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Патент USA US2110230

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March 8, 1938.
D. w. MAIN
2,110,230
COMBIf‘ZIE'D ROAD AND RAIL VEHICLE ‘
Filed Oct. 21, 1955
5.9
'
2 Sheets-Sheet i
196
EAL-
INV@NTOR.
?aw/1U’ M Ml”.
ATTORNEYS.
March s, 1938.
D. w. MAIN
2,110,230
COMBINED ROAD AND'RAIL VEH‘ICLE
Filed Oct. 21, 1935
2 Sheets-Sheet 2
_
INVENTOR.
id}?! 14.’ Main
vBY
ATTORNEYS.
2,1102%
Patented Mar. 8, 1938
rarest orgies
._ UNITED s'ra'rss
2,110,230
COMBINED ROAD AND1 RAIL VEHICLE
David W. Main, Detroit, Mich, assignor to Trans
portation Systems, Inc, a corporation of Okla
homa
' Application October 21, 1935, Serial No. 45,941
20 Claims.
H The
present
invention
(Cl. 105-4215)
relates to vehicles
adapted for either rail or road operation, and
more-particularly to pilot devices for use in such
vehicles.
5
'
-‘It'is an object of the present invention to pro
vide, in a combined road and rail vehicle having
main and pilot axles, a safety device to positively
retain the‘pilot axle in track engaging position.
It is a further object of the present invention
Fig. 5 is a view in horizontal section, taken
along the line 5-'--5 of Fig. (i; and
located in the ‘Vehicle interior.
way. , During track travel pilot trucks may be
to retainjthe pilot axle in the lowered or track
engaging position.
>
15 ~‘ It is a further object of the present invention
to provide a safety device as above stated which
may selectively be moved from an effective to an
20 '_It is a further object of the present invention
toprovide a safety device as above stated which
comprises‘ a pair of standards, connected to the
pilot 'axle'at spaced points, and resiliently con~
nected to a portion of the vehicle frame.
It is a further object of the present invention
to, provide a safety device of the last mentioned
type in, which the cooperating parts of the pilot
axlean'd the standards include a plurality of dif
ferent steps, ' which determine the e?ective
30 lengths of the safety device.
,
_ It is a further object of the present invention
to provide a combined road and rail vehicle em
bodying one or more pilot axles which may be
raised‘from or lowered to a track engaging posi
35 tion, and which are continuously biased to a
track engaging position. ~
‘ It isga further object of the present invention
to provide a vehicle of the last mentioned type
in‘ which the means for retaining the pilot axle
‘40 in track engaging position acts continuously be
tween the pilot vaxle and the pilot frame.
' ‘Further objects of the present invention are to
"generally simplify and improve the construction
‘of combined road and rail vehicles, and to provide
45 a construction which is reliable in operation and
economical of manufacture and assembly.
‘Other objects and advantages of the present
invention‘ appear in the following description and
'inTthLe appended claims.
'
In the drawings, throughout the several views
of which corresponding reference characters are
used to designate corresponding parts:
Figure 1 is a partial plan view of an illustrative
embodiment of the present invention;
1'55
Fig.‘ 4 is a detail view of one of the elements
shown in'Figs. l, 2 and 3;
ineffective position by mechanism conveniently
vehicle frame and'the pilot axle, and which acts
50
Fig. 3 is a view in front elevation with certain v
of the parts broken away, corresponding to Figs.
1 and. 2;
Fig. 6 is a view of a modi?ed stepped connec 10
tion.
Combined road and rail vehicles of the general
type to which the present invention relates may
comprise in general a‘ motor vehicle having a
frame or body portion suspended in a conven 15
tional way from front and rear main trucks,
which function during road travel to drive and
to permit steering of the vehicle in the usual
10 to provide a safety device as above stated which
forms a supplemental connection between the
25
of the parts broken away, of the structure illus
trated in Fig. 1;
‘Fig. 2 is a View in side‘ elevation with certain
provided for each of the main trucks which serve
to guide and retain the main truck on the tracks.
