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Патент USA US2110552

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March s, 1938.
A. G. HAYDEN
'
FUSE’ FOR AERIAL DROP BOMBS
Filed Dec. 21, 1936
‘
BY
2,110,552
Patented‘ Mar.
1938 I
, 2,110,552
V UNITED’ , STATES PATENT - OFFICE
v
I
I
I
- FUSE roe ‘minor-norms
I
Arthur‘ G. .Hayden,\Qakland, Calif.
Application December 21, 1936, _Serial No..116,876
5 Claims. (01. 10246)
‘it
with, a threaded nipple 9, by means of which
the head may be attached to the body of the
bomb, and is hollowed out to provide a chamber
between the launching of the bomb, from an air
craft or other carrier, and the explosion there ‘II. Midway between the ends of the housing
is a partition I2 from which depends a hub 13 5
5 of, may be regulated.
It is an object of the invention to provide a which is concentric with the axis ‘of the hous
This invention relates to timing fusesfor aerial
bombs by means of which the interval of time
fuse for aerial bombs which operates by changes
ing.
,
The cover ‘I is provided with a downwardly
in atmospheric pressure. -'
extending nipple M, which seats in the upper
open end of the‘ housing 6 and is secured there- 10
Another object of the invention is to provide
10 a fuse which may be set by thevbomber, to ex
plode the bomb at a certain altitude, without
necessitating complex calculations on the part
of the bomber before setting the fuse.
in by setscrews l5, and with a central recess
ll closed at its upper end by a wall I8 having
an aperture ' l9 therethrough. In the bottom
of the recess H is a hub 2i having a square
V
A further object of the invention is to provide
15 a fuse which may be set to function either to
explode the bomb at a predetermined altitude,
or by shock caused by the bomb striking an ob
bore 22 therein.
The cap 8 has therein a central hub 23 pro
vided with a bore 24 which receives a shaft 28
ject.
secured to the cap by a setscrew Z'l. The lower
end of the shaft 26 is provided with a bore 28
in which is secured, by the pin 29, the shank 2o
31 of the adjusting screw 32, which passes throug
Still another object of the invention is to
29 provide in a timing head for an aerial bomb,
wherein the fuse ‘for exploding the bomb is ac
tuated by changes in atmospheric pressure,
means for prevention, due to the ?ight of the
bomb, the creation of pressures di?ering from
25 the pressure of the atmosphere through which
the bomb is passing on the fuse actuating mech
anism.
the aperture N.
>
Disposed in the aperture ll of the cover ‘I
is an axially ‘resilient evacuated metallic bel
lows 33 having at its upper end a square hub 25
34 which slidably engages in the bore 22 and
a threaded recess located centrally of the hub
in which the adjusting screw 32 is engaged. The
lower end of the bellows is provided with a cen
'
The invention' possesses other objects and valu
able features, some of which, together with the
30 foregoing, will be speci?cally set forth in the spec
i?cation hereunto annexed. It is to be under
stood that the invention is not to be limited to
trally apertured yoke 36' having depending there- 30
from a stud 31 which slidably engages in an
the particular species thereof shown and de
aperture 38 formed axially of the hub I3. 'The
bellows, being evacuated in the manner of the
scribed as various other embodiments thereof
bellows of the conventional barometer, will be '
aifected by changes in atmospheric pressure. 35
35'may be employed within the scope of the ap
pended claims.
Referring to the drawing:
Thus at or near sea level, the bellows will be
contracted axially and as higher altitudes are
reached the lessening of the pressure of the at
mosphere will allow the bellows to axially ex
pand, thereby causing the yoke 36 to move up- 40
ward or downward as the bellows is affected.
Pivotally mounted on a pin secured in a brack
et 39, formed on the wall l2 of the housing 6,
is a lever one arm 4| of which enters the aper
ture of the yoke 36 and the other arm 42 of 45
’
Figure 1 is a vertical sectional view, partly in
elevation, of a bomb timing head including the
40 fuse of my invention.
