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Патент USA US2110259

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March 8, 1938.
A. BOUWERS
I
ZHQZEQQ
HIGH TENSION DISCHARGE TUBE
‘Filed Nov. 16, 1933
2 Sheets-Sheet 1
. 5'
'
,iiffamey .
March 8, 1938.
BOUWERS
2711-0359
HIGH TENSION DISCHARGE TUBE
2 Sheets-Sheet 2
. 47700194
Patented Mar. 8, 1938
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE
2,110,259
HIGH TENSION DISCHARGE TUBE
Albert Bouwers, Eindhoven, Netherlands, as
signor, by mesne assignments, to N. V. Philips’
Gloeilampenfabrieken, Eindhoven, Netherlands,
a Dutch company
Application November 16, 1933, Serial No. 698,379
In Germany December 2, 1932
13 Claims.
My invention relates to high-tension discharge
tubes and more particularly to X-ray tubes.
While I shall describe my invention as applied
to X-ray tubes, it is not limited thereto but is
adapted for use in high-tension discharge tubes
in general.
One object of my invention is to reduce the
size of such high-tension tubes, and to eliminate
the dangers caused by the high operating~volt~
10 age.
Another object of my invention is to provide
high-tension discharge tubes of such a shape
that their use is greatly facilitated.
A further object of my invention is to con
nect a high-tension discharge tube to supply
1 leads in a simple manner whereby a minimum
amount of material is used without decreasing
the electrical protection of the tube.
As stated above, my invention is particularly
adapted for use with X~ray tubes, as with such
Fig. 3 is a side-view, partly in section, of an
X-ray tube having a U-shape.
The X-ray tube shown in Fig. 1 has an em
velope consisting of an equipotential portion l0
and two vitreous reentrant portions 4 and 5 sealed 5
to the ends of portion l0 and carrying an anode
structure 2 and a cathode structure 3 respec
tively. The portion H! has the form of a metal
case, which insures that this portion of the tube
will have the same potential throughout.
Instead of making the portion NJ entirely of
metal it may consist of a wall of insulating ma~
terial provided with a conductive coating. Thus,
in referring to an equipotential portion it is to be
understood that this is meant to include both a 15
portion made entirely of metal, and a portion
consisting of insulating material provided with a
conductive coating.
It is well known in the art
of making high-voltage discharge tubes to pro
vide a conductive-surface over a portion of the
tubes a small size and a shock~proof construction
wall, especially the portion surrounding the dis
is of great importance.
In accordance with the invention, I form the
exposed portions of the Wall of the tubes of metal
charge path.
or an insulating material provided with a metal
coating which may be grounded, and support the
electrodes from reentrant parts of insulating ma
terial secured to the ends of the exposed wall
portions. The reentrant parts take up the elec
30 trostatic load and also serve to support supply
conductors for the electrodes which conductors
are insulated from ground for the full tension of
the tube.
As the reentrant parts take up substantially
the entire potential difference between the elec
trodes, they can be brought very close together
with the result that the supply conductor will also
be brought close together. Due to this the tube
may be given a U or V shape which, in the case
of X-ray tubes, greatly facilitates. their use.
To further increase the insulating capacity I
?ll the hollow spaces between the reentrant parts
and the supply conductors with a liquid or solid
45
(Cl. 250—35)
' insulating material.
The invention will be more clearly understood
by reference to the accompanying drawings rep
resenting, by way of example, some forms of con
struction thereof.
Figure l is a side view partly in section and
with parts broken away, of an X~ray tube in ac;
cordance with the invention.
1
Fig. 2 is a side view partly in section, showing
an X-ray tube which is rotatably mounted and
55 having a V-shape.
A particular feature of my invention is that the
conductive surface extends over the entire outer
or exposed portion of the tube whereas the high
tension is taken up entirely by the reentrant por
tions 4 and 5 which are made of insulating ma
terial such as glass.
Furthermore, all parts of
the tube having a potential difference with the
equipotential portion are surrounded by the equi_
potential portion whereby it is unnecessary to
provide a protective housing to prevent one from
coming too close to the high-tension parts. Due
to this a shock-proofed tube is obtained without
employing a protective housing.
