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Патент USA US2110457

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March 8, 1938.
J. F. wENTz
2,110,457
UNDERSEA CABLE SYS TEM
Filed March 28, 1936
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' Patented Mar.`~ 8i, 1938-
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UNITED STATES PATENTKOFFICE
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2,110,457
UNDERSEA CABLE SYSTEM
Jesse F. wenn, -New York, N. Y., “signor to Bell
Telephone Laboratories, Incorporated, lNew
York, NVY., a corporation of New York
Application March 2s, 1936, serial No. 71,395
s claims. (c1. 17a-zes)
This invention relates to deep sea cable systems
and more particularly to housings for apparatus
Aillustrates the manner of laying a submarine `cable
connected to a housing constructed in accordance
employed in undersea cable systems.
with this invention.
,
'I'he object of this invention is to house re- V
Fig. l shows a view partly broken away of the
5` peating and other apparatus required in undersea
lhousing constructed in accordance with this ln
Ul
cable systems in a container which> is substantially vention. 'I'he housing comprises a helix 4 of steel
impervious to water at both high and low pres- or other material which is capable of withstand
sures and which possesses suilicient flexibility to ing deep‘sea pressures. A pliable copper tube i0
withstand the bending it will encounter during covers the helix I. 'I‘he tube I0 may be con
10 >the laying of the undersea cable system.
, structed of other material which is pliable and 10
l
Since Cyrus W. Field in 1858 laid the iirst At- impervious to water. `A layer of jute i is wound
lantic cable the advance and ‘improvements in around the copper tube i0. Over the jute I
the undersea cable communication systems have
armor wire 2 is placed.
been many. One such improvement suggested in
15 recent years is the use of repeater stations on the
The armor Wire 2 is q
similar to that employed in the construction of
submarine cables. Another layer of jute 3 is 15
ocean bottom which are adapted to be laid with \ wound around the armor wire 2.
In Fig. 2 the end of the housing illustrated in
2,020,297 granted to O. E. Buckley and O. yB.
Fig. 1 is shown. The housing comprises the steel
' Jacobs on November 12, 1935.
However, thev
helix 4 which serves as a supporting structure.
`20 housings in which these repeaters and other apparatus are inserted have heretofore beenof rigid
design. Since in the laying of an undersea cable
from a' cable ship the cable is bent around at
least one drum, the cable laying operation must
.25 be interrupted and the cable spliced and connected to the terminals of the housing atpoints
where repeaters or other apparatus are required.
This procedure results in considerable loss of time
in the laying of the cable and is mechanically
A steel end plate 5 is so disposed to the helix 4 20
that the’ plate supports the end of the helix ra
dially, while the helix supports the plate longi
tudinally. A hollow central conductor 6 which
is adapted to` be connected to the central con
ductor of the cable passes through the steel end 25
plate 5 and is insulated therefrom by means of a
soft rubber insulator l. The rubber insulator 1
is vulcanized to the hollow central conductor 6
and to a container endfcap 8 which alsoserves as
difiicult at great depths.
3
«
an outer conductor.
The end cap 8 is preferably 30
In accordance with a feature of this invention
the electrical apparatus required for undersea
constructed so that it is supported by the `steel
end plate 5. Paragutta or other insulation 9
' communication is housed in a flexible container
which is capable of being connected to the insu-l
Which may be bent around the drums employed
v35 in the laying of the cable. The flexible container
. is capable of withstanding vthe pressures encounter'ed in deep sea depths. A pliant covering which
is substantially’impervlous to water surrounds the
4
.
the undersea cable 'as described in U. S. Patent
lation of the armored cable is formed around the
insulator 1 and the outer conductor or end cap 8. 35
Insulation 9~ is placed around the insulator 'i and
the outer conductor 8 before the vulcanization of
the insulator 1. The paragutta 9 comprises 4l)
container.
In accordance with another feature of this in-
per cent deresinated balata, 50 per cent depro
teinized rubber and 10 per cent Superla wax.' 40 ì
vention water isprevented from entering the container at both high and low pressures'. When the
housing is being lowered for laying on the sea bot-
During the vulcanization >of the insulator> 1, the
compound 9 adheres to the insulator. An an*
nealed vcopper jacket I0 which is impervious to
tom, variations in the sea pressure are encoun-'
4r tered. The housing in accordance with this invvention is capable of withstanding all of the variations in the sea pressure.
