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Патент USA US2110373

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March s, 193s.
vFiled June 12, 1955
6 Sheets-Sheet 1
»Josep/a van âßkonn.
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March 8, 1938.
Filed June 12, 1955
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6 Sheets-Sheet 2
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March 8, 1938.
Filed June 12, 1955
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March 8, 1938.
» 2,110,373
e sheetsèsheet 4
Filed June 12, 1935 `
Josep/v ma Hch/un.
March 8, 1938.
Filed June l2, 1935
6 Sheets-Sheet 5A
Josep/7 van ,4MB/'en
Patented Mar. 8,1938 ` y
Joseph van Ackeren, Pittsburgh, Pa., assigner, by
mesneassignments, to Koppers Company,
corporation of Delaware
Application June 12, 1935, serial No. 26,169'
12 claims.
(Cl. 202-143)
My invention comprehends improvements in
Uniform distribution of the gases
ularly to improvements in the regenerator system
through the regenerators is"~one of the prime
requisites for their ef?cient utilization. »Regard
of such coke ovens and the like. The invention
less, however, of the principles used in their de
sign and method of- operation, they all depend 5
regenerative coke ovens and relates more partic
5 has for an object a new and useful method of
controlling the distribution` and- flow of gases in
the heating channels and conduits of regener
_ _ative'heating arrangements such as are incor
porated in coking rctorts, by-product coke ovens
l0 and the like; and pertains especially to modifica
tions in the design and functioning of sole-chan
nels, their arrangement and method of operation,
upon a sole-ñue or bus-channel of some type to
uniformly apportion and assemble the gases
passing through them to or from all parts of the
checker-brick work. For this purpose, -"after
their introduction through the battery walls by i0
means of suitable valves or ports the gases to be
distributed travel along the sole-fines, whence .
which effect automatically a uniform distribution » they discharge through a series of laterally dis
and length of travel for all gases entering such
channels before and when they are delivered to
the name nues and thence discharged into the
In regenerative coking ovens which comprise
horizontally elongated chambers vthat are sepa
20 rated each from the other by their heating walls,
Within which are-arranged a plurality of vertical
heating iiues disposed from one end of the oven
to the other, and in which the heating gases are
burned, or along which the products of com
25 Ibustion are carried away toward the stack, the
` air participatingin the combustion or, in the case
where the ovens are of the combination type and
the heating medium is produced extraneously
and is of low heat content, both the air and the
heating gases are separately preheated by pass
ing them over hot checker-bricks before they are
introducedv into the flame or combustion ñues.
These checker-bricks are- brought to the desired
temperature, before the air and the gas are
posed canals or ducts into the checker-brick of
the regenerator lying either below or above. The 15
~volume of gas that passes from a particular duct
depends upon its relative size and the static
pressure in the carried gas. The gaseous distri
bution thus effected will so continue in the heat
`ing system through the region beyond the sole
iiues, if throughout that region only uniform
however, in the system inequalities of resistance
are met during such transit, the uniform distri
bution will be disturbed and means must be taken . 25
either to redistribute the gases or to eliminate
conditions creating the inequalities in resist
In the regenerative heating ofv an oven, the
vfollowing cycle is quite typical. The air or
the gas to be used for vcombustion is passed into
a sole-flue channel through a port or suitably
designed box. After distribution through lateral
orifices along the sole-flue channel. these gases
passed over them, by the passing _of the hot prod
pass over previously heated checker-brick where
ucts of a combustion process which has previously
taken place at another point in the oven’s heat
they are preheated before introduction into the
series of vertical combustion- ñues situated be
' ing system.
The checker-bricks are arranged in a suitable
_space therefor beneath the oven, forming the re
generator. The _regenerators are usually so dis
posed that their longitudinal axes lie parallel
with those of their associated ovens, and are in
this manner arranged contiguously along the
15 length _of the battery. The designA of the regen
pressures are encountered during the transit. If,
tween the oven walls. The air and gas for heat
ign are mixed at the base of the ñues where com
bustion-` gradually takes place 'during [their ascent 40
and a'portion of their heat‘is transferred through
the heating walls to the coal beyond. From the
combustion nues, the still> extremely hot waste
gases vpass into a similar series of flues in the op
posite or same wall of the oven, continually los- . 45
erators used in the various types ofovens and the ing -some of their remaining heat content; fol-arrangement of the checker-bricks used as the A'lowing which, they then ñow into a .second re
media for the storage of heat, depend upon the generator, which having been traversed, they flow
principles of gaseous flow and combustion around - together in a soie-flue channel after passing~
which the ~oven is constructed and operated. lthrough ducts laterally disposed along the axis 50
The.regenerator space beneath an oven‘may be of the sole-flue. Within the second regenerator
divided longitudinally or transversely or both. a major portion of the heat still remaining in the
into two or more sections, and each vsection may combustion gases after they have. left the oven
function in a different capacity at any particular walls, is absorbed by the checker-brick, before
vstage of operation according to design,
they enter the sole-dues whence they pass to a 55
2 ~
common waste-heat tunnel, the stack and even
tually to the atmosphere. At the predetermined
intervals the ilow of gases in a >regenerative heat
ing ~system is reversed and the A,second regener
‘ ator in the- former 'partial cycle, during which
interval ithas been reheated to proper tempera
ture, now becomes the flrst regenerator in the
reversed' cycle of flow, the former waste-heat
ilues become the combustion flues and the regen
10 erator which previously was preheating air or
gas is now recovering- the heat remaining in the
thel ducts in the sole-flue arch, the velocity grad
ually decreases tozero at the end of the flue,
where the highest static pressure will be found,
Consequently, the greatest volume of gases is dis
charged from the sole-flue ducts nearest the
sealed end, if the gases are ilowingj into a region '
of constant pressure.