An arrangement of this general character is dis
closed and certain features thereof claimed in
Patent 2,002,901 granted May 28, 1935 to David
W. Main, the present applicant.
In accordance with the construction provided
in the Main patent,- each pilot truck is connected
to the main vehicle frame through a raising and
lowering device, which may be selectively operat~
ed to‘ raise the associated pilot truck away from 30
the tracks, or to lower it into engagement with
the track, and cause it to assume a desired por
tion of the vehicle load. A connection is also
provided between each pilot axle and the as
sociated main axle which acts to positively align 35
the main and pilot wheels and to prevent lateral
or cross-wise movement between them. The axle
connection is rigidly made to both the main and
pilot axles and is of a spring-like character, so
that in operation, such connection may also
transmit a certain ‘proportion of the vehicle load
to the pilot axle.
In accordance with the present invention, a
supplemental connection is made between each
pilot axle and the vehicle structure. In the form
illustrated, the supplemental connection com
prises a pair of standards for each pilot axle,
one end of each of which engages the pilot axle,
and the other end of each of which is resiliently
connected to the vehicle frame. The connection 50
to the vehicle frame is also pivotal, so that the
standards may he swung away from the associ
ated pilot axle and thus rendered effective and
ineffective at will. The swinging of the ‘stand
ards may be e?ected in various ways, the illus
55
a
.
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2,110,230
vtratecl arrangement comp-rising a simple linkage
which may conveniently be operated from the
interior of the vehicle.
Preferably and as alsovillustrated, theconnec
tion' between the lower end of each standard and
the associated pilot axle is of the ratchet or
stepped type, so that the effective length of each
also sustain a part or'all of the vehicle load, as
determined by the adjusting mechanism.
In order to render the pilot wheels l3 e?ective
to properly guide the main wheels M, axle I6
is connected to main'axle l2 by the arms 24 and
the cross struts 26. The forward end of each
arm 24 is preferably rigidly connected as by
standard is determined by the particular ratchet
studs 30, to an associated seat 28 which in turn
or step engaged. In one embodiment, the lower
10.> end of each standard is formed to provide a plu
rality of spaced steps, any one of which isformed
may be rigidly secured, as by welding, to axle
to cooperate with a seat formed on the pilot axle.
In a modi?ed embodiment, the lower end of each
standard is formed to engage with any of a plu
15
I 6.
The rear end of each arm-.24 is connected 10
to a relatively short link 32, as by studs 34. Each
link 32 in turn is hinged by a pin 36 to a split
bracket 38 of the type embodied in the applica
tion of Sulo M. Nampa, Serial No. 50,384, ?led
rality of spaced ratchet steps formed‘ in a-_ seat
November 18, 1935, and which may be rigidly
provided on each pilot axle.
secured-to the underside of main axle I2 by a
-
‘
‘
3
In accordance with one mode of practicing ~ tightening stud '46. The cross struts 26 are se
cured at the respective ends thereof to arms 24
the present invention, the standards act as safety
devices which supplement the action of the prin
cipal loweringand raising mechanisms. In oper
ation, the'main raising and lowering mechanisms
may be actuated to lower the pilot axles into
by the previously mentioned studs 39 and are also ‘
interconnected at their mid-points by a suitable 20
Clipaz-
l
,.'
a:
_ engagement with: the tracks,v and to impose a
‘As will be evident, the'arms 24 and the cross
struts 36 form a-irelatively rigid frame,- which
desired proportion of the vehicle'load, upon, such
engages the main and pilot axles at pointsspaced
pilot axles. After such lowering action, the
standard may be swung into jaxle engaging po
substantial'distances from the centers. thereof, 25
sition, after which they act to, supplement the
action of the main lowering mechanism, and pro
vide a positive means forrctaining the associated
pilot, axles in engagement withthe tracks even
in the event of failure, during operation, of the
main raising and lowering'mechanism. In this
Way, any danger of derailment as a consequence
of failure of. such raising and lowering mecha
nism is eliminated, and the safety of operation
of the combined road and rail vehicle is corre
spondingly increased.
,
' ‘l ,
,
In accordance with a second mode of prac
ticing the present invention, the standards may
be retained in continuous engagement with, the
associated pilot axles and vso provide ,a?contin
uous force urging the pilotjaxles into track’ en
gaging positions. Underthese conditions, the
previously mentioned raising and lowering mech
anism acts against such'force in raising the pilot
axles away from ‘thelntrack.
