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Патент USA US2110334

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March 8, 1938.
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Filed Jan. 27,1937
2 Sheets-Sheet 2
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Patented Mar. 8, 1938
William G. Knight, Derby, Maine
Application January 27, 1937, Serial No. 122,592
1 Claim.
(0]. 122-462)
tive boilers of the type wherein the superheater
tubes project rearwardly from the smoke box
power available when using a superheater de
signed as described in- detail hereinafter,. is
throughout a wide range of ‘piston speeds as
greatly in excess of that ordinarily afforded by
5 'into ?re tubes of the boiler, and the object is to
the conventional type’ of commercial superheater
motives, giving adequate superheat while at the
that type of superheater, in excess of the horse
power developed by use of saturated steam alone
same time providing for the delivery to the cylin
without any superheat.
This‘ invention relates to superheaters more
particularly for use in connection with locomo
provide an improved construction of superheater,
among other things applicable to existing loco
"10 ders of steam at a pressure greaterthan is ef
fected by superheaters as hitherto known.
My'invention will be well understood by refer
ence to the following description of the illustra
tive embodiment thereof shown by way of ex
"155 ample in the accompanying drawings, wherein:—
Fig. 1 is a transverse section on two planes
through the smoke box of a locomotive having
my superheater applied thereto looking rear
Wardly toward the front ?ue sheet of the boiler;
Fig. 2 is a part section, part plan, of the header
shown in Fig. 1;
Fig. 3 is a longitudinal section on the line 3-3
Fig. 4 is a plan view of one of the superheater
Referring now to the drawings, I have there
shown partially the smoke box of a locomotive
boiler to which open through the front ?ue sheet
‘I ?re tubes or ?ues 9, at least certain of which,
arranged generally in vertical and horizontal
ranks, are of such diameter as to be adapted to 15
receive therein superheater tubes. In the upper
portion of the smoke box parallel to the ?ue sheet
is disposed a. cast steel header ll‘, best shown in
Fig. 2, divided by the serpentine partition l3into
a saturated steam chamber having an intake port
l5 communicating with the dry pipe from the
steam dome and a saturated steam chamber hav
ing oiftak'e ports I‘! vby which the superheated
of Fig. 2;
now in use as is thehorse power resulting from
steam is led to the cylinders. Steam from the
former compartment is delivered to the latter
Fig. 5 is an enlarged vertical section of a part
of one of the superheater units; and
Fig. 6 is a fragmentary plan thereof on the
through superheater tubes l9 disposed in the
?ues and each comprising a single U-shaped loop
extending'into the ?ue, the path of the steam
same scale.
being, in contrast with the conventional prac
tice, from the saturated steam chamber through
the single loop in a single ?ue and hence directly
to the superheated steam chamber.
The tubes I9 are of substantially the maximum
size which can thus be accommodated in the ?ue,
and this may be expressed by saying that the
combined width of the two legs of the loop (see
Fig. 4) is substantially equal to the internal di
ameter of the ?ue 9 which receives them.
Locomotive superheaters of the type compris
ing a header across the top of the smoke box
providing a chamber for the reception of saturat
ed steam from the dry pipe and of superheated
steam for discharge to the cylinders and super
5.35 heater tubes connecting the same and extend
ing into the ?ues of the boiler are well known.
As at present constructed they have been de—
veloped on the theory that it is necessary to pass
For constructional reasons it is desirable to
the steam through the heated zone in small col
gang up or manifold together certain of the
'41) umns to effect the necessary heat exchange.
Hence superheater tubes of relatively small di ' superheater tubes, but only under conditions pro
ameter have been disposed either with multiple viding for substantially uniform distribution of
steam through the various loops and free flow
loops in a single ?ue or with successive loops dis
posedserially in a number of adjacent ?ues. The of the same. I have found it possible tocombine
the loop tubes in units of which there is one cor 45
45 resulting great friction causes a marked loss of
responding to every ?ue of a rank extending in
pressure in the steam as delivered to the cylin
one direction, herein the horizontal rank, and
ders, hitherto accepted as inevitable. In ac
cordance with my invention by a proper balance corresponding to- not more than two of the other
rank, herein two of the vertical rank. In the
of constructional features I provide for the pas
sage of steam in larger columns through shorter construction shown the connections whereby the 50
paths and under much lower velocity. While superheater tubes proper are connected to the
thus departing from conventional methods of header comprise sections of tube 2! of suitable
length and of a cross sectional area equivalent to
construction, I have demonstrated by actual dy
namometer car tests that, while obtaining an that of two superheater tubes. Thus by way of
55 equal degree of superheat, the cylinder horse example and without limitation, where the tubes 56
I!) are of two-inch external diameter and with
a wall of nine-gauge metal on the Birmingham
wire gauge, the tube 2| may be of two and seven
eighths inch external diameter and of the same
wall thickness.