During the period of reverse fiow, when gases
are passing from the regenerator into the sole
ñue to be discharged` into the waste-heat canal, _10
the velocity _of the gases increases in the sole
l«.:ßz'imbustion gases- which has passed between the - flue from a point near the closed end to the out
let port. The static -pressure at the- orifices lead- .
oven’sheating walls unabsorbed. `
From this brief ,description of a regenerative
15 heating. cycle, it is readily apparent that thesole
ing into the sole-flue consequently decreases pro
gressively in the same direction, offering progres
i‘lue orifices of a regenerative system at one in-. sively less resistance to the inflow of gases from
terval in lthe'cycle -are functioning to distribute the regenerator as the waste-gas outlet port is
heating gases uniformly‘throughout the checker
brick space, and during the second interval are
20 servingto collect or assemble uniformly into the
sole-flue, the combustion gases flowing
into it from all parts of a regenerator.
.In those instances therefore where, during, a
-complete regenerative cycle the direction of the
approached.~- The result of this phenomenon is
to cause a channeling across the regenerator
space in thel direction of these sole-flue ducts
nearest the waste-heat port and create the tend
ency for- the gases leaving the regenerator to as
sume a-diiïerent path from that taken by the «
gases introduced into the regenerator during the
reversed period of flow as aforementioned.
25 flow of the- gases is completely reversed in the
sole-flue as isthe case where in consequence of ` Calibration of the sole-flue ducts in such man
' the taper of the ovens it is `desirable to isolate the
complete heating system of the pusher side of the
oven i'ronithel coke side because of the differences
30 in quantity of »coal to be coked during the saine
« ~,time interval, or where the heating gases of an
oven wall 'are reversed on either side of a re
ner as to accommodate increasing static pressure
when gas is flow-_lng into the sole-flue from the
gas or air supply lines and permituniform vol
umes of gas to flow into the various parts of the
_regenerator therefrom, will, during ñow in the
reverse- direction throughv the sole nue in the
versal plane _perpendicular to the longitudinal » next regenerative reversal period, only further in
crease the tendency oi’ the gases to flow into those
axis of the oven, the same sole-nue at one inter
ducts nearest the waste-heat outlet port.
35 val of the heating cycle is being used' to effect
In my present invention, I therefore provide
uniform distribution of gases to a regenerative
space anduat a later interval to eifectuniform means whereby the aforementioned vundesirable
withdrawing of gases from that same space and » distribution effects may be simply and _eifectively
in a contra-directional flow. Heating `systems circumvenbed while simultaneously effecting a
40 involving the' above-described principle have a
tendency upon reversal to direct the flow of gases
into channels different from those through which
gases had been previously flowing, land attempts
to correct this tendency by means of sliding brick
45 `for dampering purposes at'either end oi' the ver
tical heating iiues during one direction of gaseous
flow, serve only to accentuatesuch tendency to
in'egular distribution during the reverse flow,
with the resultant effect that
entering the
regenerators for preheating purposes assume a
tendency' to traverse >different zones inthe re-l
generators from those through which the com
v bustion'gasea passed during the period vwhen the
regenerators were being reheated.4
simplification in thermal control of coking re-. '
torts, ovens nd other regenerative heating sys
tems, as well as a reduction in number of the
more complex control accessories used to regulate
the iiow of fuel gases in such a system. A uni
form distribution òf air or gas, absorption of heat
and now of the products of combustion will be
accomplished automatically. The invention has
for further objects such other improvements and
such other operative advantages or results as may
be found to obtain in the processes or apparatus
hereinafter 'described or claimed.
