiving station by the ' numeral II. The transmitting station embodies a source of current I2, a series of keys l3, of which only one is shown, it being understood, of course, that these keys are part of a tele graphic typewriter. Each of the keys I3 is pref erably provided with a stepping pawl M which is adapted to rotate a ratchet wheel l5 one step each time the key is depressed to close a pair 10 of contacts l6 and H. The contact I6 is car ried by a pivoted arm I8'which has a roller [9 riding on the ratchet wheel i5. In addition, the transmitting instrument embodies a key_ 20 and 1'5 be sent is changed or coded before it reaches - a key 2|, the purpose of which will be more fully 15 explained hereinafter. The keys l3, when de the actual transmitting stage and is automati cally decoded at the receiving station for which pressed, are adapted to make contact with cer it is intended, leaving other receiving stations toreceive the message in its coded form. It is the purpose of the present invention to provide a methodof coding and decoding mes-. sages under the control of the transmitter sta tion. In all coding systems utilizing a substi '20 tuted character for the intended character as 25 in the present case it is possible if the message is intercepted to trace the substitutions owing to the recurrence of certain characters such,.i‘or example, as the vowels of the alphabet. This method of deciphering codes depends pri 30 marily upon determining the relative frequency withwhich the characters appear in any message; The present invention provides means where by the code may be changed so frequently as to make it impossible for anyone to decipher the 35 message by obtaining information as to the fre quency of recurrence of any character. I have illustrated my invention as applied to a transmitting system using‘ a single channel or line between the sending and the receiving sta 40 tion such as is disclosed in the United States patent to Baudot No. 388,244. The sending and receiving machines may be generally of the con struction shown schematically in the drawing, that is, ordinary telegraphic transmitting and receiving typewriters or they may be similar to that shown in the Rugh Patent Number 1,937,983. The purposes and advantages of the inven tion will appear more clearly as the description proceeds in connection with the accompanying drawing, wherein- ’ The ?gure is a schematic diagram showing a transmitting station and a receiving station em bodying the mechanism necessary to carry out . the present invention. 55,v Referring now in detail to the drawing, the tain combinations of stationary contacts of which there are ?ve in number appearing directly un der the key I3 and numbered from I to 5. Con tacts I to 3 lead to a connecting net work 22 where each lead from the contacts is connected to a stationary contact in each of the three banks 23, 2'4 and 25. It will be noted that the lead from contact I of key i3 is connected to the left hand stationary contact inv bank 23 to the middle and right hand stationary contacts of bank 24 and to the right hand stationary con tact of bank 25. As shown, contacts 2 and 3 under key l3 are connected to the banks 23, 24 and 25 of stationary contacts in the following manner: The lead from contact 2 connects to the center stationary contact of bank 23, to the left hand stationary contact of bank 24 and has no connection to bank 25. The lead from con tact 3 under key I3 connects to the right hand stationary contact of bank 23 and to the left hand and center stationary contacts of bank 25. A series of wiper arms 26, 21 and 28 are piv oted on a suitable support (not shown) and are also connected to an operating bar 29 which is movable to shift contacts 26, 2'! and 28 in unison from one of the stationary contacts to another of the banks 23, 24 and 25. The contact members 26‘, 21 and 28 are directly connected to segments 45 i, 2 and 3 of a distributor 30. This distributor is of the well known type including six sections insulated from each other and a wiper arm 3! having a brush 32» adapted to contact the sev eral sections as the arm 3! is rotated. The wiper arm 3! is normally held in stop position by a stop pawl 33 so that it will engage the starting section 6. When contact is made between con tacts i6 and I1, current is supplied from battery I? to a relay 34 for withdrawing the stop pawl 33 2 2,110,149 to permit rotation of the arm 3|. It is under stood, of course, that suitable means are provided for rotation of the arm 3| as is well understood in the art. A transmission line 35 connects the arm 3| with an arm 36 of a second distributor 31 at receiving station. The arm 36 has a brush 38 thereon and is also held by a stop pawl 39 similar in all respects to stop pawl 33. Also, when current is supplied to arm 3| from battery |2, the 10 path of the current extends from arm 3| to arm 36, the brush 38 and the stationary contact 36 on the distributor 31 through a relay 46 to ground, to thereby release stop pawl 39 at the same time stop pawl 33 is released. In the normal opera 15 tion of an electrical transmitting device of this character the depression of a key, such as | 3, would result in starting both arms 3| and 36 in motion and at the same time the key depressed would close one or more of the contacts | to 5 associated therewith. Assuming that contact | is closed by depressing key l3, it will be noted that a circuit is made from battery |2 through key |3, contact | and the left hand contact of the stationary bank 23, movable contact 26 and seg 25 ment I of the distributor 36. Now, when arm 3| contacts the segment I of the distributor 30, the circuit is extended through brush 32, arm 3| and the transmission line 35 to arm 36. Arm 36 has at this time, however, also arrived upon segment 30 I of the