The reentrant portions 4 and 5 are given a
suf?ciently large inside diameter to receive sup
ply conductors 6 and 1 respectively together with
insulating members 8 and 9. surrounding con
ductors 6 and ‘1 respectively. The insulating
members 8 and 9 serve to prevent sparking-over
under the influence of the electric ?eld set up be
tween the supply conductors 6 and l‘ and the
equipotential portion ill.v The portion Ed has
secured to it two terminal caps ii and i2 pro
vided with side arms [3 and Hi respectively which
extend parallel with each other and normal to
the longitudinal axis of the X-ray tube and serve
for securing the terminal parts 15 and it of
the cables. Although in Fig. l, the insulation of 50
conductors 6 and ‘l is effected by funnel shaped
members 8 and 9 of solid insulation material, it
may also be formed by a liquid insulating ma
terial ?lling up the whole space bounded by the
reentrant portions 4 and 5 and the terminal caps 55
2
2,110,259
H and i2 respectively. Since part of the outer
wall of the envelope which surrounds the dis
charge space consists entirely of metal and is
grounded, a protecting envelope is super?uous,
and in addition the size of the complete X-ray
tube is extremely small. The tube can be easily
handled and the window I‘! serving for the pas
sage of the rays is readily accessible.
The X-ray tube represented in Fig. 2 com
10 prises two metal tubes 2| and 22 connected in'
the form of a V. The potential difference be
tween the electrodes 41 and 48 and the tubes 2!
and 22 is taken up by the insulating re-entrant
parts 23 and 24.
The potential of the metal part
15 of the tube wall formed by tubes 2! and 22 may
lie approximately half way between the poten
tials of the electrodes. The supply conductors
are surrounded by solid insulators 25 and 26
which are constructed as inlet insulators and
traverse a turn disc 21' to which the tubes 25 and
22 are secured by means of ?anged joints.
The turn‘ disc 21 bears on guide rollers 46‘
movably supported in a race of the partition
wall between the chamber in which the irradia
25 tion is effected and that wherein the generation
What I claim is:
1. An electric discharge tube for high tension,
having an enclosing envelope and electrodes
mounted therein, said envelope comprising a U
shaped tube forming substantially all of the ex
posedexterior surface of the discharge tube and
having conductive and electrically interconnected
inner and outer surfaces, and also comprising re
entrant portions extending inside the legs of
said U-shaped tube, said re-entrant portions con 10
sisting of insulating material and carrying the
electrodes, high tension insulators extending into
the said re-entrant portions, and high tension
supply conductors passing through the said in
15
sulators to the electrodes of the tube.
2. An X-ray tube comprising an anode struc
ture, a cathode structure and an enclosing en
velope, said envelope comprising a U-shaped tube
forming substantially all of the exposed exterior
surface of the X-ray tube and having inner and 20
outer conductive surfaces which are electrically
interconnected and also comprising re-entrant
portions, said re-entrant portions carrying the
electrodes and insulating same from said U
shaped. tube, ‘said electrodes being spaced from
of the high tension occurs in such a manner
each other to form a discharge gap in the base
that the X-ray tube is rotatable about an axis
which bisects the angle between the axes of the
portion of said U-shaped tube, two high tension
reentrant parts.
insulating layer and a metal sheath, said cable
sheath being connected to the conductive surface 30
If desired, the rotatory disc
30 may also be made to be movable in an upward
cables each comprising a conductive core, an
The anticathode mirror is at an
of said U-shaped tube, and said insulating layer
angle of 45° with this axis and inclined with
respect to a direction normal to this axis and
to the main direction of the cathode rays so that
and cores extending into said reentrant portions,
each electrode of the tube being connected to one
direction.
35 X-rays emerging in an axial direction and in a
direction normal thereto can be used. The win
dow serving for irradiation in an axial direction
is denoted by 28 in the drawings. The insulators
25 and 26 have secured to them travelling rollers
29 and St for ?exible conductors owing to which
the rotation of the X-ray tube is not hindered
within wide limits by the’ supply conductors.