«'Brieily stated, my invention provides that dur
ing the regenerative heating cycle of an oven, the
movement of gases infall regenerator sole-nues
This phenomenon results from Bernouilli’s ` have thesame direction of flow and that this
theorem‘which demonstrates that the total pres
same direction 'of now be maintained during the
sure found in any channel through which a fluid reversal period of the regenerative heating cycle.
is flowing comprises a.4 velocity pressure and a ' My invention further provides, in combination
static pressln-e.- At any point in such channel, with a uni-directional iiow of the gases in the
the sum total of these _two pressures is equal sole-nues of an oven at -all times, a calculated
(neglecting friction), so that, obviously wherever and proper gradation in the size of the ducts con
the velocity and its resultant pressure is the high
necting the regenerator sole-fiues with-the re
est the static pressure is the lowest and vice generator checker-brick, which is based on recog
' versa. ~Since the static pressure is the only force nition oi' the increasing static pressure in the
65 which causes the iiuid’to ilow from any orifice gaseous stream effected by its reduction in volume Í 65
or duct opening from that channel perpendicular
to the direction of flow, it becomes evident that
if 'the velocity of the gas in the channel is not
uniform, the static pressure will vary accordingly'
70 and consequently, also the volume of gas dis
‘ charged'from adjacent orifices if they are-of uni
as itilows from the inlet port of the regenerator _. I
sole-nues toward then closed end and also upon
the decreasing static pressure which takes place
in the regenerator sole-dues effected by the in 70..
'I‘he gases entering a sole-nue for distribution
creasing volume of the gas stream as‘it flows
from the closed end of the sole-flue toward the
discharge port; the decrease and increase in ,
` have their greatest velocity head-at some point
volumes of thel gas4 stream being effected re- `
' dimensional proportions.
75`neartheinletport andastheydischaxgethrough spectivelybythedistributionofgasestotheheat- 1g
ing- iiues from the solef-ilucs Vor their coniiuence I the other by the supporting pillar walls of the
ovens. Each vertical flue is provided with a com
'I‘he generaladvantages of my invention will l municating opening to each of the underlying .
be more easily understood by reference to the regenerators. 'For operating purposes the regen- '
' in the same after combustion.
el accompanying drawings forming a part of this
specification and. showing for the purposes of ex
empliñcation an apparatus in which the inven
tion may be embodied and practised but without
limiting-the claimed invention specifically to such
10 illustrative instance or instances.
In the drawings,
Figure 1 is a vertical sectional ’view taken lon
' gitudinally through a coke oven.
'I‘he sections
erators are disposedI in groups of four, two regen-_ 5
erators Vof each group being int'ercommunicably
connected with the other two through the heating
flues, the cross-overs and the ducts at the lower
end of the vertical ñues.
In the base of each regenerator lies a.. regenera
. ‘ tor sole-liuc which, through ducts laterally dis
posed along its lengthwise dimension, communi
cates with the regenerator checker-brick, and at
shown are taken on the lines A-A and B-B~ one end with the atmosphere or source of heating
respectively of Figure 2.
medium supply and at the other with the waste 15
Figure 2 is a transverse vertical section through ~ heat tunnel. The sole-hues are continuous of the
a coke oven battery and is taken on lines II---lIIEY entire length oi' the regenerator, which makes'
of Figure 1.
_ ‘
possible the introduction of air and gas for com
Figure 3 is a horizontal sectional view of the bustion of an entire oven wall at one side of the
sole-flues of a coke oven battery,'the same being
taken through the lines III-III of Figure 1 and
showing somewhat diagrammatically the gradua
tion of the orifices along the sole-fines.
' The reversal plane in the regenerative heating
cycle lies substantially» parallel to the oven walls
along a median line longitudinally bisectingv an
FiguresV 4, 5, 6 are views ' of' waste-heat, > gas
and air, and air valves respectively as employed in
practising the present invention.
In the operation of my invention in a cokingA
retort battery of the above-described typ'e, the . '
Figure 7 is an elevational end view of the vari- 4 vcoal to be subjected to the distillation process
ous types of valves shown in Figures-4, 5 and 6 in
operating position and illustrates their arrange
30 ment sequence as used in practising the present
Figure 8 is a _view as in Figure 3 butwith anA
alternative system of sole-channel oriñces.
In ' the
same _ characters
-is- introduced into an oven I, through suitable
openings 2 at the top of the oven. Gas and air to
be burned in the iiues 3, which for the moment
are the ilame flues, are simultaneously introducedA
into‘the air and gas regenerator'sole-iiue chan
nels 4 and 5 respectively by opening the air
valve 6 and the `gas valve ‘I `at` one end of the
oven. Just prior to the opening o_f these valves, 35
reference designate the same parts in all of the
views ofthe drawings.
' the valves 8 and 9 at the'opposing ends of the
Referring now to the drawings,` Figures 1 and 2,v sole-,ñues 4 vand 5 respectively and> at the oppo- l
show for the purposes of exemplification an oven site end of the oven, have been closed. These
of the well known cross-over type of Joseph valves are operated by the movement of a revers
Becker U. S. Patents No. 1,374,546 andA No. ing mechanism (not shown), 'which motion is 40
1,904,191 and more particularly an improvementv '- translated to them by cable I0. The air and gas
in that type exemplified in -a Josepl'rBeckerv co
enter sole-liuc channels 4 and 5 respectively at a
, pending application Serial No. 2,564, wherein my
preferred totalI pressure head, which, as these
_invention may be embodied and practised and gases iiowalong said sole-fiues separated by the
which for purposes of the following exposition' oven supporting pillar walls II, remains substan 45
_will be treated as a combination oven, the heat - tially the same` (save for friction), but the rela
for the underfiring of which is derived _from the . tion of the component pressures comprising the
combustion of a gas of low heating value extrane
total pressure, changes. Such change results, as
-ously produced, and requiring preheating prior to
hereinbefore indicated, from -`the constantly >de
creasing velocity of the air andugas in the sole 50
its introduction into the combustion zone.