distributor 31. The circuit is therefore extended through arm 36 and its brush 38 and segment I to movable contact 4| in a bank of movable contacts 4|, 42 and 43 at the receiving station ||. These contacts at the receiving sta 35 tion are also connected to an operating arm 44 so that they may be moved in unison over the banks 45, 46 and 41 of stationary contacts at the receiving station. Banks of contacts 45, 46 and 41 at the receiving station are connected to a 40 plurality of relays I, 2 and 3 at the receiving station and these relays control suitable arms such as 48 for operating typing keys 49 to im print a character upon a sheet of paper which may be provided on the roll 50. The details of 45 this mechanism, however, are well known in the art and will not be described herein. The cir cuit as traced thus far will, of course, be com pleted to ground at relay | to cause the actuation at the receiving station of the key corresponding 50 to key l3 at the transmitting station. The banks of contacts 45, 46, and 41 at the receiving station are connected to relays I, 2, and 3 in the same manner as the banks of sta tionary contacts 23, 24, and 25 are connected to 55 the contacts | to 3 under the key l3, thus pro ducing a network which is the duplicate oi.’ the network 22. In the present method of coding messages, I employ means for actuating the bars 29 and 44 60 to shift movable contacts 26, 21 and 28 at the transmitting station and movable contacts 4|, 42 and 43 at the receiving station at the will of the transmitter so that these movable contacts may be shifted to any desired position on their 65 stationary banks of contacts as frequently as is desired by the transmitter of the messages. In order to accomplish this result, the keys 20 and 2| are provided at the transmitting station and key 20 is adapted to contact a contact 4 beneath 70 it for directly connecting battery l2 to segment 4 upon the distributor 30. The key 20 is also provided with a contact 5| for engaging a sta tionary contact 52 to connect battery |2 to a relay 53 for energizing this relay. When the relay 53 is energized it attracts a spring held armature 54 which, in turn, operates a pawl 55 movable be tween a pair of steps 56 and 51 to cause this pawl to a ratchet segment 58, which segment is piv oted at 59 and is connected by link 60 to the bar 29. Thus, when the pawl 55 is moved down, it will move the bar 29 to shift contacts 26, 21 and 28 on to the middle contacts of the respec tive banks 23, 24 and 25. The keys 26 and 2| are also provided with suitable pawls, like H, to en gage corresponding ratchet wheels |5 on the shaft I5’ so as to close contacts l6 and I1 when either key is depressed to thus cause the rotation of wiper arms 3| and 36. When the wiper arms 3| and 36 arrive at the fourth segments of their dis— tributors, they complete a circuit from battery |2 through key 20 and contact 4 associated there with, segment 4 and wiper arm 3| of the dis tributor 30, line 35, arm 36 and segment 4 of dis tributor 31 to relay number 4 and ground. Re lay number 4 controls a stepping arm 6| at the U! 10 15 20 receiving station so that when relay 4 is ener gized it attracts this arm to close a contact 62 thereon with a contact 63 leading to a relay 64. The relay 64 operates a stepping mechanism con sisting of an armature 65 and a pawl 66 engaging 25 a ratchet segment 61 pivoted at 68 to a suitable support not shown. The ratchet segment 61 is connected by a link 69 to the bar 44 so as to con trol the movement of the movable contacts 4|, 42 and 43. Thus, when the movable contacts 26, 30 21 and 28 are moved to the middle contacts of their respective banks, the movable contacts 4|, 42 and 43 also are moved to the middle contacts of their respective banks. Relay 64 is energized 35 from a battery l2’ at the receiving station. It is evident from the connection of the con tacts |, 2 and 3 associated with the keys |3 with their respective banks 23, 24 and 25 and the connection of‘ relays of |, 2 and 3 at the receiving station with their respective banks 45, 40 46 and 41 of stationary contacts that the im pulses transmitted over line 35 will not be the same as when the movable contacts 26, 21 and 28 and 4|, 42 and 43 were on the left hand sta tionary contacts of their respective banks. 45 Therefore, impulses transmitted for a given key l3 although receivable at the receiving station H to again actuate the same relay, will not do so upon some other receiving station which has not been correspondingly shifted. Thus, the op erator at the transmitting station can, by actua tion of the key 26, cause changes in the impulses transmitted by the impression of any particular 50 key |3 as often as he desires and corresponding 55 changes will be set up at the receiving station. I have shown only three stationary contacts in each bank at the sending and the receiving sta tions, although it is evident that there may be any desired number within the limits of the 60 combinations of the ?ve groups of impulses used. The key 2| is utilized to return the stepping mechanism for the bars 29 and 44 to starting position whenever desired. Thus, this key 2| connects through contact 5 the source of cur 65 rent |2 to segment 5 on the distributor 30 and correspondingly the relay 5 at the receiving sta tion is connected to segment 5 on the distributor 31 to control an arm 10 which, in turn, controls the connection of battery l2’ through contacts 70 1| to a release relay 12. The contacts 13 and 14 associated with the key 2|, control connec tion of the battery [2 to a release relay 15. When release relays 12 and 15 are energized, they attract the pivoted armatures 16 and 11 asso 75 2,110,149 ciated therewith which pivoted armatures are really holding pawls engaging the ratchet seg ments 61 and 58 and when