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Патент USA US2110454

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."Mmh 8, 1938. V
Filed Jan. 17», 1936
2_ Sheets-Sheet 1
Harold 52/20/06.)’
March 8, 1938.
2,110,454 U
Filed Jan. 17, 1956
2 Sheets-Sheet 2
I Harold 1527i
~ ,
1938 I
" con?ict
cou- - I
name ‘Sinclair, Kensington, London, England
Application January 17, ‘1936, Serial No. 59,520“_
In Great Britain January 17, 1935'v
18 Claims. Y (01. 66-154)
, The present invention relates to hydraulic cou- _
the liquid-storage device and baclt'through the‘ .
plings of the‘ kinetic type and provided with con- 1 vent pipe to‘ the coupling, gas withdrawn-from trol means ' whereby, the liquid content of . the
.working- circuit of the coupling can be varied
certain limits, that is to say,>cha'nges more rapid
10' than can conveniently‘ be secured with the well
lgnown arrangement of- scoop-tube coupling and
weir control, as described in myrUnited States
Patent No. 1,859,607 with reference to Figs. 1, 2
the coupling, when the liquid content of the cir~ . -
cuitis reduced by increasing the capacity of the‘
liquid-storage device, will be‘ rapidly returned
When‘ such couplings are employed for certain‘ from that device to the coupling, so that, except
purposes, it is desirable to be able to make rela
during and immediately after the time when the ' ~
tively rapid changes in the liquid content between capacity of the. device was varied, there will be '
while the coupling-is operating.
and 4 thereof.
It‘has previously been proposed to vary the
liquid content-of hydraulic power-transmitting
a constant relationship between the position of
the control member of the device‘and the quan
- tity of liquid contained therein,._i’or instance, -10
where the‘ device is of the piston-and-cylinder
" type, between the positionof the piston and the
quantity of liquid contained in the cylinder. "It
is not essential that ‘the cylinder ‘:or the like 15
should be entirely freed from gas, since the im- '
devices bymeans of a cylinder which communi 7 proved arrangement enables the degree of "froth
cates ‘withthe hydraulic'circuit and in which iness” in the cylinder or the like to be rapidly
there is provided a piston, movable by a control brought to a uniform state for any particular po
20 member 'insuch a way that liquid can be trans-v sition of the piston or other control‘ member, ir
ferred from the working circuit to the cylinder respective of‘ the. extent or rapidity'of the previ
and vice versa. _With this arrangement-when ous displacement thereof.
the piston is moved so as to withdraw liquid from
The means for varying the capacity of the pisthe ,circuitgthe cylinder may become charged ton-and-cylinder or equivalent liquid-storage de- ;
26 with" a frothy I mixture of ‘liquid and ' gas,- owing
vice preferably comprise a cam which is so shaped .25
to the unavoidable entrainment of gas with. the as to compensate for irregularities in-‘the char
working liquid passing through the discharge 'acteristic curve of the coupling.
port or ports of the power transmitting device.
Examples of the invention will be described as
In consequence, it has not hitherto been pos-
'80 sible to e?’ec't accurately measured changes of
liquid content by such means.
~ _
applied to a hydraulic coupling employed in a
boiler plant, to‘ couple, for example, a draught ‘80'
; .~ fan or a ‘feed pump to a constant-speed motor, ~
An object of the present invention is to pro- _ the degree of ?lling of the coupling being varied
vide means adapted to e?ec't rapid and accurate
'changes ofyliquid content in theaworking circuit '
85. ,‘of'al hydraulic coupling. '
to regulate the speed of the fan or pump in known
In the accompanyingdiag'rammatic drawings 35 *
The characteristiccurve relating liquid content
of a hydraulic coupling to speed of the driven
Fig.1 is a part sectional side, elevation of one
element thereof. is not entirely uniform in slope“, ’_1 . Fig. 2 is a- sectional end elevation of a detail on
embodiment of'the invention.'-
and a further object of the present invention‘is _ the line 1-2 in
40 to provide control means arranged to compensate
for such irregularities.'
According to the present invention, in thecom- .