A more comprehensive understanding of this
invention is obtained by reference to the accom„o“ panying drawing in which:
o
Fig. 1 shows a view of the housing constructed
in accordance with this invention;
Figs. 2,and 3 are- sectional views of the ends
of the housing shown in Fig. 1.
~
-
Fig. 4 is a perspective view of a vessel which
water and which may be in direct contact with
sea water completely surrounds the steel helix 4 45
and extends completely over the circumferences
of the steel end plate 5 and the outer conductor 8.
The portion of the copper jacket I0 which extends
over the steel end plate and the outer conductor
may besecured to the end plate and outer con- 50
ductor by welding, brazing or soldering». A ccp
per cone lli for reducing the housing diameter to ‘
.that of the insulation of the cable over a long
, length so that the cone bends around »the drum
employed in laying the cable without kinking ex- 55
2
ai 10,457
~tends over a portion of the copper jacket iti. rl'he
cone il is preferably made of the same material
as that of the jacket to prevent corrosion as a
result of an electrocouple. The cone il may be
soldered or brazed to the jacket lil. ri‘he space
between the cone li and the lcable insulation il is
ñlled with a sealing compound lil, such as íG‘hat
terton compound or melted rubber, which is fluid
at low temperatures.
A circuit connecting conductor l2 for connect
ing the apapratus contained within the housing
to the cable is passed through the hollow cen
tral conductor lì. The wire l2 at the termina
tion of the central conductor tè in the housing is
insulated by means ofrubber or other suitable
. material
l
rlihe insulation i3 is i’ixedly held
to the insulator l by means of a metallic cone
like support ill. Electrical apparatus employed
in undersea communication and indicated by the
20 labeled block diagram in the drawing is connected
the insulator 3l rests against the outer conductor
23, while the shoulder of the central conductor
rests against the insulator 3l.' The radial
"widths of both the insulator 3i and the central
conductor 2t are sufficient to prevent, when sub~
jected to deep sea pressures, appreciable ex
trusion of the insulator 3l Ithrough the outer
conductor 2d or the extrusion of the conductor 26
through the insulator l , respectively. The length
of the shoulder of both the insulator 3l and the
conductor 26 is suñiciently great to withstand
deep sea pressures without shearing. The por
tion of the central conductor 2t between the in
sulator ¿il and the end of the conductor is insu
lated from the outer conductor by a rubber com
pound
rl‘he rubber compound 33 is vulcanized
to both the outer conductor 28 and the central
conductor 2t.
The composition of a material
which has been found satisfactory for the insu
lating compound 33 is as follows:
Parts
at one lead to the circuit connecting wire i2 and
at the other lead to a terminal l5 ñxedly em
bedded in the steel end support d and in electrical
contact with the outer conductor 8.
When the hollow central conductor t is joined
Age-rite resin (adol-alpha-naphthyl-aminel
to a. central conductor i8 of a submarine cable
Zinc oxide-'____________________________ __ 50
the circuit connecting wire l2 is soldered or brazed
to both the hollow conductor t and the central
conductor i8 at the point of jointure of the hol
30 low‘conductor 6 and central conductor i8. The
central conductor lil is surroundedby paragutta
insulation il, preferably comprising 4_»0 per cent
deresinated balata, 50 per cent deproteinized rub
ber and l0 per cent Superia wax.
After joining
35 the central conductors, paragutta lli by 'the use
of a joining machine is applied as a 'Filler to
complete the insulation .of the central conductor
between the housing and cable. The cone lf is
not inserted over the outer conductor t until after
the jointure of the cable and housing
corn
pleted. After the cone is soldered, brazed or
welded to the outer conductor, the space between
the cone il and the insulations il, tti and il is
iilled with the sealing compound i9. To insure
the absorption of any water 'that slowly enters
the housing, a dehydrating agent such as cal
cium chloride, powdered alumina or silica gel may
be placed within the housing. ,
rThe housing consists of the steel helix
sur
50 rounded by the jacket l El and terminating at both
ends with >the detail shown in Fig. 2. 'The steel
Deresinated
balata _____________________ _.. 40
Deproteinized
rubber ________ __. _________ _- 50
Superla wax ___________________________ __ l0
l
25
Captax (mercapto-benzo-thiozolel _______ __
.5
Stearic acid ____________________________ __
.5
Sulphur ______________________________ __
3
Petrolatum ___________________________ -_
5
30
The material known commercially as Superla
wax and employed as an ingredient in the vul
canizing compound and the
is a solid
parañin hydrocarbon wai: derived from petra
leum and having a melting point between 71° and 35
77° C. A range of materials having somewhat
higher and somewhat lower melting points are
also satisfactory. Reference is made to U. E.
patent to iiiïencît and Santa lflßìibiiä, granted
on November l2, i922@ lfor a further description of 40
such 'waxes and their inodes of preparation.