Figure 2 is a cross-sectional view of the tim
ing head. The plane of section is indicated by
the line 2--2 of Figure 1.
Figure 3 is a cross-sectional view of the head.
45 The plane in which this view is taken is indi
cated by the line 3—3 of Figure 1.
I
Figure 4 is a cross-sectional view of the ad
justing screw for the bellows. The plane of sec
tion is indicated by the line 4-4 of Figure 1.
50
In detail, the fuse of my invention is mount
_ ed in a specially constructed head comprising a
lower housing 6, a cover I, and a cap 8 whose
peripheries are each shaped to provide the bul
let-shaped structure shown in Figure 1.
55
The housing 6 is provided at its lower end
which extends outwardly from the bracket over
the surface of the wall. The arm 42 is pro
vided with a transverse rod 43 to the opposite
ends of which are secured the ends of a pair
of coil springs 44 whose opposite ends are at- 50
tached to spaced lugs 46 rising from the wall
I2. It will be seen, in Figure 1, that the longi
tudinal axis of each spring lies, when the lever
is positioned as shown in the ?gure, angularly
with respect to the lever pivot pin and that the 55
2
2,110,552’
position of the rod 43 of the lever arm 42 is
such that, as the lever is moved, the axis of
each spring .will move across the pivotal axis of
the lever. Thus a toggle action is provided by
the positioning of the springs, the latter tend
ing to maintain the lever in one extreme posi
tion when the parts are disposed as shown in
Figure 1, and causing the lever, when movement
thereof moves the axes of the springs down
10 wardly past the lever pivot, to snap the lever
into its extreme downward position wherein the
arm 42 will be lowermost and the arm 4| will
be elevated. It will be seen therefore that, since
the arm 4! is engaged with the yoke 36, axial
15 contraction or expansion of the bellows, between
certain limits, will cause the toggle lever to snap
from one extreme position to the other.
Means is provided for igniting an explosive
charge or primer for the bomb when the lever
20 snaps into one of its extreme positions. Secured,
in a block of insulating material 41, in the wall
12, is a contact 48, upon which the distal end of
the arm 42 is adapted to rest when this arm is in
its lower position, and connected to the contact is
25 a conductor 49 which passes upwardly through
an aperture 5|, formed in the wall I2, and is se
cured to a contact clip 52 mounted on an insulat
ing block 53 carried on the inner side of the
wall of the housing 6. The cover ‘I is provided
30 with a plurality of spaced recesses 54 each con
taining a dry battery 56 and the terminal of one
of these batteries contacts the clip 52. Each
of the batteries is connected in series with its
neighbor, as is shown in Figure 2, a plurality of
' jumpers 57 each being insulated from the cover
by blocks 58, being provided for conducting the
current of one cell to the other. The ?nal cell
of the series is contacted by a clip 59, mounted on
an insulating block 6| secured to the inner sur
face of the housing side wall, having a curved
?nger 52 extending downwardly therefrom. Also
mounted on the insulating block 6| is a clip 63
having an upwardly curved ?nger 64 similar to
the ?nger 62 and positioned directly below the
latter. A conductor 66 connects the clip 63 with
the insulated terminal 61 of an igniter compris
ing a metallic plug 68 which is screwed into the
upper end of a bore 69 formed in the housing hub
13. Into the lower end of the bore is screwed
an apertured plug ‘H which provides in the bore
a chamber 12 into which explosive material 13
is packed. The lower end of the terminal 61 is
joined with a grounded terminal 14 mounted in
the plug 68 by a fusible wire 16.