-In a coking retort battery comprising a series ilues as they flow from Athe valves 6 and 1 toward
oi' horizontally elongated ovens of this type so _ their opposing end at valves 8 and 9 (Figure 7)-,
disposed that their longitudinal’axes are'parallel, in consequence of the outñow of the gas and air
the individual ovens-are separated one from the through the ducts I2 in lthe sole-_flue rider-brick
other by a series of vertically disposed heating as they pass upward into the regenerator checker 55
ñues extending from one end of each oven to the brick spaces I3 and I4.
l other, each series ~serving to heat adjacent walls
The constant decrease in the velocity of the
of contiguous ovens. The heating ilues are com
gases and the attendant decrease in «velocity
municably connected at their lower ends with pressure requires a like increase in the static
regenerator spaces lying beneath and- at their . component of the total pressure, when substan 60
tially the same tot-al gas pressure is maintained
the top ofthe oven and connect with the vertical along the entire length of the sole-channel. The
heating fiues of the oven’s opposite wall at their out-ilow of the gases from their respective sole
upper ends with cross-over ilues which pass over
upper ends. Each cross-overdue may serve any
' preferred number of vertical ilues and for this
purpose the flues‘in any wall are arranged in a
series of sets which communicate by me'ans of the
cross-overs with a set of similar number in the
opposite Wall'of the oven.
The vertical heating ñues between the two ad
jacent walls _of contiguous ovens communicate
~ with two regenerators beneath each,'- extending
longitudinally parallel to the oven’s walls and the
coking chambers, and the regenerators are sepa
75 rated throughout their entire length, one from
channels I2 into the regenerators above is by
occasion of the static pressure. Obviously, then,
if a uniformvdistribution. of the gases to the'var
ious parts of an associated regenerator space is tc.
be effected by the sole-'flue ducts, means must be
provided to counteract the effect of this constant
>static pressure increase along the sole-liuc. In
the present invention, I provide such means by so
dimensioning the cross sectional area of the sole- -
iiue ducts 'I2 that at the static pressure existing
at any point inthe sole-flue, the volume of gas
allowed to `flow through adjacent ducts isÁ equal 75
ducts adjacent any other- point in the sole-flue.
opposite .`end, alternately on either side of the
same reversalplane, the' ineflow of the heating
lSince the static pressure progressively increases
media. and out-flow of their waste combustion
-in volume to that allowed 'to pass. through the
products -taking place always on opposing sides of
6 and 1) toward the closed end of the flue (as at the iiow reversal plane during both periods of the
valves l and 9) , >these ducts shall constantly de- - heating cycle. In this manner, the direction of
crease in cross sectional area as the'closed end gaseous flow in the regenerator sole-fines will
is approached by gases ñowing from the open end. always be toward sole-nue ducts of decreasing
from the air or gas introducing end (as at valves
The air or gas, uniformly distributed through
10 out the entire associated regenerator spaces I3
and I 4 by the graduated ducts of _the sole-ñues,
is preheated Äand flows _upward respectively
through ducts 21 and 2l leading into the bottom
of flame or combustion ilues 3, where they mix
15 and gradually burn as they ascend to collect in
the discontinuous horizontal ñue I¢,'
means of the cross-overl conduit I1, the products
of the aforementioned combustion flow across the
top ofthe oven and downward into the heating
~20 ñues along the opposite oven‘side. (as indicated
cross sectional area and a setting once estab
lished therein willY be similarly eifective during
both “on” and “oiT' periods of the heating cycle.
Referring now to Figures 3 and 8. by means of
which the gaseous flow through the heating sys
tem of a single oven may be more simply under
Gas and air are respectively introduced
inte the` sole-ilues l, 4 through valves at 1, i as
shown, and iiowing along these channels are
uniformly apportioned by the ducts I2 into their
respective regenerators I4 and I3 along their
entire length as theyV flow toward the closed
valves at 9, I. As the gases rise through the re
by the arrows in Figure 2). Continuing in their
downward ñow, the waste gases pass through generators Il and Il and enter the flame -iïlues
>ducts 21' and 28’ into the regenerators W. H., „ 3 through communicating conduits 28, 21, they
where a` major portion of their remaining heat mix and burn, passing through the cross-over
content is absorbed by the checker-brick before flues- I1 into the heating iiues, the regenerators 25
they ñow through the communicating ducts I2 r and sole-tlues on the opposite side of the flow
reversal plane, and leave the heating system at
into the sole-ilues beneath.