Since the vulcanizing compound does not ad
here readily to the paragutta of the submarine
cable after vulcanization, the portion oi the corn
pound
which extends beyond the outer con»
ductor
is covered with paragutta êìlíl. î'îne
paragutta consists of ¿iii parts of deresinated bal
ata, 50 parts of deproteinized rubber and ten
parts of Superla wax.
the compound
In the vulcanization of
the paragutta Elli adheres to
the compound
lThe manner oit vulcanizing
helix ¿i is sufficient to withstand deep sea presthe
compound
is
described in the copending
sure, while the jacket l@ is impervious to water. \
Jute and armor may be applied to the housing .application of W. li/i. Bishop Serial No. 'llfill
ñled oi even date herewith. lli/'hen the cable is
55 as shown in Fig. 1. rThe end seals of the housing spliced for connection to the housing, the para»
shown in Fig. 2 prevent the entrance of water into
guttay of the cable adheres readily to the para
the housing at deep sea pressure.
Fig. 3 shows another type of end seal employed gutta 34 of the housing. A central conductor ilû
of a submarine cable is joined to the hollow
`for the housing illustrated in Fig. l. The hous
conductor
of the housing. At the point of
ing
of
which
Fig.
3
comprises
the
end
seal
is
an
60
jointure,
a
circuit
conducting wire I¿lí? which
elongated steel helix over which a íiexible jacket
of copper or other metal which is impervious to passes through the hollow conductor 2G is sol
water is placed. The elongated steel helix 2li dered to both the central conductors §26 and 50.
iits into a steel end plate
_el hollow central rIv'he central conductor 5@ of the submarine ca
ble is surrounded by paragutta insulation 35 of
65 conductor 2li having a shoulder thereon is passed
same composition as that of the insulation
through the end plate 25. The conductor
also the
3d. After jointure of the central conductors 26
The
passes
outer
through
conductor
a metallic
28 is electrically
outer conductor
connected and 5b, insulation 52 comprising paragutta of
the same composition as that of the insulation
to a ground plate 2l. ,A terminal ‘29 is connected 3d and
is applied as a filler to complete the
to
the
ground
plate
and
passes
through
the
end
70
insulation ci 'the central conductors between the
plate ät to be connected to apparatus within the ` cable and housing. .after the central conductors
housing. A hard rubber insulator 3l having a have been jointed and the insulation 52 placed
shoulder thereon separates the central conductor over the jointure, a sleeve 3l is fitted into the
26 from the Steel end plate 25, _the ground plate outer conductor 2d and covers the paragutta ln
75 2l, and the outer conductor 2th The shoulder oi sulating material
for a considerable length.
3,
2,110,457
In order to reduce gradually the diameter of
the housing to that of the cable, .a plurality of
rings of solid metal 36 are'employed. 'I'he rings
36 are graduallydecreased in outside diameter
from that of the housing to that of the insula»
tion of the cable. The rings 36 may be made of
metal tape instead of consisting of solid metal.
The sleeve 31 supports the rings 36 and furnishes
a long path for any sea water that might enter
10 through the joint between the vulcanizing com
pound 33 andthe outer conductor 28. 'I'he outer
conductor 28 is provided with a plug 53 through
which a sealing compound 54 may be inserted.
by and which is impervious to Water surrounding
said` container, said armoring being continued
over said housing to relieve it of longitudinal
strain.
Y 2. A deep sea cable having armoring to take
up longitudinal strain, a deep sea housing for
electrical apparatus inserted -in said cable, said
housing comprising an elongated flexible tubular
member, a pliant metal covering substantially
impervious to water surrounding said housing 10
and sealing means for substantially preventing
water from entering either end of said housing,
said tubular member being capable of support
The sealing compound is preferably a material, ' ing said covering _under deep sea pressure and
15 such as Chatterton’s compound or melted rub
ber, which is iiuid at low temperatures. The
sealing compound 54 nils the spaces between
the sleeve 31 and the outer conductor 28 and
' between the sleeve 31 and the insulators 35 and
15
said armoring being continued over and sur
rounding said housing to relieve it of longitudinal
strain.