- j
, 1
' n Fig. 3 is a part-sectional side elevation of a '40.
modi?cation of Fig. 1, and
_ q
Fig. 4‘ is a graph showing the '
I [
_ .bination
type withoila.a piston-and-cylinder,
‘hydraulic coupling .or.
of the
kinetic v"0:!
.' ‘like
the 0011911118
parts ininthe
Fig. 1. ,q ?gures
‘ ofj the
, ‘draw
45 liquidestorage dewice of variable capacity. (such i'ings have the same. reference‘ numerals. .
_ for example-ass‘ bellows device). whichis adapt-- Q Referring to Figs. 1 and Zacomtant-speed
ed to
the coupling.
and forcethere
into '.electric
._ machine,motor
‘in thia‘examnleis
arranged to‘drive
a boiler
a driven
feed- » ' ..videdagasve_ntcommunicatingbetweentheup-'j pump ll, through a'hydraulic coupling llof they
150 per part of the cylinder
or. equivalenvmember
kinetic typevhavin'gra
hnpeiler‘part I3 60 '‘
met the liquid-storage device an'dthe interior ‘of- keyedtothe
ll of the motor ll andavaned _ '
the hydrauliciooupling.‘ .Providedthat-theliquid .g runner part II
to a"ldrlvemzshait “by
' transfenduct-andthe vent .pipevopeninto the i a-key l1 and a nut It .dhe
couplinginsuchamaunerwthat'therefis a'cir- . to-the pumpshaft ll.‘
is culation mm the coupling through the.‘ duct to
, _J.-* .'"i
‘:a casing :ai'nx'ed tofthe' impeller
ing the backfof the'runner, co-operates with an
outer casing Ii,a1so tlxed'to the impeller, to
valv'e‘rod u is
.a differential Q
device arranged to
trol medium with-a
'e?ect of- a- con
motion from the‘ .
form an annular chamber 22; A ?xed manifold
28 -' surrounds the shaft It and carries ascoopp ‘piston II.
In the example shown inl the ‘control me- .j
tube 24 ‘which opens within the radially outer
vpart of the chamber 22. The scoop tube com-v dium is air under a varying'pressure which is
to a pipe‘ I. from an automatic master "
municates by‘ an outlet duct 25 formed in the, ' supplied
manifold with an outlet pipe 26 leading to a regulate of known type. indicated diagrammab, V
at i. The pressure in the pipe II is‘ in
'cooler 21, while a pipe 28 connects the cooler to ically
creased and decreased automatically by the mac'
rise and fail
cates with the working circuit by ducts iii in the’ ter regulator in proportionto the To
the 'valve '
oi’ the load on the boiler plant.
boss of‘the runner Ii. A-series of restricted
rod 44 is' fixed alilexiblégdiaphragm 41 forming
ports 8| communicate between the working cir
cover of an'air-tight chamber 48 communi
cuit of the hydraulic coupling and the cham ~ the‘
eating with the control air pipe 4'6, "Hie-piston
rod “extends through a bearing in the bottom
While the coupling is operating‘liquid continu
ously leaks through the ports Ii into the cham
ber 22 ‘where it- is collected by the scoop tube
24 and fed, with'some entrained gas, under pres
sure due to the scooping action‘, through‘ the
cooler 21 and thence back to the working circuit
of the coupling. The arrangement so far de
‘49 oi the chamber ‘48 and is secured toone eti'dv
of a tensionvspring 80‘ the
r and of which is
adapted ‘to be displaced, in response'to move?
mentfoi' the pistons 34 and 40, through the‘ agency
of a bell-crank lever ti mounted-on‘a ii'xed pivot ,
52. One arm of theJbeIl-cr‘ank lever is pivotally
connected to the ‘spring ".‘while the other arm .
.ends in a cam follower 53, which‘ is engaged in a
scribed is well known. .
A pipe 52, branching from the scoop tube de-v
livery pipe 2', leads to a cylinder II, the axis of ‘ cam groove 54 formed win a plate iixedltorthe pi_s—_
which is vertical and which contains a piston 34 ton rod 42;
‘adapted to .be displaced by suitable control means.
The upper end of the cylinder is closed by 'a con
_ Fig.