Accordingly, the
' structure provided is one vin which the pilot axle
structure inherently retains the axles upon the
tracks andexternal mechanism is provided to
raise the axles from the track. Failure of-such
. , external mechanism,’ accordingly, is never accom
panied by a removal of the'lpilot axles from the
track.-
I
a
, Considering the abovementioned' elements in
more detail and referring particularly to- Figs. 1,
2-and 3, an illustrative front end of a combined
‘road and rail vehicle having a frame it is pro
vided’with a main frontaxle l2 and associated
wheels M, and with a pilot axlel? having flanged
60 wheels l8 of substantially smaller radius than
that of wheels I 4. Illustrative steering mecha
nism, which may of course be of any conven
and acts tosubstantially eliminate any lateral'pr
crosswise movement of either axle with respect to»
the other. The vframe, through its hinged ‘con
nections with the main axle i2, however, permits
a relatively free vertical movement of pilot axle
It with respect to axle i2, such, for example, as
may be encountered in operation due'to traclrir-v
regularities, and such, of course, as is accom
panied by a raising operation of pilot'axlel 6 from
the track engaging position. It is noted that the
raising and lowering of the pilot wheels 18 as af
35
fected by track irregularities'may be diiferentv for
each wheel, and consequently, one wheel l8 may
be raised from the vtrackwayv while the other
wheel It remains in engagementwith the track?
way. ‘Under these conditions, alrotationof the
pilot axleabout such engaging'wheel as va center
results. If the frame comprising arms 24 and
struts 36 were in fact absolutely rigid, it is recog
nized thatgthis tilting could not occur and that
an irregularity of either track, would, therefore,
raise or lower both pilot wheels simultaneously.
It has been found in practice, however, that the
frame comprising members 24 and struts '36 may
be made su?iciently'rigid to ‘reduce lateral or .
crosswise movement between axles’lZ and Hi to a
permissible point, and still permit ,any-required
amount of raising of one pilot wheel l8 without
a?ecting the position of the other pilot wheelg‘l8.
The construction thus afforded, accordingly.
maintains the main and. pilot‘ wheels accurately
in alignment, positively guiding and maintaining
the main wheels'upon the tracks, and still per
mits the pilot wheels to individually follow any
irregularities which they may encounter.
The illustrated mechanism for raising and low
. 60
ering the pilot axle 16 comprises a cylinder'desig
tional type. for main front wheels Hi comprises hated generally at. 56 which is mounted upon the
the fragmentary element 20." Itwill be ‘under
forwardly extendingv arms 58 ‘of an auxiliary
stood that‘ main wheels M mayjsupport the ve I frame structure‘ 60 for universalmovement with
hicle during road travel, and'may have an outer respect thereto. Frame structure 60 also includes 76.5
I surface such as will adapt them to also ride upon
rails 22, and thus form a support for the vehicle
during rail travel aslwell, if desired.
. The spacing between pilot wheels I8 is such
as will adapt them for cooperation with tracks
22 and it will be understood that these wheels
are designed to act primarily‘ during track travel.
During track travel, the pilot‘, wheels guide and
- at retain ‘the main wheels [4 upon'the track, and
rearwardly extending'arms 52 whichqare spaced
apart to correspond to the spacing between the
main side members on frame Ill-and are rigidly
secured thereto in any suitable manner.
7 ;
Cylinder 50 is preferably of the type embodied
in the above identi?ed Nampa application, and
comprises generally a conventional ‘housing 52
which accommodates a usual piston ‘(not shown)
c‘onnectedto the piston-rod 54. ~Tru-nnions 55 se- P15
3
2,110,230
cured to housing 52 in radially outwardly extend
ing relation are pivotally supported in bearings
51 formed in a cradle 59. Cradle trunnions 62
secured to cradle 59 and disposed normal to trun
nions 55 are pivotally supported in- bearings 64
formed in brackets 66 which are suitably secured,
as by the studs 68, upon the above mentioned
arms 58. Housing 52 is thus universally mounted
with respect to the vehicle frame, and tilting
10 movements of the latter are not transmitted to
piston rod 54.
.