As the combustion products much reduced in
_temperature pass into the sole-ilues to be dis
charged into the atmosphere' after flowing
through valves l' and 9’ (Figure 7), the waste
'heat ilue IB and the stack (not shown), their
' volume and velocity continually increase as they
gather in the sole-flue and flow toward the dis
’ charge end. As aforedescribed, this increasing
velocity brings about a decreasing static pressure
the open valves I' and 9’ (W. H.) and pass into
the waste-heat iiue I8. During the interval of
reverse flow, valves at i, T, 8’ and 9’ are closed
Vand valves at 6' and 1' open for the introduction _
of air and gas into the system, and the valves at
8, 0 are opened to allow withdrawal of the waste
gases. Reversal of flow of the gases in the heat
ing ilues'and regenerators has been effected but
the same direction of gaseous flow in the regen
in the sole-flue as the _discharge 'end -is ap- . .erator _sole-hues has been maintained.
f In the practice of my invention a uniform
proached, and this decreasing static pressure,
'ottering less resistance to ~the inflow of the waste length of i‘low for all gases entering the heating
system of `an oven is assured. Gas and air en 40
(0 products of combustion, gives rise to a tendency
for these products to iiow in greater volume tering the regenerators at point C, in Figures l
through those ducts below which the lowest static 'and 3, will be burned‘in the heating ilues I dij- '
pressure exists. Uniform volume of'gas ñow rectly above and pass by means of the cross-'over "
conduit into the regenerator sole-iiues on- the
through these ducts is therefore, in my inven
tion, obtained by so decreasing their cross sec- I ‘ opposite side of the ñow reversal> plane at a point 45
>tional area in the direction ,of ñow of the gases
in the sole-nue that at the static pressures exist
C" and continuethe full length of vsaid sole-lilies
before being .discharged at l' and t', whereas
ing below#- each, a substantially equal volume of
gases will pass through all individual ducts from
gas or air which enters the regenerators at some
suchgpoint as D will-have travers
the full
length of the sole-nues l~ and- I befo e it enters 50
By thus properly graduating the ducts >I2 so - the regenerators, is burned in the vflame nues di
rectly above and passes into the regenerator
that the changing static pressures along the sole
the checker-brick to -the sole-flue beneath.
flues are compensated for, and adapting .the sole.-.
iiue for uni-directional ñow in the proper direc
sole-flues on the Oppœite side'of the .reversalr
tion during both iniiow and outilow, it is apparent
plane at D' directly adjacent the-valves at l'
and 0' where the combustion products pass i‘nto 55
to those skilled in the art that uniform gaseous
the waste-heat ñue.
' distribution throughout all parts of the regen
erators will be effected. '
, _
In the operation of _'my invention, I prefer to
introduce the fuel gases into the sole-flue; of ' '
erative heating cycle, when the iiues I instead of
being the name fiues, carry away the“products
adjacent ovens on opposing sides of the -battery
(as shown in Figure 3) as an added assistance
in obtaining uniformity of heat distribution and »
of combustion through the regenerators _G and A
in limiting the’sise of gas mains and waste-heat
During the period of reverse flow in the regen
(Figure 2) which-formerly introduced gas and »
air into‘flues 3 from the sole-ilues 5, I but now
function to carry away the combustion products,
it is n
to maintain the same relationship
of ‘sole-_nue duct cross sectional area _to static
'With the invention of this system of eifectingl '
and maintaining uniform gaseous distribution'in 65
the heating system of an oven. which makes pos'- '
sible introduction of the heating mediav to any
>pressure that' existed ‘in the‘previous period, if « oven at one side of the battery only, the requiref
uniform distribution .is to. be maintained. Con
ments of the more expensive 'combination air
seduently, ¿in the practicerof my invention, I pro
and‘gas valves used when underilrlng with .pro 70
vide in a complete regenerative heating cycle for _ ducer or blast furnace gas are reduced to one-half ,the introduction of gas and air.1at but one -end those formerly needed, the remainder may be re- `
_.of the oven,'and alternately ‘on either side of the «placed by valves of simpler design. This resultsin a reduction in the capitalout-lay required
ñow reversal plane, while the products of com
bustion pass from the oven structure ai thel for an installation. .
vThe regenerators are so disposed as to :operate
discharging end. In this drawing it will be seen
that the ñrst eleven ducts comprising the group
in groups of four, as shown'in Figure 2, and those
regenerators which pre-heat gas for combustion- E at the heating media inlet end are all of uni
along the walls of an oven lie in juxtaposition be
form cross section; in the following group F com
prising another group of eleven ducts, the cross
sectional area of each duct comprising the group
is the same,'but of somewhat smaller area than
» tween air regenerators which thereby function to
isolate the gas from the waste-heat regenerators,
to safeguard against leakage and loss or ilring of
gas that miglit be drawn from a gas i'nto~ a waste
heat re‘generator .by the pressure diñ‘erential that
10 exists between them. The air and gas having
uni-directional ñow in their respective regenera
the ducts comprising group E; in the last two
groups G and H comprising 6 and 5 ductsy respect
tively, the cross. section of the ductsy becomes 10
group-wise smaller, but the ducts in any group
remain ungraduated.
tors, there is substantially little or no pressure
differential between them. A group of gas and
air regenerators comprising two of each alter
15 nate with a group of four waste-heat regenera
such illustrative instance, the proportional dif
ference of area between the different groups may 15
be as follows:
tors along the lengthwise axis ofthe battery,
which relationship obtains through both periods
Group G comprising ducts 3 sq. in. in area.