1 shows
the servo-motorv
, .
nism in an equilibrium condition: ‘If the control
ical (cover I! provided with a gas port It con
air pressure in the pipe “rises; for example. the
where the ?uid pressure is'relatively low; for ex
' ample, the pipe, may lead, as shown in Figs. 1
ceeds the downward iorce exerted by the'spring
‘I so thatthe valv'arod it rises, permitting air
and 2, to a port "in the manifold 23, opening
into the radially inner part of the- scoop 'tube
side of the piston 40. ‘The pistons ll and it rise
nected by a pipe I] to a point in the coupling _ upward‘i’or'ce acting onthe' diaphragm ‘l1 ex
fromthe power main 4! to iiowto the under, '
in consequence and vthe cam it rocks therbeli- .
chamber". This ‘pipe ‘is substantially smaller
crank lever. anti-clockwise, so as to increase the
' tension of the~ spring 50 and-draw the-valve rod
As already mentioned the characteristic curve 44 downward, so that the valve closes ‘as _-soon
relating liquid content of the hydraulic coupling as the pistons haverisen through’ a distance ap
than the liquid transfer duct 32‘. and it may be
provided with a non-return valve 3!.’
propriate to the‘ change'inbontrol air. pressure.
to speed of the driven element thereof is not en
In a similar way, if the control air pressure falls.
in slope; consequently under cer
tain conditions oi?change of-load on the boiler, it
is necessary to makela somewhat rapid reduction
the valve rod 4! is drawn downward by the spring
3., with’ the result that the pistons are caused- - '
' in liquid content of the coupling. There is thus _ to descend. The cam l4 now‘move's'the bell
a tendency at such times for an excessive quan ‘ crank lever 5i clockwise'reducing. the tension of
the spring.
tity of gas to be sucked through the liquid trans
Fig. 4 the curve A indicates thezvariation of
fer duct 82 from the coupling into the cylinder theInspeed
the pump ll (Fig. l)_ with the liquid
a. with a corresponding reduction ‘in the, quan v content ofofthe
hydraulic ‘couplingr the speed be
tity of liquid. The excess gas-is,,howev_er, rap
idly returned‘to the coupling through the vent ing plotted as ordinate and theva‘lues being ex,
’ port“ and pipe :1, being displaced 'byvliquid pressed as percentages of their maximum
the range ~
ing limits; It will be seen that over
delivered by‘ the scoop tube 2‘ to the liquid
of ?lling from about 50 to '70 percentuthe slope; .
the coupling
duct 82,
so that
the the
‘of 'va‘lue. ‘ not the speed curveis less steep than elsewhere. '
‘,Over the part of the range otemptying and
When it is desired to make a rapid increase in ?lling-of
the hydraulic coupling where~s rela
the liquid content of the coupling, thepiston"v
, 84 is merely moved in the required direction, and
tively-large variation in‘liquid content has tobe
the necessary quantity of liquidis returned to - _made'_for a4given change in ‘speed ._o( the feed' ‘I I
pump i'-i_,’it~is necessary for .the'pistons-tl and .'
the circuit, without delay, under pressuredue to f“
toltravel arelativeiy long distanceffor a given
the force exerted on‘the piston by the- actuating
vai'istion?oi theZcontroLair
, 'lhe piston is conveniently actuated-by a'com
‘pressed-air motor, and where-asy‘stem of auto
quently the part'ofthercam groove 1“ that en
gages the cam follower It over this particular
_ tic combustion control is employed, the com Vran'ge ofv travel of'the pistons has
intlm example ahownrin.
may be. 1mg.