_
As best shown in Fig. 3 the lower end'of piston
rod 54 is threaded into a ball ‘I0 which is sup-‘
ported within a socket ‘I2. Socket ‘I2 may be
15 rigidly secured to the pilot axle I6 in any suitable
manner. A. transverse pin ‘I4 which- passes
through and extends outwardly from ball ‘I0 co
operates'with the elongated recesses “formed
in the socket 12, thus permitting a limited amount
of universal movement between the lower end of
rod 54 and socket ‘I2, and still preventing
axial rotation of rod 54. The just described
parts, accordingly, form a universal connection
between rod 54 and the pilot axle I6. The con
trol conduits for cylinder 50 may be arranged as
shown in the above identi?ed Main patent, and
have been omitted from the drawings to avoid
confustion. It will be understood cylinder 50
may be actuated to either raise or lower pilot axle
I6. Depending also upon the pressure developed
within cylinder 50, pilot axle I6 may be caused to
take all or a desired share of the forward part
of the vehicle load. A compressible ?uid, such as
air, is preferably used, so that cylinder 50 forms
351 a resilient connection between the vehicle and
axle I6.
.
‘
Referring particularly to Figs. 2, 3 and 4, a
supplemental connection between frame I0 and
the pilot axle I6 is afforded by the pair of spaced
40 arms I20, which are of similar construction. In
the form illustrated, each arm I20 comprises a
main tubular member I22, into which a sleeve I23
is ?tted in stationary relation to member I22. A
plunger I28 is formed to be relatively, freely,
slidably received in the opening I24 formed in
sleeve I23, and is provided with an externally
threaded shank portion I30, which is threaded
into an adjusting nut I25. A relatively light
positioning spring I32 surrounds plunger I28, and
50 is seated between the shoulder I33 formed at the
upper end thereof, and the upper edge of sleeve
I23. A corresponding but substantially heavier
load spring I34 also ‘surrounds plunger I28, and
is seated between the shoulder I33 and a corre
sponding shoulder I36 formed intermediate the
ends of cylinder I22. The lighter spring I32 acts
to maintain adjusting nut I25 in engagement with
the lower end of sleeve I23.
65
I
As best shown in Fig. 5, adjusting nut I25 is
provided with a series of spaced radial openings
I40, one ‘or more of which may be tapped to'ac
commodate a locking set screw I42. An opening
I44 in the‘side'of cylinder I22 aifords access to
the openings I40. It will be understood that by
backing off set screw I42, nut I25 may be notched
_ around by’ inserting a suitable tool through the
opening I44 and into the openings I40. This ad
‘justment' correspondingly draws plunger I28
downwardly within cylinder I22 or permits it to
move outwardly thereof under the influence of
spring I32, and effects an adjustment of the free
length of the arm I20.
The upper end of each arm I20 is provided
with a clevis I48 through which it ,is connected
75 to a rock shaft I49 journaled in the auxiliary
frame member 60.
Set screws I50 prevent ro
tation between arms I20‘ and shaft I49.
The
lower end of each arm I20'is formed to provide
a succession of stepped seats I52 and I54, which
form a connection between each ‘arm I20 and
pilot axle I6.
Alternatively, as shown in Fig. 6, the lower
end of each arm I20 may be formed to provide .
the head I62, and a ratchet type seat 164 having
teeth I66 may be secured to axle I6 for selective 10
engagement by each arm I20.
Each of the arms I20 is biased to the full line
position shown in Fig. 2 by a tension spring I55,
suitably connected between the previously men
tioned shoulder I36 ‘and a bracket I58 formed on
the frame I0. Suitable provision for swinging
each arm I20 between the full line and dotted
line positions of Fig. 2 may comprise the pull
connection I60, which preferably extends into
the interior of the vehicle, and is connected to
a crank I62 suitably secured at the end of rock
shaft I49.
In operation, the relatively light positioning
spring !32 maintains the upper edge of nut I25
in engagement with the lower end of the inner
sleeve I23 of each arm and is effective to pre
vent rattling of the parts during such times as
arms I20 may occupy the dotted line positions
shown in Fig. 2. In this position, the adjust
ment is preferably such that the upper end of
the load spring I34 is spaced slightly from the
collar I33. Upon lowering the pilot'axle I6 onto
the trackway, the control link I50 may be actu
ated, to release the ‘arms I20, permitting each of
them to move to the full line positions shown
in Fig. 2 under the in?uence of the tension
springs I56 and to a position in which one or the
other of the stepped seats I52 and I54 is directly I
over the pilot axle I6. When in such operative
positions, the arms I20 form positive safety de 40
vices to prevent more than a predetermined and
adjustable amount of upward movement of axle
I6 with respect to frame I0. Accordingly, any
failure of the raising and lowering mechanism
comprising jack 50, is not, accompanied by a 45
raising of the pilot axle from the trackways.