I
The ?ngers 62 and 64 are normally held apart
by a safety pin 11 of insulating material which
is slidably mounted in a sleeve 18 projecting
through the side wall of the housing into the
chamber H and the pointed end 19 of the pin
overlies the lever arm 41! and prevents the latter
from moving. When the safety pin is withdrawn,
the lever arm is freed and the ?ngers 62 and 64
move into contact with each other. It will thus
-be seen that the electric circuit is completed
from the contact 48, through the conductor 49,
through the series of batteries 56, the contacting
?ngers 62 and 64, the conductor 66, the igniter,
and the housing, back to the lever arm 42 which
overlies the contact 48. If the timing head were
now screwed on to the main body of the bomb
and the toggle switch was tripped to move the
arm 42 into engagement with the contact 48,
the flow of current in the circuit above described
would melt the fuse ‘l6 and ignite the priming
charge 13 thereby exploding the bomb. It will
be seen that as long as the safety pin is in posi
tion to hold the lever against movement and the
fingers 62 and 64 separated ignition of the prim
ing charge cannot take place. Even though the
pin is moved outwardly to free the lever, the
charge cannot be ignited since the open contact
between the fingers precludes the possibility of
current ?owing from the batteries through the
circuit. Thus, in order to condition the bomb for
?ring the safety pin 11 must be completely with
drawn.
10
_
The timing head may be set by the bomber so
that the explosion of the bomb will take place
at any predetermined altitude below the craft‘
from which it is dropped. The bellows for each 15
individual timing head is calibrated at ground
level so that its degree of contraction and con
sequently the position of the toggle switch with
relation to its dead center is de?nitely known.
Thus, when the ship carrying the bomb is ?ying 20
at an altitude of 10,000 feet, for example, and a
bomb is to be released to explode in the vicinity of
an enemy ship ?ying at 5,000 feet, the bomber
knowing his present altitude and the amount
that the bellows has expanded since leaving the
ground need only rotate the cap 8 to draw the
bellows upwardly to move the lever to such an
angle with respect to its dead center that the
increase in pressure which occurs after the bomb
has dropped through 5,000 feet will be sufficient 30
to contract the bellows and swing the toggle
switch over dead center to close the electric cir
cuit between the contact 48 and the arm 42. To
facilitate handling of the cap 8 the latter is pro
vided with a knurled ?nger grip BI, and to en 35
able the bomber to ascertain the amount that
the bellows is being moved axially, the edge of
the cap is provided with a suitable reference
scale 82 whose graduatlons are adapted to reg
ister with a ?xed index 83 on the cover ‘I.
40
To preclude the possibility of excess air pres
sure building up in the chamber surrounding the
bellows, due to the ?ight of the bomb through
the air, means is provided for maintaining the
pressure in the» chamber constantly equal to the 45
atmospheric pressure through which the bomb is
passing. This is done by providing the cap 8
with a plurality of inlet apertures 84 through
which air may enter the chamber, apertures 86
and 81 in the walls l8 and I2 respectively of the 50
cover and housing through which the air entering .
the chamber through the apertures 84 may flow
and apertures 88 entering the chamber through
the side walls of the lower portion of the housing
through which the air may ?ow from the cham~ 55
her. It will be seen that since the combined areas
of the apertures 84 and 88 are equal as much air
will be exhausted from the chamber as enters it
through the inlet apertures with the result that
the pressure in the chamber is maintained equal 60
to that of the outer atmosphere, therefore no ab
normal pressure will exist in the chamber which
might adversely affect the operation of the tim
ing mechanism.
It will be seen that the timing head is also
capable of being used to explode the bomb upon
impact with a body. This operation may be
obtained by moving the bellows and the yoke
downwardly, as viewed in Figure 1, beyond the
point where the atmospheric pressure at the alti
tude at which the objective is located will not
compress the bellows su??ciently to trip the tog
gle switch. The safety pin is now withdrawn and
the bomb is launched. When the head of the
bomb strikes the objective the bomb will of course
75
2,110,552
be checked and the momentum of the free end
of the bellows and its attached yoke and pin 31
will be su?icient to ?ip the arm 4| of the toggle
switch toward the nose of the bomb and thereby
close the contacts 48 and 42.