The U-shaped X-ray tube represented in Fig.
3 also has a metal outer Wall and legs 3| and 32
45 which enclose the glass reentrant parts 33 and
34?- surrounding the supply conductors 35 and
38 of the cables. These cables extend to the elec
trodes, namely the cathode 31 and the anode 38.
rI‘he discharge path is normal to the axial direc
tion of the re-entrant parts 33 and 34. In con
tradistinction to both other forms of construc—
tion the anode of the tube is provided with a
slightly inclined frontal surface whereon a linear
focus is formed. The focal spot appears mate
rially shortened when projected through the
window 39. The supply cables are provided
with grounded coatings which do not extend
into the rc—entrant part. Furthermore metal
of said cores.
3. A shock-proof high tension discharge tube ‘
having an enclosing envelope, electrodes mounted
therein, and supply conductors for said electrodes
and connected thereto, said envelope comprising
a metal tubular member forming substantially all
of the exposed exterior surface of the tube, a re 40
entrant portion of vitreous material sealed to
each end of the tubular member, each of said re
entrant portions carrying one of said electrodes
and surrounding the supply conductor of its elec
trode, the combined insulating capacity of said 45
re-entrant portions being adapted to withstand
the operating voltage existing between said elec
trodes, said supply conductors being covered by
a high tension insulation which extends into the
said re-entrant portions.
4. In combination an X-ray device having two
electrode members and high tension supply cables
therefor, said device comprising a tubular metal
vessel forming substantially all of the exposed
exterior surface of the tube and having a win
dow for the exit of the X-rays and two side
55
tubes, said side-tubes extending parallel to each
other and in a direction forming an angle with
rings Kill and ill are provided which form an un
the direction of the X-ray beam, and being
interrupted continuation of the internal surface
spaced from each other a distance smaller than 60
their length, a glass tube mounted co-axially in
each of said side-tubes, one end of each glass
of said coatings and on which bear rings t2 con
sisting of plastic insulating material, for instance
of rubber. The space between said insulating
rings and the bent edge of the re-entrant parts
is
?lled up with oil or an insulating material 43.
65
The metal rings
and G! are ?rmly pressed by
cap nuts lit and 45 which are screwed on the up~
per ends of the legs 3! and 32 so that the insulat
ing rings are duly arranged and the insulating
material or the oil 43 penetrates into the spaces
between the cables and the re-entrant parts.
In
this manner the cables are ?xedly connected to
the metal vessel of the tube and at the same
time su?icient protection against breakdown is
obtained.
tube being flared and sealed edgewise to the
surrounding side tube, and the opposite end of
said glass tubes being sealed to one of said elec
trode members, said cables comprising a high
tension insulation extending into said glass tubes,
and a metal sheath surrounding said insulation,
the metal sheath of the cable extending only to
the edge of the side-tube facing the electrode
member, and means for electrically and mechani
cally connecting the sheath with the side tube.
5. A shock-proof high tension discharge tube
having an enclosing envelope and electrodes
mounted therein, said envelope having an equi
2,110,259
potential portion, and a re-entrant portion sur
rounded throughout the greater part of its
length by said equipotential portion and carrying
an electrode said equipotential portion forming
substantially all of the exposed exterior surface
of the tube, a supply conductor for said electrode
surrounded by said re-entrant portion, said sup
ply conductor having a coating of insulating ma
terial partly ?lling up said re-entrant portion,
the outer surface of said coating being spaced
from the walls of said re-entrant portion, and
an insulation material of higher insulating ca
pacity than air ?lling up the space between said
coating and wall.
15
6. In combination an X-ray tube comprising
a metal tube member forming substantially all
of the exposed exterior surface of the X-ray
tube, and two tubular glass members having
?ared rims at one end, said ?ared rims being
edgewise sealed to the two ends of said metal
tube, said glass members forming‘ re-entrant
portions within said metal tube, electrode mem
bers mounted one at each of the other ends of
said glass members, said electrode members be
25 ing spaced apart to form a discharge gap, in
sulators mounted within said glass members, and
supply conductors passing through said insu
lators and connected to said electrode members,
and metal cap members secured to the two ends
80 of said metal tube, said cap members having ap
ertures and high tension cables passing through
said apertures and adapted to be secured to said
insulators.