,1 the part of thecamgroove betweenthe
‘controlled by' means including a cam‘device so
as to compensatev for irregularitiea'in the ‘ points '4' and‘ H" is ‘or reduced slope. It'll]
characteristic curve oftthe
' ‘
the arr'angunent shown in Fig. l
motor is‘ of the, double-acting type
10 :presed-air'
and-includes a piston.“ working in a-c‘ylinder Ii
andcoupiedtotbepiston?byarod?. ‘since
be obvious that the same eilect
‘ by plaoingvthe compensating cam mechanism 3
elsewhere, for
ln a‘ '_
~tw'een the'speed of the pump (asl ordim'te') ‘and
valve 43 actuated by a rod M, controls‘ the
air from a powersupply thecontrolair'pressure; Itwillbeseenthatthe'
‘main st to the motor in ‘known. manner. ‘the ‘ val'lationin-stoevaels
cam groove "has"
the eilect of compensating for the irregularity in
the kinetic type having a‘ ?uid outlet port,v a
?uid inlet port, and means utilizing the energy of
motion of liquid within said coupling for estab- ,
lishing a, di?ference of ?uid pressure between said
relationship so as to make the‘
ports, a hydraulic circuit connecting said ports
together, said circuit including a stationary liquid-storage, chamber having a- displaceable wall
' speed
control-air-pressure '
' 4.'In' combination, a hydraulic coupling of '
and a duct leading from the top of said chamber
substantially linear.
to said inlet port, and control means, for dis
10. relationship
The arrangement shown in‘Fig. lniay be mod-e, placing said wall to vary the capacity of said
i?ed as shown in Fig. 3, ‘where a single-acting
compressed-air motor is employed.~ A spring
5.. In combination, a Hydraulic'coupling having
a working circuit for coupling liquid, a stationary
loaded valve ‘i0 is provided between the outlet
15 pipe 26 and'the cooler 21 and is arranged to
liquid-storage chamber, control means for vary
ing the capacity of said chamber, av liquid-trans
maintain a ?uid pressure of about 7 lb. per sq.
in. in the outlet pipe, in the liquid-transfer pipe‘ fer duct between said chamber and said circuit, a
32 and in the cylinder'33a above the piston “a. gas port debouching from the top of said cham- .
her, and a duct communicating between said gas '
port and said circuit, said duct including a non 20
The. lower end of the cylinder 33a serves 'as the
compressed-air motor, the admission and exhaust
return valve arranged to prevent ?ow of ?uid
of air being controlled by a valve ‘In actuated by
‘a rod “a. The valve rod “0 is controlled by a_
through said lastémentioned duct 'to said cham- -
di?erential pressure device similarpin principle
6. In combination, ahydraulic coupling of‘
"to that shown in Fig. 1 and comprising a dia
the kinetic type having a liquid transfer'port,
phragm 41 in?uenced by the control 'air pressure
from pipe 46, a tension spring 50a connected to ’ means‘ utilizing the energy 01' motion of liquid
2. bell-cranklever Fla, and a cam 54a co-oper- .
ating with a cam'follower 53a and mounted on
the piston rod?a.
within ,the coupling tor forcing liquid o'ut oi’ said.
port, and a ?uid inlet port opening. within said"
‘ coupling at a point adjacent to the axisjof rota
. 'When the controlair pressure falls and per-I. tion thereof, a stationary liquid-storage‘ cham
ber,'control means for varying the capacity of
- mits air under the piston ‘34a to be exhausted,
the pressure existing in the liquid transfer duct.
‘3! causes the piston to fall so that liquid is trans
said chamber, a duct communicating between I -
“ ferred from the coupling to the upper end of the
duct‘debouching from the top of said chamber
and leading to ,said' ?uid inlet port.
cylinder 33c, the gas vent ‘36,, 31 acting as pre-__
-viously described. When the control air pressure‘
said chamber and said liquid transter port. and a
- . ' 7. In combination, a hydraulic coupling of the
’ rises, air from the power air main’ ‘5 forces the. ‘kinetic type-having a liquid'inl'et'port andva liq
uid outlet port, an auxiliary‘liquid circuit con-.
nected between said ports, means for maintain
' piston llagup'ward, returning liquid to the-cou
.pling.~ Ineach case the quantity of liquid dis
plac'ed is regulated by the differential pressure ;ing a liquid circulatiodthropgh said auxiliary
control device, in accordance with the extent of ’ circuit, a stationary liquid storage chamber, a
duct branching from, said auxiliary. circuit, and
‘the change in control air pressure.
I claim:
1. In combination, a hydraulic coupling ‘having '
a working circuit for coupling liquid, a stationary
liquid-storage chamber, control means for vary-=1‘
ing the'capacity of ~saidchamber, a liquid-trans
fer duct between said. chamber and said circuit,
' opening into said chamber, control means for .