Should such a failure occur,-the load previously
transmitted to the pilot axle through the cylin~
der is‘ transmitted thereto through the main or
load springs I34 of the arms I 20. Also the arms 50
i2Il act to transmit to the pilot axle, any excess
load which might otherwise be borne by the main
wheels and unduly compress the tires thereof.
In certain instances it is desirable to adjust
the arms I20 so that upon lowering of the arms 55
52% to active position, they immediately share
the vehicle load with the raising and lowering
mechanism. In either instance, if the load on
the vehicle is varied, as by unloading or loading,
the arms I 20 automatically take up the differ 60
ence in spacing between the vehicle frame and
the pilot axle, either the balancing spring I32
or both springs I32 and I34 expanding or con
tracting, or the seating of the arms being
changed, to e?ect such take up.
65
If the vehicle is heavily loaded at the time
arms I20 are lowered, it may be expected that
the upper seats I52 will be initially effective, be-.
cause of the reduced spacing between the ve
hicle and the pilot axle caused by the load. If 70
the load is then gradually decreased,‘ causing a
raising of the vehicle level, a point maybe
reached in which the lower seat may be above
the pilot axle level, permitting a further swing
ing of the arms to bring such lower seat into 75
4.
effective‘ position." A similar action occurs in raising and; loweringsaid pilQt truck from and to
the use of thearrangement of; Fig. 6, the arms. a gtrackvengaging position and" for maintaining
£26 automatically moving up theteeth I66 in said pilot truck in alignment with said main truck,
response to decreasing load. , In the reverse case,
and a protective device forming. va supplemental
of gradually increasing; load, a reverse or, step
connectionljbetween said ’ vehiclev and said pilot
ping down of the ends of the arms l2ll may be I truck and comprising,aipairl of. standards for re
eifected by actuating the cylinder 58 to-increase
.7 the spacing between the pilot axle andthe ve
silicntlymaintainingrsaid pilot truck in track en_
gaging posil'eiqn disposed at spaced points along
‘nicle su?ciently to release-{thearms and per
mit the operator‘ to swing the arms outwardly ‘; 4.-A combined'road and-arailgvehicle havingxa
through connector I68]. jBy letting up on cyl
main truck and a pilot truck, comprising selec- .
ind'er 50, and again dropping the arms,‘ a new . tivelyoperable means connected between said
said
step position will/be assumedyby them‘ depend—
ent upon the vehicle load.v .
15
I
,
v
_
I
1
7
It will also be evident that because of the free
connections between the lower end of each arm
pilotaxlei
‘_
a
.
.
M
v
a
pilot truclrand'said» vehicle forraisirig and low
ering‘said pi1ot,;truck from and to; track engaging
position, ;a supplemental .- protective connection
between said vehicle and said pilot trucl; formain
lid and pilot axle. it, that any tendencyof.
either, pilot wheel 18 to fallfurther away from
taining ‘said pilot truck; in track-engagingsposition,
the frame 10, due to track irregularities or other
20, causes, is not interfered with by the arms I20.
Such falling away is not interfered with by the
cylinder rod ‘54 since the latter is located at
nection
1 _5.~‘A combinedroad
effective, and ineffectiveat
and. rail vehicle
will. having a
substantially the mid-point of the pilot shaft is.
As an alternative mode of operation, the arms
and'imeans for rendering said supplemental con
truck and, a pilot truck comprising selec
20
tively- operable means for raising and lowering
said pilot truck from and to atra'ck engaging
position,v a pairof vstandards pivotally connected
25 920 may be permitted to remain continuously, in ' to‘ ‘said’ vehicle; and means'for swingingsaid 2.5.
‘cooperative engagement with the pilot axle I6.
-With this arrangement the cylinder 5!] acts to standards into engaging relationjwith. said pilot
truck to thereby maintain it in track engaging
retract the pilot axle l6 againstthe force of the’
arms I28.