7. A shock-proof high-tension electric dis
35 charge tube comprising an enclosing envelope
having a hollow equipotential portion forming
substantially all of the exposed exterior surface of
the tube, and insulating re-entrant portions ex
tending into said equipotential portion, said equi
40 potential portion surrounding the major part of
said re-entrant portions, electrodes within said
envelope and carried by said re-entrant portions,
45
50
55
60
current-supply conductors for said electrodes ex
tending through said reentrant portions, and in
sulation material surrounding said conductors
and capable of withstanding the voltage differ
ence existing between the respective conductor
and said equipotential portion.
8. A shock-proof X-ray tube comprising an
envelope having a hollow equipotential portion
forming substantially all of the exposed exterior
surface of the tube and extending substantially
to the ends thereof, and two re-entrant portions
of insulation material extending into said equi
potential portion and surrounded thereby over
substantially their entire length, an anode car
ried by one re-entrant portion, and a cathode
carried by the other re-entrant portion.
9. A shock-proof high-tension electric dis
charge tube comprising an envelope having an
equipotential wall portion forming substantially
all of the exposed exterior surface of the tube,
and hollow re-entrant portions of insulation ma
terial electrostatically loaded during operation,
65 said re-entrant portions extending into said equi
potential portion and being substantially sur
rounded thereby, electrodes within said envelope
3
and carried by said re-entrant portions, and cur
rent conductors connected to said electrodes and
extending into the space surrounded by said re
entrant portions.
10. A shock-proof high-tension electric dis
charge tube comprising electrodes, an evacuated
envelope having a hollow metal wall portion ex
tending substantially to the ends of the tube, and
hollow glass re-entrant portions extending from
each end of the tube into said metal portion and 10
surrounded thereby throughout substantially
their entire length, each of said glass portions
carrying one of said electrodes, and current-sup
ply conductors connected to said electrodes and
extending into the space surrounded by said glass 15
portions.
11. A shock-proof high-tension electric dis
charge tube comprising an evacuated envelope
having an equipotential wall portion forming sub
stantially all of the exposed exterior surface of 20
the tube, and hollow portions of insulation mate
rial extending into said equipotential portion and
being surrounded thereby throughout substan
tially their entire length, electrodes within said
envelope and carried by said insulating portions, 25
current conductors connected to said electrodes
and extending into the space surrounded by said
insulating portions, and additional insulation
material covering the inner surfaces of said in
sulating portions and having a greater insulat
ing capacity than air.
12. A shock-proof X-ray tube comprising elec
30
trodes, an evacuated envelope comprising a tu
bular metal body forming substantially all of the
exposed exterior surface of the tube, and re
35
entrant glass tubular bodies sealed to the ends
of said metal body and capable of withstanding
high voltages between their ends, said glass
bodies carrying said electrodes and being sur
rounded by said metal body throughout substan 40
tially their entire length, current conductors con
nected to said electrodes and extending into said
tubular bodies to form a space therewith, insu
lating material of greater insulating capacity
than air ?lling said space, high-tension supply 45
cables electrically connected to said conductors,
and means mechanically connecting said cables
to said metal tubular body.
13. A shock-proof X-ray tube comprising elec
trodes, an evacuated envelope having a metal tu 50
bular body forming substantially all of the ex
posed exterior surface of the tube, and re-en
trant glass tubular members sealed to the ends
of said metal tubular body, said glass members
being surrounded substantially throughout their 55
entire length by said body, said re-entrant tu
bular members carrying said electrodes, high
tension current conductors extending through
said glass members and forming spaces there
with, insulating material ?lling said spaces, high 60
voltage supply cables electrically connected to
said conductors, and metal caps secured on the
ends of said metal tubular body and mechanical
ly connecting said cables to said metal tubular
member.
65
ALBERT BOU'WERSL
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