‘varying the capacity of'said chamber, and a vent ‘ .
duct having one-end debouching from the upper 45
' part of- s‘aid chamber and the other end com
municating with said coupling at‘ a point therein
.where the pressure is relatively low.
8.'In combination; a hydraulic ‘coupling of
and a gas vent'debouching from, the neighbor- ~
hood or the top of said chamber and leading to the kinetic type‘ having a liquid outlet port, a
?uid inlet' port, and‘ means for maintaining a
_ said circuit.
2. In combination, _a hydraulic coupling of the . . di?'erence o'f ?uid pressure between said ports, a
) kineticvtype having a working circuit, a stationary cylinder having'its axis out of the horizontal and _
liquid-storage chamber, means for exhausting its upper end closed, a piston -co,-oper_ating with‘
said cylinder, control means for actuating‘ said‘
pling is operating,v a duct communicating between piston, a liquid transfer duct leading irom~ said
liquid from said workingzcircuit while said cou
said ‘exhausting means and said chamber, con
‘outlet port and opening into said cylinder above
ber, whereby said chamber can force liquid into
top ,0!’ said cylinder and leading to said inlet port.
trol means for varying‘ the capacity of said cham- ' saidpiston, anda gas vent debouchingv from the‘
9., In combination, a hydraulic coupling 0! the 00
and withdraw liquid from said circuit,‘ and a gas '
vent opening outoi.’ the top of said chamber and . kinetic type having‘ a‘iiquid outlet port“ a ?uid
leading to ,the interioroi ' said coupling.
inlet port,and means ‘for discharging liquid from
3.. In combination, a hydraulic-coupling of th
kinetic type having vaned/ impeller and runner
the interior of said coupling-through saidoutlet .
members and a scoop member disposed within the
coupling so ‘as to engage working liquid therein,
vertical and its upper ‘end closed by a dished mem-'_ as,
port, a‘ cylinder having itsv axis substantially
her, a piston cOE-operating with, said cylinder, con-,
at least one of said yaned members being r0.
trol means for‘ actuating said pisto‘m'a- liquid,
‘tatable relative ‘to said scoop member, an outlet ' transfer duct-leading fromv said outlet port andv
_ duct for discharging liquid engaged by said scoop
70 member, a ‘stationary liquid-storage chamber,
opening intosaidc?inde'r above said piston, and , . -
agas ventfdebouchingirom the top oi'said
control means for-varying the capacity of said‘ fdished member and leading to said-inlet port.- ,
chamber, said chamber communicating with said
10. In combination, ahydraulic coupling come‘
outletduct; and a gas vent opening out of the prising a working’ circuit, said ‘coupling having '
top of said ehamber'and leadingto the interior a liquid-content-runner-speed characteristic of
_ '
‘ I
irregular slope,.a reservoir communicating with“ , ~
76 of said coupling.
's,11o,sos .
"ma circuit‘, and wit-m1" means for‘ vsryins the
oi 'saidcharact'eristic', and a follow-up connec
e?'ecti'vecapacit'y of said reservoir and -thereby
tion between said cam and said piston.
15.1In' combination. a hydraulic coupling of
the kinetic type having a liquid-content runner
liquid content of said circuit, saidv
control means comprising 'a ‘cam so shaped as to
compensate for at least
of the irregularity
speed characteristic [oi irregular slope, said cou
plingbeingprovided with aliquid transfer pm.
' of said vcharacteristic.
a ?uid inlet port, and means rsponsi've to the
motion or liquid within the coupling ior main
-. 11..1n combination, a hydraulic ‘mm or
, the kinetic type comprising a working circuit, said
taining a- ?uid pressure'di?erenc'ebetween said
coupling having a liquidécontent runner-speed
characteristic of irregular slope, a liquid-storage
a stationary
liquid trans
chamber communicating with ,said'circuit, means '
fer port, "a gas vent ciebouchingirvom~ thetop of
- for varying the capacity of said chamber and
thereby transferring liquid to and from" said cir.
said cylinder‘and leading ‘OI-R1111!“ port, a.
a cam device operatively connected with said
motor operatively connected with said listen.