In operation; accordingly; the pilot
30 axle is continuously urgedwby the arms l2!) to
the track engaging’ position, and any failure of
the cylinder or associated mechanism results in
the pilot axle moving to the trackrengaging po
sition.
35
'
~
5
~
7
.7
'
,
'
' It will be notedthat arms 528, in addition to
limiting ‘vertical movements of‘ pilot axle lftalso
are effective to limit a horizontal movement
thereof towards the main axle, andact, accords
ingly, to supplement the aligning frame compris
40 ing arms 24 in maintaining the main and pilot
axles properly spaced.
.
It will be evident that although the speci?c
embodiment of the present invention, has been
illustrated with reference to afront axle, the
‘.125. principles and features thereof are applicable to
both front and rearaxles. It will also be evi
dent that various changes may bemade in the
position.
1
1
e.
H
~;
I
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~
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._;6.-A.ccmbined rail ndsroad vehicle having a
main truck and a pilot trucl; comprising selec
tivelyv operable means .for raising; and- lowering
said pilot truck from and to a track engaging
positionla pair of standards pivotally connected to
saidvehicle at syrmnetrically spaced points from
the longitudinal center line thereof, and means 35.
for swinging said standards into engaging rela
tionship with saidpilottruck to thereby maintain
itin track engaging position.
_
‘
7. A combined railv and road vehicle having a
mainrtruclr-andapilot truck. comprising selec
40
tively. operable meansci’or; raising and lowering
said pilot truck from and to-ma track engaging '
position, a pairéof standards pivoted to said vehi
cle frame at symmetrically spaced points from the
longitudinal axis thereof, andv adapted to freely 45
seat'uponsaid pilot truck, and means for swing
form, number and arrangement of ‘the parts - ing said‘ standards into andv out of seating rela
50
tionship withv said pilot truck.
within the spirit and ‘scope of the present in
vention as defined in the appended claims.
What is
claimed is:
- --
,
‘
‘ , ‘
~ . 3
I
V
"1 8.‘ A combined roadlan'd rail'vehicle' having a
'
l. A'combined road and rail vehicle having
main‘ and pilot trucks- comprising selectively op
erable means connected between said pilot truck
and said .vehicl'efor raising and lowering said
pilot truck from and to a track engaging position
and for maintaining said pilot truck in align?
ment with said main truck, and a protective de
vice forming a supplemental connection between 1'
main axle and a pilot laxl-epcomprising aligning
means connecting said axles for preventing rela
tive- lateral movement thereof, continuously act
50
inglmeans. for urgingzsaid pilot axle to a track
engaging position including a pair of standards
connected to said vehicle frame at points sym 5,5.
metrically ~~spaced>from the longitudinal axis
thereof,-and means for raising said pilotaxle from
said track engaging position against the force of
said continuously acting means. . ’
‘
' 7'
said vehicle and said pilot truck for maintaining v_ 9.- A'combined; rail and road vehicle having a
said pilot truck in» engagement with said tracks. . main ‘truck and ap-ilot'truck, comprising a pair 60
2. A ‘combined road- and rail vehicle having a
main truck and a‘ pilot truck comprising selec
tively operable means connected ‘ betweenv said
65 pilot truck and said vehiclefor raising and lower
ing said pilot truck from and to a track engaging
positioniand-for maintaining said pilot truokin
alignment with said main truck, and means form
ing a supplemental connection between said vehi
70 cle and said. pilot truck and eifective to resiliently
'maintain said 'pilot‘truck in a track engaging
,
position.
'
‘ . _3. ‘A combined road andrail vehiclewhaving a
' ‘main truck anda pilot truck for guiding ‘said main
truck comprising selectively operable means for
of resilient standards connectedto said frame and
freely’ seated against said“ pilot truck for contin
uouslyurging?said pilotptruevk into track engag
ing‘ positionpand meansfor raising said :pilot 65,
truck, froTme'said track engagingposition against
the force of vsaid standards.