The tubes 2| pass vertically
through the staggered openings 23 in the lower
wall of the header H (Fig. 2) and are expanded
therein. To permit this the upper wall of the
header opposite the openings 23 has aligned open
10 ings closed by the plugs 25 and access may be
had to these by means of a removable section 21
(Fig. 1) of the boiler shell. The lower ends of
the tubes 2| are connected by welding to cast steel
?ttings 29 which are extended downwardly and
15 sweep forwardly in an easy curve with a gradual
taper to substantially the diameter of the super
heater tube. The end of the tube l9 may have,
immediately outward of the ?ue sheet, as best
seen in Figs. 3 and 4, an easy curve through a
20 vertical angle complementary to the angle formed
by the curve of the lower portion of the ?tting
29, ‘with which may be combined a curve in a
horizontal plane, as seen in Fig. 4, providing for
proper spacing of the ?tting at the ends of the
25 loop, and then be continued for a short distance
in a right line to align with the reduced end of
the ?tting to which it is welded. The tube l9,
?tting 29. and tube 2| are thus autogenously
united in an integral whole free of mechanical
30 joints and 'a smooth and uninterrupted passage
from the header to the tube is provided through
which the steam can ?ow with minimum friction.
The other leg of the tube is connected to a simi
lar ?tting connected by a similar length of tube
2| with the superheated steam chamber of the
To provide for the accommodation of two
superheater tubes in each set of the tubular con
nections, the larger upper portion of the ?tting
29 is formed laterally thereof and at an angle
merges with the lowermost part of the wall of
the extension 3i.
Referring to Fig. 2, it will be noted that on
the removal of any of the tubes for inspection or
repair where the units which supply the lower
pair of tubes are removed by cutting the pipes
2|, usually near their upper ends where they are
most subject to erosion or the tubes 19 near where
the ends enter the ?ttings 29, the tubes, suitably
cut to length, and the ?ttings may be moved; up
to form a unit serving the upper set of two ?ues,
thus providing a considerable economy in use.
By means of the construction shown I provide
an inexpensive and light construction with a
minimum number of joints to cause trouble either 15
by loosening under vibration or by burning under
the temperatures involved and provide for the
substantially even ?ow of steam in relatively
large columns subject to a minimum amount of
friction and corresponding maintenance of pres
sure at a sufliciently low velocity to provide for
the heating thereof to the desired degree of super
heat. The construction of the down-comer con
nections shown does not mask the forward end
of theflues and they can be positioned su?lciently 25
close thereto without interfering with the draft
through the ?ues so that the portions of the
tubes exposed to the cooler gases which are found
in the smoke box are so short that ‘there is'no
objectionable loss of superheat.
I am aware that the invention may be em
bodied in other speci?c'forms without departing
from the spirit or essential attributes thereof, and
I therefore desire the present embodiment to be
considered in all respects as illustrative and not .35
restrictive; reference being had to the appended
claim rather than to the foregoing description to
indicate the scope of the invention.
I claim:
In combination with a boiler having a ?re tube
parallel to the tapered, forwardly curved, lower
barrel provided with superheater ?ues arranged
end thereof with an extension 3| which tapers
in vertical and transverse ranks and opening to
a smoke box, a header in the smoke box across
toward the forward end thereof substantially to
the size of the superheater tube l9, and the
end of the superheater tube in the immediately
overlying?ue 9 is welded to this extension. It
will thus be seen that in the example of the
invention illustrated there is a pair of. steam
connections, a saturated steam connection and a
superheated steam connection, for each two ?ues
of a vertical row, and such a set of two pairs
for each ?ue of the horizontal row as will be
apparent by a comparison of Figs. 1 and 2. Since
there is a natural tendency for the steam to ?ow
in a straight line, causing unequal distribution
of the steam passing through the lower unit as
compared with the upper even-7 when only two
tubes are compounded, I provide for equalizing
the ?ow of steam through the lower and upper
'60 superheating loops. As best shown in Figs. 5
and 6, such means may comprise an interior
?ange for directing a ?ow of steam into the upper
‘loop, herein organized as a transverse partition
33 at the enlarged upper end of the ?tting which
the top of the barrel and divided into chambers
for saturated and superheated steam, the lower
wall of said chambers having openings, tubular
steam connections secured in’ said openings,
superheater tubes each comprising a single U
shaped loop disposed in a ?ue, the tubes being of
such cross section. that the combined width of .
‘the two legs thereof corresponds substantially to
the internal diameter of the ?ue, the legs of . the
tube being connected respectively to connections .
communicating respectively with the saturated
and superheated steam chambers, there being a
pair of connections corresponding to each ?ue
of a horizontal rank and each pair of connec
tions accommodating tubes from a plurality of
?ues of a vertical rank and means for equalizing
the flow of steam from each saturated steam
connection into the tubesappurtenant. thereto
comprising internal guiding ?anges within the
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