these pawls are at tracted by their respective relays they also actu ate the pawls 55 and 66 by means of the pins 18 and 19 thereon to release these pawls from the segments 58 and 6'! permitting the segments to return to zero or starting position, due to the springs 80 and 8| associated therewith. From the above description it is believed that the diagrammatic sketch will be sufliciently clear to indicate how the operator at a transmission station l0 may change the code by which he is transmitting a message as frequently as he de sires by manipulation of the step key 20 and the zero or return key 2|. The code will be corre spondingly changed at the receiving station al though the message sent would, if picked up by someone else from the line 35, be wholly unin 20 telligible. The code changes may be made at de?nite intervals, that is to say, for every word 3 1. A system for the secret transmission of messages which comprises a sending station, means for translating the characters of a mes— sage into combinations of electrical impulses at the sending station, means at the sending sta tion for transposing the order of the impulses in the combinations before transmission thereof, a receiving station having means to receive im pulses in the order in which they are transmitted, means at the receiving station for restoring the 10 order of impulses, control means at the sending station for said restoring means, a character selecting means at the receiving station actuated by the impulses after they have passed through said restoring means, said transposing and re 15 storing means comprising duplicate net works at the sending and receiving stations respectively and having banks of stationary contacts con nected in multiple to the translating means and the selecting means respectively, and movable 20 contact members movable over the contacts of or for every ten characters or in any manner, v said banks by actuation of said control means. the operator sees ?t. Hence, no sequence of 2. In a system of the character described, a repetition of characterswould be of any aid in 25 deciphering the message. sending station, means at the sending station for translating the characters of a message into 25 I have discovered that the same system may combinations of electrical impulses, a receiving be used by the receiver of a message to decode station having means to receive the impulses in the message provided he has a duplicate of the the order in which they are transmitted, char apparatus shown in the drawing, that is, a trans , acter selecting means at the-receiving station 30 mitting instrument and a receiving instrument actuated by the impulses, and manually operable 30 and provided he knows the intervals at which control means at the sending station for effect the codes were changed and the changes made. ing in rapid succession a plurality of different To decode the message in this fashion, it is only transpositions in the order of impulses in the necessary for the receiver of the message who has combinations before transmission thereof, said received it without it going through a decoding receiving station having a device for restoring receiver, such as II, to transmit the message as the order of impulses, and said control means received in the code on his local transmitter being operatively connected to said restoring _to his local receiver, making the same changes means whereby to cause said restoring means in the code as were made by the transmitter in to be correspondingly changed for each transg 40 originally sending the message. If the code change has only been a simple transposition such, for example, as connectingcontact I asso ' ciated with the key l3 to segment 2 of the trans mitting distributor and ‘contact 2 of the key 45 bank with segment I of the distributor, these changes will come correct upon the message be ing transmitted through the transmitting system one time. 1 The more complicated changes, how ever, require continued running of the message 50 two or three or more times through the trans mitter with the operator continuing to make the same code changes as were made originally when the message was sent. Ultimately, the diiferent groups of the entire message will be decoded until it reads exactly like it was sent by the original operator at the transmitting station. position eii’ected at the sending station. 40 3. In a method of secretly transmitting a coded message ‘and decoding the same when received which comprises setting up at a sending station combinations of electrical impulses representing the characters of the message, and transmitting 45 said impulses to a receiving station, and select ing characters at the receiving station by means of the received impulses, those steps in the method which comprise transposing the order of the impulses in the combinations before trans 50 mission thereof, continuously and repeatedly changing the order of transposition at the send ing station, selecting characters at the receiving station by means of the impulses as received in their transposed order whereby to form a mes 55 sage in code, and thereafter decoding the mes From the above description it is believed that I sage at the receiving station by transmitting the’ the features of the present method of transmit ting coded messages will be clear to those skilled 60 in this art and the advantages thereof, readily apparent. Having thus described the invention, what I claim as new and desire to secure by Letters Patent is: ' message consisting of the characters formed by the received transposed impulses through a local transmitting and receiving system, and effecting 60 the same changes in transposition of the order of impulses as were effected at the original send ing station before transmitting the message. HARRY O. RUGH.