Group H comprising ducts 2H sq. in. in area. 20
20 portion thereof with rich gas such as is produced >
connection between -the lean gas4 main I9, in
Group E comprising ducts 3% sq. in. inl area.
Group F comprising ducts 3?; sq. in. in area.
of a complete heating cycle.
If it is preferred to underfire the battery or a '
in the carbonization process itself, the conversion
is simply effected by closing the communicating
As an example, but without limiting myself to
At points (X) on the drawings are shown breaks
in the regularity of the duct disposal along the
sole-channel, such hiatus in the disposal indicates
Figure 5, and its associated regenerator, at valve" points where regenerator _cross walls may be in l25
20, and removing lever arm 2| controlling valve
- 1 from actuating contact with the reversing cable
corporated in the structure if preferred, as an
assistance toward maintaining the uniform dis
Since rich gas requires .larger -amounts of . tribution in the checkerbrick affected by the ‘ '
air per unit ~volume to ’effect complete combus
30 tion, air is now introduced into the regenerator,
which formerly carried lean gas to the heating
ñues, and through the valve 22 of the combina
graduated sole-channel ducts.
In the` hereinabove described application of my 30
invention, wherein reference` is made to its use in
a coke oven battery, in alternate sets of regenera
tion gas and air box. Following this'adjustment, tors the heating gases have been introduced into , '
rich gas carried in the mains 23 extending along the sole~ñues at opposite sides of thebattery.
both sides of the battery is introduced by proper
My invention is, however, not limited to such
adjustment of the valves 24 into the gas conduits arrangement.l When available space or other
25 situated in the head of the oven supporting conditions permit or `make it desirable my im
pillar walls Ila. From the conduits 25, the rich ' provement allows the heating mediato be intro
gas passes upward through ducts 26 into the duced. into all the regenerators from one side of
40 vertical flues where it is admixed and burned the battery'only, and the products of combustion 40
with air . rising through the regenerators I3 to be withdrawn from the opposite side; one
and I4._
-,waste heat tunnel, therefore, on one side of the
The graduation _of the regenerator sole-ñue battery may serve the entire installation and one
ducts may be variously practised without de
gas main on the opposite side willserve for sup-1
parting from the intent of -my invention. De
plying the entire heating gas requirements, there 45
pending upon the nature of the apparatus or the by eñecting obvious desirable structural and
design of the structure within which it isdesir
mechanical simplifications.
able -to embody my improvement, the detailsof
The invention as hereinabove set forth is em
its application may vary. In certain instances bodied in particular form and manner but may
of conditions and circumstances; the afore-- be variously'embodied within the s‘cope of the 50
described changes in static pressure ‘along the claims hereinafter made. _
sole-flue may be of such magnitude as to give
I claimlf
expediency to progressive graduation of each
1. In a regenerative coke oven comprising a
duct; that is, in the direction of gaseous ñow each horizontally elongated chamber with walls com
duct will be smaller than the one immediately prising vertical heating flues communicably con
' preceding. In other cases, however, static pres
nected at their lower ends with regenerators hav
sure change may alter at such a moderate rate
that the ducts may be dividedvinto groups Vfor
graduation‘purposes. In this modification of Imy
ing horizontally disposed sole-ñues at their base
extending parallel to »the oven walls continuously
from one end of tlie> oven to the other, with -
invention then, the amount of graduation re
regulable means for supplying gas and air to and 60
quired by the change of static pressure withinv closing the sole-nues thereto at their one end andy
certain zone limits may be averaged, for example, regulable means for establishing _and severing
' and the so-derived average cross sectionalvarea communicable connection with a waste-heat tun
applied _to ducts-within that zone. vThis appli
cation has its practical aspect more especially in
nelat their other end, calibrated communicating
openings between the sole-nues and the regenera-_
those cases where the fabrication media do >not
tors graduated in such manner that the openings
lend themselves to such small progressive dliïer
increase in cross-sectional area from the. waste
vheat discharging end to the gas or air >supplying
' entiations in duct- size as the theoretical consid
erations wouldy impose.
In Figure 8 is shown a. special instance of such
group-wise duct graduation.A In this exemplifi
4 cation the sole-channel- ducts of eachregenerator
' are divided into 4f'our groups designated by letters-
E, F, G and H respectively, from the gas or air
_' introducing end toward'the combustion products
' end of the sole-ñues.