' cult, a servo-motor i'or actuating said means, and" _piston slidably ?tted'in said cylinder, a servo
‘servo-motor and said capacity-varying means, ' control means ior starting and‘ stoppim said
servo-motor,-s pressure-responsive device ‘oper
' i said cam device being so shaped asto compensate
f_0_i’ at-Ileast part of the'irregularity oi’ said char- , atively connected with said control means and a
<return-motion connection which is coupledbe
tween 'said'ccntrol means and said piston and
12; In combination,
_ .
a hydraulic
, Y coupling of the
kinetic type comprising a working circuit, said, 3
coupling havingwa liquid-‘content runner-speed
.charactéris'tic or irregular slope, a cylinder ccm- '
tor at-le'astpart'oitheirregularity ofsaidchar
municating with said circuit, IADIStODv slidable in . ' i6. In combination, a hydraulic couplim hav
.25 said cylinder to transfer liquid to said circuit, inga?uidinletport,aliquidoutletport,and
" a servo-motor ,ior actuating said piston, control ' means utilising the energy oi’ motion or liquid
means tor-‘starting and stopping‘ said servo-motor,v ' within the coupling ior establishing a di?erence
said contrormeans including
so shaped as oi ?uid pressure between said ports, a hydraulic
to compensate for at least part’roi the-irregularity ‘circuit connecting said ports together; said cir
oi',ssid characteristic, a pressure-responsive de 4 cult insluding' a stationary liquid storage cylinder
vice for actuating said control means, and a fol
to said inlet port, a piston movablein said cylin- ‘
low-up connection between said piston and said
control meins.
- . -
_- der tor iorcingliquid into ‘and withdrawingeliq
' '13; In‘, combination,‘ a vhydraulic'coupling oiW uid from said coupling, a servo-motor ioractu
the kinetic
comprising a working. "circuit, ‘ating said pistonlacontrol member for starting‘
said coupling having > a liquid-content runner: _’and stoppingvsaid servo-motor, ands return
'rspeed'charaoteristic oi irregular slope, .a cylinder -mction connection between said
communicating- with said circuit, a piston slid_—‘ ‘
control member.
able in said cylinder‘ to transfer liquid to» said : 17. In combinationra- hydraulic coupling Inv
circuit, a ?uid-pressure servo-motor ion actuate. ing a workingcir'cuit ior coupling liquid, afoyiin
ing said piston, va cohtrol valveior said-servo-' der, a piston movable in said cylinder and; torm
motor, control means for displacing, said valve,-' ing therewith av liquid-storage chamber '01"!!!
' and a. follow-up connection between said valve ‘ able-capacity, a humid-transfer duct between said
' and said piston, said ‘connection " including a? chamber
said‘ chamber
and and
a and
gas‘ control
vent means
camsoshapedastocompensateiorat leastpart "
,netlc' ypehaving-a liquid-content runner
speed characteristic'oi irregular slope, said cou
1a. Infco'mbination, a‘ hydraulic
thekin'etictypehavingaw'orking circuit iorcou-I
pli‘ng'liquid; a liquid outlet port, a ?uidinlet port
oi the irregularity vof said
14. In combination, a ‘hydraulic coupling of
slins belns provided with a liquid. transfer- port,
and meanaiol‘
liquid irorn'sald cit.»
a ?uid inlet port,'and means responsive to the ‘cult through said ‘outlet port at a pressureex-_
‘ motion oi liquid within the coupling for main
.taining a ?uid pressure di?erence between said' storage chamber. control means operable (or '
varying the e?ective capacity-oi’ said chamber.‘
ports, a stationary cylinder, aduct communicat
‘ 65 ing'between said cylinder'and said liquid trans
'\ ier-po'r't, a gas vent debo'uching from the top-oi
‘said cylinder and leading to said inletportra
piston siidably ?tted? in vsaid cylinder-pa servo
communicating with said chamber and so pol- -
seryoemotor, said control means including a cam
inlet port.
‘motor operatively connected with
piston, tinned/as, to receive gas discharged’with’limid
90 control means iorfsta'rting and 'stoppingsaid mm said circuit, said'duct-‘leadingto said ?uid so
so shaped as to compensate to: the ummsnw‘
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