Патент USA US2110334код для вставки
March 8, 1938. w_ G_ KNlGHT ' SUPERHEATER 2,110,334 ' Filed Jan. 27,1937 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 25 . was 3/ 2/ 33 - 3 29 Eiga ' ' - ‘ .((@§ 63 /9 as InveW/Zo r. mzwam alrnzggm 2,110,334 Patented Mar. 8, 1938 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE 2,110,334 SUPERHEATER 7 William G. Knight, Derby, Maine Application January 27, 1937, Serial No. 122,592 1 Claim. (0]. 122-462) tive boilers of the type wherein the superheater tubes project rearwardly from the smoke box power available when using a superheater de signed as described in- detail hereinafter,. is throughout a wide range of ‘piston speeds as greatly in excess of that ordinarily afforded by 5 'into ?re tubes of the boiler, and the object is to the conventional type’ of commercial superheater motives, giving adequate superheat while at the that type of superheater, in excess of the horse power developed by use of saturated steam alone same time providing for the delivery to the cylin without any superheat. This‘ invention relates to superheaters more particularly for use in connection with locomo provide an improved construction of superheater, among other things applicable to existing loco "10 ders of steam at a pressure greaterthan is ef fected by superheaters as hitherto known. My'invention will be well understood by refer ence to the following description of the illustra tive embodiment thereof shown by way of ex "155 ample in the accompanying drawings, wherein:— Fig. 1 is a transverse section on two planes through the smoke box of a locomotive having my superheater applied thereto looking rear Wardly toward the front ?ue sheet of the boiler; Fig. 2 is a part section, part plan, of the header 20 shown in Fig. 1; Fig. 3 is a longitudinal section on the line 3-3 Fig. 4 is a plan view of one of the superheater '30 units; Referring now to the drawings, I have there shown partially the smoke box of a locomotive boiler to which open through the front ?ue sheet ‘I ?re tubes or ?ues 9, at least certain of which, arranged generally in vertical and horizontal ranks, are of such diameter as to be adapted to 15 receive therein superheater tubes. In the upper portion of the smoke box parallel to the ?ue sheet is disposed a. cast steel header ll‘, best shown in Fig. 2, divided by the serpentine partition l3into a saturated steam chamber having an intake port l5 communicating with the dry pipe from the steam dome and a saturated steam chamber hav ing oiftak'e ports I‘! vby which the superheated of Fig. 2; .25 now in use as is thehorse power resulting from ~ steam is led to the cylinders. Steam from the former compartment is delivered to the latter Fig. 5 is an enlarged vertical section of a part of one of the superheater units; and Fig. 6 is a fragmentary plan thereof on the through superheater tubes l9 disposed in the ?ues and each comprising a single U-shaped loop extending'into the ?ue, the path of the steam same scale. being, in contrast with the conventional prac tice, from the saturated steam chamber through the single loop in a single ?ue and hence directly to the superheated steam chamber. The tubes I9 are of substantially the maximum size which can thus be accommodated in the ?ue, and this may be expressed by saying that the combined width of the two legs of the loop (see Fig. 4) is substantially equal to the internal di ameter of the ?ue 9 which receives them. Locomotive superheaters of the type compris ing a header across the top of the smoke box providing a chamber for the reception of saturat ed steam from the dry pipe and of superheated steam for discharge to the cylinders and super 5.35 heater tubes connecting the same and extend ing into the ?ues of the boiler are well known. As at present constructed they have been de— veloped on the theory that it is necessary to pass For constructional reasons it is desirable to the steam through the heated zone in small col gang up or manifold together certain of the '41) umns to effect the necessary heat exchange. Hence superheater tubes of relatively small di ' superheater tubes, but only under conditions pro ameter have been disposed either with multiple viding for substantially uniform distribution of steam through the various loops and free flow loops in a single ?ue or with successive loops dis posedserially in a number of adjacent ?ues. The of the same. I have found it possible tocombine the loop tubes in units of which there is one cor 45 45 resulting great friction causes a marked loss of responding to every ?ue of a rank extending in pressure in the steam as delivered to the cylin one direction, herein the horizontal rank, and ders, hitherto accepted as inevitable. In ac cordance with my invention by a proper balance corresponding to- not more than two of the other rank, herein two of the vertical rank. In the of constructional features I provide for the pas sage of steam in larger columns through shorter construction shown the connections whereby the 50 paths and under much lower velocity. While superheater tubes proper are connected to the thus departing from conventional methods of header comprise sections of tube 2! of suitable length and of a cross sectional area equivalent to construction, I have demonstrated by actual dy namometer car tests that, while obtaining an that of two superheater tubes. Thus by way of 55 equal degree of superheat, the cylinder horse example and without limitation, where the tubes 56 2 2,110,334 I!) are of two-inch external diameter and with a wall of nine-gauge metal on the Birmingham wire gauge, the tube 2| may be of two and seven eighths inch external diameter and of the same wall