«2. In a reversible regenerative coking retort l
oven having, means for gas firing thevsame and at
least -four regenerators disposed to operate in
pairs alternately on either side of a iiow reversal`
plane substantially paralleling the oven walls
and adapted to operate in alternation'with each
other to convey ai-r to and the waste products y and separated from the regenerators for the out- '
of combustion from the heating ñues,_ means for flow oi the products of combustion by a regenera- '
tor for in-ñowihg air, means-for introducing the
heating media to the respective pairs of lregenera- Í
intr0ducing°the-air alternately on either side o!
the flow reversal plane at but one end of the oven
and into sole-ilùes 'beneath the regenerators.
tors alternately on either side o! the flow reversal
means for alternately on either side of~ the tlow v plane at but one end ot the oven and into sole
reversal plane- withdrawing the products of com
b`ustion from the sole-iiues at the opposite end
of the oven, closable inlet means at one end of
10 the respective sole-nues for-iniiow thereto from 1'
ilues beneath the regenerators, means _for alter
nately on either side of the ñow reversal plane
vwithdrawing the products of combustion from the
sole-fines of the respective pairs of regenerators lo'
the means for introducing and closable outlet at the opposite' end _of the oven, means for alter
nately opening ’one end of the respective sole
means at the opposite ends of the respective sole
ñues for outilow-thereirom to the means for with ' ilues to the meansior introducing while closing
drawing, the inlet means and outlet -means for the opposite end of the same to the means for
15 each sole-flue being operable in alternation with *withdrawing and for closing 'said one end of the
each other, the improvement characterized by the
graduation of the communicating openings be
tween the sole-iiues and the regenerators in-` de
creasing cross-sectional area from a point allia
cent the inlet end of the sole-iiues toward the'
opposite end, so'that the flow of gases in the sole
fiues on both sides of the reversal plane during
respective sole-nues to the means for introducing
while opening the opposite end ‘oi the same to
the means for withdrawing, the improvement
characterized by graduated communicating open
ings between the sole-ilues and 'the regenerators .20
decreasing in cross-sectional .area from a point
adjacent the inlet end of the sole-nues toward I
both inflow and outñow will be always toward - the combustion products outlet end, so that the
lateral sole-ilue openings of decreasing cross
flow of gases in the sole-lines on both sides oi
sectional area.
„ the reversal plane will be always toward lateral
3. In a battery comprising a series oi reversible sole-iiue openings of decreasing cross-sectional
regenerative coking ovens substantially as de
~ 6. In a battery comprising a series- of revers
scribed in claim 2, and in which means for intro
ducing the heating` media are _disposed at the ible 'regenerative coking ,ovens substantially as
30 opposite endsoi contiguous ovens.
described in claim'2, means 'for introducing oi ' 30
4. In` a reversible regenerative coking‘retort , the fuel gas at both sides of the battery- and
oven of the combination type having, means vfor ' means for introducing air into the regenerator
gas ñring the same and at least‘i'our regenerators sole-due channels at but one side of th`e. battery
<disposed to operate in pairs alternately on either.l and means for withdrawing their products ot
side of a ñow reversal plane substantially paral 'combustion from the side opposite the air in 35
leling the oven walls and the pairs adapted' to . troducing side.
7. In a battery comprising a series o'i‘ revera- `
convey the heating media to and the waste prod
ucts of combustion from the heating flues in ible regenerative coking »_ ovens substantially as
described in claim 2, means for introducing o!
alternation with each other, means for introduc
40 ing the heating media alternately on either side 'the heating media to all ovens at but one side
oi the ilow reversal plane at-but one end of the of the battery and means i'or withdrawing their
oven and into sole-nues beneath the regenerators, products o_t combustion from the opposite side.
means for alternately :on either side oi' the now -
~reversal plane withdrawing the products of com
bustion from the sole-nues at the opposite end
oi' the oven from which the heating ‘media is
adapted-to be introduced, means for alternately
opening one end _oi-the respective sole-nues' to
the means for introducing while- closing the op
» positeve'ndof the same to the, means i'or with
8. In a cross regenerative coking retort oven
-battery of the combination type as described in
claim 5, means for introducing oi' the heating
mediato all ovens at but one- side of the battery
and means for withdrawing their products of
combustion from the opposite _side'.
9. In a cross regenerative coking retort oven
battery of the combination type as described in
drawing and for closing said one end ‘ot _the re
claim 5, means for introducing ofthe heatingI
spective- sole-nues to the means- for introducing- media at the opposite ends of contiguous ovens.