The timing head of my invention differs widely
from those using clockwork to actuate the fuse.
A bomb equipped with the present timing head
may be repeatedly reset for ?ring at different
10 targets as compared with the clockwork bombs
which may not be reset once the clockwork has
been started.‘ In addition the calculation of time
required for the bomb to follow a trajectory be
tween its point of launching and the objective
15 is unnecessary with my timing head since it op
erates entirely on changes of altitude without any
consideration of time.
I claim:
‘in.
1. A fuse for an aerial bomb comprising an
20 electric igniter, an electrical circuit, including a
source of current,'connected with said igniter, a
normally open switch in said circuit, a hollow
evacuated‘ member operatively connected with
said switch, said member being contractible along
25 a path of movement in response to differences in
external and internal pressures to move said
switch along said path between extreme open
and closed positions, and means for shifting said
member along said path to position said switch
30 at a selected position between the extreme open
and closed positions thereof.
2. A fuse for an aerial bomb comprising a
housing having a chamber therein, a threaded
shaft journaled in and extending from said hous
35 ing, a dial secured to said shaftfor manually ro
tating said shaft, an element expansible and con
tractible in accordance with changes of atmos
pherie pressure disposed in said chamber, said
element being threadedly engaged at one end
40 thereof with the threaded portion of said rotata
ble shaft whereby, upon rotation of said shaft,
said element will be moved bodily, an electric
igniter and a source of electric current in said
housing, an electrical circuit connected with said
45 igniter and said current source, and a switch in
said circuit and connected tobe actuated by
movement of said element.
3. A fuse for an aerial bomb comprising a hous
ing having a chamber therein, a threaded shaft
50
journaled in and extending fromv said housing,
a dial secured to said shaft for manually rotat
ing said shaft, an element expansible and con
tractible in accordance with changes of atmos
pheric pressure disposed in said chamber, said
3
element being threadedly engaged at one end
thereof with the threaded portion of said rotata
ble shaft whereby, upon rotation of said shaft,
said element will be moved bodily, an electric'ig
niter and 'a source of electric current in said
housing, an electrical circuit connected with said
igniter and said current source, a switch in said
circuit and connected to be actuated by move
ment of said element, and means for holding said
element against movement.
10
4. A fuse for an aerial bomb comprising a hous
ing having a chamber therein, a threaded shaft
journaled in and extending from said housing, a .
dial secured to said shaft for manually rotating '
said shaft, an element expansible and contracti
ble in accordance with changes of atmospheric
pressure disposed in said chamber, said element
being threadedly engaged at one end thereof with
the threaded portion of said rotatable shaft
whereby, upon rotation of said shaft, said ele 20
ment will be moved bodily, an electric igniter and ,
a source of electric current in said housing, an
electrical circuit connected with said igniter and
said current source, a switch in said circuit and
connected vto be actuated by movement of said
element, means for holding said element against
movement, and means for venting said chamber
to the atmosphere.
5. A fuse for an aerial bomb comprising a hous- -
ing having a chamber therein, a threaded shaft 30
journaled in and extending from said housing, a
dial secured to said shaft for manually rotating
said shaft, an element expansible and contracti
ble in accordance with changes of atmospheric
pressure disposed in said chamber, said element 35
being threadedly engaged at one end thereof
with the threaded portion of said rotatable shaft
whereby, upon rotation of said shaft, said ele
ment will be moved bodily axially of said shaft,
an electric igniter and a source of electric cur
rent in said housing, an electrical circuit con
40
nected with said igniter and said current source,
a switch for establishing and interrupting said
electrical circuit, said switch comprising an in
sulated contact connected in_said circuit, a lever 45
pivotally mounted in said housing for movement
in a path axially of said shaft, said lever having
an arm movable to engage said contact and a
second arm in engagement and movable with
said element, and means for accelerating the 50
movement of said lever during a portion of its
movement along said path.
ARTHUR G. HAYDEN.
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