' l
Y
'
10.‘ ‘A combined road and/rail: vehicle compris
ing in combinationa main truck connected to
said vehicle, a pilot truck, means urgingsaid pilot
truck into track engaging position comprising a 70
standard pivotally connectedtolsaid vehicle and
freely seated upon said pilot'truc'kj
'
I 11.v A combined'rail and road vehicle compris
ing“
combination‘ a .main truck connected to 75
5
2,110,230
said vehicle, a pilot truck,v means urging said pilot
truck into track engaging position comprising a
pair of standards connected to said vehicle and
freely seated upon said pilot truck, said standards
being disposed in symmetrically spaced relation
from the longitudinal center line of said vehicle.
12. In a combined road and rail vehicle having
a pilot truck, a standard for forming resilient
connection between said vehicle and said truck,
comprising a pair of telescopically related ele
ments, means pivotally connecting one of said
elements to said vehicle, means connecting the
other of said elements to said pilot truck, and
spring means for controlling relative movement
15 between said elements.
13. In a combined road and rail vehicle having
a pilot truck, a standard for resiliently connecting
said pilot truck to said vehicle comprising a pair
of relatively moveable elements, means pivotally
connecting one of said elements to said vehicle,
and means forming a series of steps on the other
of said elements for selective engagement with
said pilot truck.
14. In a combined road and rail vehicle, a pilot
25 truck associated with said vehicle, a standard
for forming a connection between said vehicle and
said pilot truck comprising a pilot truck engag
ing portion, and a succession of steps supported
on said pilot truck to selectively form seats for
said standard.
15. A combined road and rail vehicle compris
ing in combination a main axle, a pilot assembly
having a pilot axle adapted to be raised and
lowered from and to track engaging position;
aligning means connected between said pilot as
sembly and said vehicle for preventing transverse
relative movement between said main and pilot
axles and means for retaining said pilot axle in
track engaging position comprising a swingable
40 arm connected at one end of said vehicle and dis
posed to have its other end freely seated upon said
pilot assembly.
16. A combined road and rail vehicle compris
ing a main vehicle structure including a main
axle; a pilot structure having a pilot axle adapted
to be raised and lowered from and to track engag
ing position; aligning means connected between
said pilot structure and said main vehicle struc
ture for preventing relative transverse movement
of said main and pilot axles; and means for re
taining said pilot axle in track engaging position
comprising an arm, means adapting one end of
said arm to be freely seated upon one of said
structures, and means movably connecting the
other end of said arm to the other of said struc
tures so that said arm may be selectively moved
into and out of seating position.
17. A combined road and rail vehicle compris
ing a main vehicle structure including a main
axle; a pilot structure having a pilot axle adapted
to be raised and lowered from and to track en
gaging position; aligning means connected be
tween said pilot structure and said main vehicle
structure for preventing relative transverse move
ment of said main and pilot axles and means for 1O
retaining said pilot axle in track engaging posi
tion comprising a resiliently constructed arm,
means for adjusting the length of said arm, means
adapting one end of said arm to be freely seated
on one of said structures, and means movably 15
connecting the other end of said arm to the other
of said structures so that said arm may be moved
into and out of seating position.
18. A combined road and rail vehicle having a
main axle and a pilot axle comprising selectively 20
operable means connected between said vehicle
and said pilot axle for raising and lowering said
pilot axle from and to track engaging position,
aligning means for preventing transverse relative
movement between said main and pilot axles, 25
supplemental connecting means disposed to co
operate between said vehicle and said pilot axle
to maintain said pilot axle in track engaging
position, and means forming a pivotal connection
between said vehicle and said supplemental means 30
so that said supplemental means may be swung
into or out of co-operative relation to said pilot
axle.
19. A combined road and rail vehicle structure
comprising in combination a main truck con
35
nected to said vehicle, a pilot structure, means
urging said pilot structure into track engaging
position comprising a standard pivotally con
nected at one end to one of said structures and
freely seated at the other end upon the other of 40
said structures.
20. In a combined road and rail vehicle having
a pilot truck, a standard for forming resilient
connection between said vehicle and said truck,
comprising a pair of relatively movable elements, 45
means pivotally connecting one of said elements
to said vehicle, means connecting the other of said
elements to said pilot truck, a ?rst spring con
nected between said elements and effective to urge
said pilot truck to a predetermined position, and 50
a second spring connected between said elements
and disposed to be rendered effective upon com
pression of said ?rst mentioned spring to a pre
determined extent.
'
DAVID W. MAIN.
55
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