'while opening the opposite end of the sa'me to
l0. In a cross regenerative coldng retort oven
,_ _themeans for withdrawing, the improvement
55 characterized by the communicating openings be
battery of the combination'type having means
,tween the sole-iîluesA and the regenerators being
graduated in decreasing cross-sectional area from
a point adjacent thej inlet end oi’ the sole-nues
f toward the combustion products _outlet end, so
that the ñow ot gases inthe _sole-nues on both
sides of the reversal plane will be always toward
lateral sole-flue openings 'oi' decreasing cross
` -li. In `a cross regenerative coking retort oven
battery of the combination type having means for
, gas ilrlng thesame and comprising, incombina
lion, a plurality oi ovens each served by at least
four regenerators disposed to operate in pairs
~ alternately on eitherside of a flow reversal plane
70 sulßtantially paralleling the oven ywalls and the
pairs oi' regenerators adapted to convey the heat
ing media to and products of combustion from
for gas ñring the same and comprising, in com 55
bination, a plurality of ovens- each served by at
least four regenerators disposed to operate in
pairs alternately on either side of al iiow reversal
plane substantially paralleling the oven wallsahd
the pairs adapted'to convey the heating media
to and the products o! combustion from the heat
ing nues in alternation with each other, the re‘
generators for the inñow otheating gas to the
walls of any oven being laterally adjacent and
separated from the regenerators for the out-iiow
of the products of combustion by a regenerator.
for in-ilowing air, means for introducing the
heating media to the respective pairs alternately
on either side ot the flow reversalÍ plane and at
but one end ofthe oven and into 'sole-nues be
neath the regenerators, means for withdrawing ,
vthe products of combustioni'rom- the soie-dues of
the heating ilues in alternation with'each other,
the respective pairs oi regenerators of a'group
the regenerators for the inilow ot heating gas to
alternately on either side oi' the ilow reversal
planeet the opposite'end o( the oven. means u 'l
the walls otany oven- being laterally adjacent
2,1 10,878
for alternately opening one end of the respective
sole-fines to the means for introducing while
closing the opposite end of the same to the means
for withdrawing and for closing said one end of
the respective sole-ilues to the means for intro
ducing while opening the opposite end of the
sole-lines toward the opposite end, so that the
ñow of gases inthev sole-flues on both sides of
the reversal plane during both inflow and out
ñow will be always toward >lateral sole flue open
ings of decreasing cross-_sectional area.
.12. In a reversible regenerative `coking retort'
same to the- means for withdrawing, the im- > oven having, vertical combustion ilues in the oven
provement characterized by the arrangement of walls with each of the flues in each of the heating
walls communicably connected at their upper
the communicating openings between the sole
parts with vertical ñues in another of the heating
iiues `and the regenerators into groups of ori
walls at their upper parts for flow ofvwaste gas to
fices, all oriñces withinla group having substan
tially the same cross-section, but the orifices of and from each other ilf‘alternation by cross over
ducts crossing over intervening coking chambers,
each succeeding group decreasing in cross-sec
tion from a point adjacent the inlet end of the means for gas ñringthe same and -two sets of
sole-i-lues- toward the combustion products outlet regenerators disposed for operation with their
end, so that the flow of gases in the sole-ilues on flow reversal planes substantially paralleling the
both .sides _of the reversal plane will be always oven walls and adapted to operate in alternation
with each other to convey ~combustion media to
-toward lateral sole-iiue groups of orifices of de
and the waste products of combustion from the
creasing cross-section.
11. _In a reversible regenerative coking retort heating ñues, means for introducing the com 20
oven having, means for gas'iiring the same and bustion media alternately on eitherside of the
two sets of regenerators disposed for operation ñow reversal plane- at but one end ~oi? and into
with- their flow reversal planes substantially par- - sole-ilues beneath the regeneratlors‘means for
alleling the oven walls and adapted to operate in alternately on either side of the ñow reversal
plane withdrawing the products of combustion
IO Ll alternation with each other to convey combus
from the sole-ilues _at but the opposite end of the
tion media to and the waste products of combus
tion from the heating flues, means for introduc- k sole-nues, closable inlet means at one end of the
ing the combustion media alternately on either respective sole-flues for inñow thereto from the
side of the flow reversal planes at but one end means for introducing and closable outlet means
at the opposite ends of the respective s_ole-ñues 3.o
of the oven and into sole-lines beneath there
generators, means for alternately on either side for outñow therefrom to the means for with->
drawing, the ,inlet means and outlet means i‘or
ofthe ñow reversal plane withdrawing the prod
, ucts of combustion from‘the sole-ñues at the op
posite end of the oven,l closable inlet means at
one end of the respective sole-fiues for inflow
thereto from-„,.the means for introducing and
closable outlet'means -at‘the opposite ends of
the respective sole-flues`for outflow therefrom
to the means for withdrawing, the inlet means
and outlet means for each sole-flue .being oper»
able in alternation with each other, the improve
ment characterized by the graduation of the
communicating openings between -the sole-nues
and the regenerators in decreasing cross-sectional>
area from a point adjacent the inlet end of the
each sole-ñue being operable in alternation with
each other, the improvement characterized by the
graduation of the communicating openings be 35
tween the sole-fines and the regenerators in de
creasing cross-sectional area from a point ad
jacent the inlet endA of the sole-ilues toward the
opposite end, so that the iìow of gases in the 40
sole-nues on both sides of the reversal plane
during both inñow and outflow will be always
toward lateral sole-nue openings of decreasing`
cross-sectional area`- ,
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