thickness. The tubes 2| pass vertically through the staggered openings 23 in the lower wall of the header H (Fig. 2) and are expanded therein. To permit this the upper wall of the header opposite the openings 23 has aligned open 10 ings closed by the plugs 25 and access may be had to these by means of a removable section 21 (Fig. 1) of the boiler shell. The lower ends of the tubes 2| are connected by welding to cast steel ?ttings 29 which are extended downwardly and 15 sweep forwardly in an easy curve with a gradual taper to substantially the diameter of the super heater tube. The end of the tube l9 may have, immediately outward of the ?ue sheet, as best seen in Figs. 3 and 4, an easy curve through a 20 vertical angle complementary to the angle formed by the curve of the lower portion of the ?tting 29, ‘with which may be combined a curve in a horizontal plane, as seen in Fig. 4, providing for proper spacing of the ?tting at the ends of the 25 loop, and then be continued for a short distance in a right line to align with the reduced end of the ?tting to which it is welded. The tube l9, ?tting 29. and tube 2| are thus autogenously united in an integral whole free of mechanical 30 joints and 'a smooth and uninterrupted passage from the header to the tube is provided through which the steam can ?ow with minimum friction. The other leg of the tube is connected to a simi lar ?tting connected by a similar length of tube 2| with the superheated steam chamber of the header. To provide for the accommodation of two superheater tubes in each set of the tubular con nections, the larger upper portion of the ?tting 29 is formed laterally thereof and at an angle merges with the lowermost part of the wall of the extension 3i. Referring to Fig. 2, it will be noted that on the removal of any of the tubes for inspection or repair where the units which supply the lower pair of tubes are removed by cutting the pipes 2|, usually near their upper ends where they are most subject to erosion or the tubes 19 near where the ends enter the ?ttings 29, the tubes, suitably cut to length, and the ?ttings may be moved; up to form a unit serving the upper set of two ?ues, thus providing a considerable economy in use. By means of the construction shown I provide an inexpensive and light construction with a minimum number of joints to cause trouble either 15 by loosening under vibration or by burning under the temperatures involved and provide for the substantially even ?ow of steam in relatively large columns subject to a minimum amount of friction and corresponding maintenance of pres sure at a sufliciently low velocity to provide for the heating thereof to the desired degree of super heat. The construction of the down-comer con nections shown does not mask the forward end of theflues and they can be positioned su?lciently 25 close thereto without interfering with the draft through the ?ues so that the portions of the tubes exposed to the cooler gases which are found in the smoke box are so short that ‘there is'no objectionable loss of superheat. I am aware that the invention may be em bodied in other speci?c'forms without departing from the spirit or essential attributes thereof, and I therefore desire the present embodiment to be considered in all respects as illustrative and not .35 restrictive; reference being had to the appended claim rather than to the foregoing description to indicate the scope of the invention. I claim: . In combination with a boiler having a ?re tube parallel to the tapered, forwardly curved, lower barrel provided with superheater ?ues arranged end thereof with an extension 3| which tapers in vertical and transverse ranks and opening to a smoke box, a header in the smoke box across toward the forward end thereof substantially to the size of the superheater tube l9, and the end of the superheater tube in the immediately overlying?ue 9 is welded to this extension. It will thus be seen that in the example of the invention illustrated there is a pair of. steam connections, a saturated steam connection and a superheated steam connection, for each two ?ues of a vertical row, and such a set of two pairs for each ?ue of the horizontal row as will be apparent by a comparison of Figs. 1 and 2. Since there is a natural tendency for the steam to ?ow in a straight line, causing unequal distribution of the steam passing through the lower unit as compared with the upper even-7 when only two tubes are compounded, I provide for equalizing the ?ow of steam through the lower and upper '60 superheating loops. As best shown in Figs. 5 and 6, such means may comprise an interior ?ange for directing a ?ow of steam into the upper ‘loop, herein organized as a transverse partition 33 at the enlarged upper end of the ?tting which the top of the barrel and divided into chambers for saturated and superheated steam, the lower wall of said chambers having openings, tubular steam connections secured in’ said openings, superheater tubes each comprising a single U shaped loop disposed in a ?ue, the tubes being of such cross section. that the combined width of . ‘the two legs thereof corresponds substantially to the internal diameter of the ?ue, the legs of . the tube being connected respectively to connections . communicating respectively with the saturated and superheated steam chambers, there being a pair of connections corresponding to each ?ue of a horizontal rank and each pair of connec tions accommodating tubes from a plurality of ?ues of a vertical rank and means for equalizing the flow of steam from each saturated steam connection into the tubesappurtenant. thereto comprising internal guiding ?anges within the down-comers. WILLIAM G. KNIGHT.