`
3. A housing for electrical apparatus adapted
to be laid on a sea bottom comprising a flexible
20 52. A terminal nut 39 is flxedly attached to the
container capable of withstanding the pressures 20
central conductor 26 by means of threads. A
hard rubber bushing 40 surrounds'the insulator
3l to support the shoulder of the nut 39. One
lead from the electrical apparatus inserted in
the housing is connected to the ground plate 21
by the terminal 29, while the other lead from the
apparatus is connected to the central conductor
by means of the circuit conducting wire 49 which
is soldered to the central conductor 26 at a point
30 of jointure of the cable with the housing.
encountered on the sea bottom, a pliant metallic
covering surrounding said container which is ‘
At both low andhigh sea pressures, the vul
canizing compound 33 prevents leakage of sea
water between the insulator 3| and the outer con
ductor 28 and also leakage between the central
conductor 26 -and the insulator 3l. At high sea
pressure the construction,> of the shoulder on
the central conductor and the shoulder on the
insulator 3l prevents leakage of water between
vouter conductor 28 and the insulator 3l and
between the central conductor 26 ,and the in
sulator 3 I.
,
~
A copper jacket 38 completely surrounds the
steel helix 24 and extends over the end plate 25,
-the ground plate 21, the outer conductor .28 and
45 a portion of the sleeve 31. The jacket 30 may be
substantially impervious to water, and a metallic
member sealed to said container and said cover-_
ing at one end of said housing and having'a
central opening for passing a cable conductor
from the interior of said container and includ
ing sealing means about said conductor within
said member for substantially preventing water
from entering said container.
tion of said inner conductor passing through said
outer conductor, an insulating material which
adheres to said outer conductor and said inner
conductor and which forms a seal for preventing
the leakage of water into said housing and an
insulating compound which adheres to said ilrst
insulating material, which surrounds a portion
of said' conductor not surrounded by said iirst 40
material and which is capable of adhering to the
insulation of a submarine cable.
5. A deep sea housing for electrical apparatus
adapted to be built into a deep sea signaling ca
rbrazed, soldered or welded to the end plate 25,
ble which comprises a flexible container capable
of withstanding deep sea pressures, end plates
the ground plate 2-1, the outer- conductor 28 and
the sleeve 31. 'I_‘he housing including> the end
ing and capable of withstanding deep sea pres
seal shown in Fig. 3 is covered with jute and ar
50 mor wire as illustrated in Fig. 1.
In Fig. 4 the laying of a submarine cable and
the housing constructed in accordance with this
invention is shown. In the laying of a cable for
undersea communication, the cable usually passes
55 over two sheaves and a drum.` A cable 4I having
a housing 42 in accordance with this invention
connected to the cable passes over two sheaves
43 and 45 and a drum ,44. 'I‘he ilexible nature
Y, of the housing permits the laying of the cable
without the necessity of 'splicing of the cable on
coI `thecable
ship for the connection of the housing.
While preferred embodiments o! this inven
tion have been illustrated and described, various
modiñcations therein may be made without de
parting from the scope of the appended claims.
What is claimed is:
.
1. The combination of a deep sea cable hav
ing armoring with a deep seal housing for elec
trical apparatus. said housing comprising a flex
70 ible containercapable of withstanding the pres
sures encountered at deep sea and a pliant cov
_ ering about said container and supported there
30
.
4. In an end seal for’a submarine housing an
outer conductor, and an inner conductor, a por
for said container each having a central open- .
sures, _a pliant impervious metal covering sur
rounding said container and sealed to said end 50
plates, a conductor sealed by low pressure and
_high pressure sealing means into each oi' said
openings andV connected to the cable conductor',
armoring about said container for relieving said
55
container of longitudinal strain from the cable. »
6. A deep sea entrance seal for passing a con
ductor into a low pressure housing having a rigid
end plate with a hole, said seal comprising a plug
of comparatively hard insulating material, such
as hard rubber, viìtted into said hole and having
a shoulder engaging said plate for sealing under
high pressure and also'having'a central bore, a
conducting rod passing through said bore and
having a 'shoulder engaging said plug for sealing ~
under high pressure, a tubular extension from 65
said end plate, and a comparatively soft insulat
ing material, such as vulcanized rubber, ñliing
the annular space between said extension and
said rod and being vulcanized thereto for sealing
under- comparatively low pressures.
JESSE F.
‘
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