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Патент USA US2110553

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Patented Mar. 8, 1938
2,110,553
UNITED STATES PATENT
FFICE
2,110,553
ELECTRON TUBE
Max Knoll, Berlin, Germany, assignor to Tele~
funken Gesellschaft fiir Drahtlose Telegraphic
m. b. H., Berlin, Germany, a corporation of
Germany
Application August 4, 1934, Serial No. 738,432
In Germany August 2, 1933
3 Claims.
being at the same potential as shown in Fig. 2, it
is possible to produce a pencil of electron rays of
tory of pencils consisting of electrons or ions.
rectangular cross-sectional shape.
This arrangement according to the invention corn
5 sists in that the electrodes are disposed in such a
proximity to the path and are charged up to such
potentials that the curves of the paths are influ
enced only in one plane, while in the plane at right
angles thereto they are rectilinear in form.
10
An exempli?ed embodiment of the invention
adapted to act upon the path of electron rays
the beam of electrons to be focused or converged
in one plane which in themselves would produce
at the point of focus a beam of electrons rectangu
lar in cross-section with a length materially in
excess of the width. The other pair of surfaces, 10
lib, I212, cause the beam of electrons to be con
1b and 2 illustrate forms of the present invention.
Referring to the drawing, Hi denotes a tube of
a vacuum vessel lined or coated with a metal
then a. very small rectangular area.
layer in which are con?ned two plates 1 l and if
The invention is similarly applicable to in?u
encing the path of ionic ray pencils.
Having thus described the invention, what I
20
claim is:
being of equal length and parallel to the tube axis,
and being equally long in the direction of the tube
20 axis. The supposition is that these two plates
are at a negative potential in reference to the
tube wall l0.
Inside the vacuum vessel is also situated a con
ventional electron gun structure as shown sche
25 matically at 8, which includes a source of elec
trons 9 for producing the electrons which are di
rected along a path between the plates ! i and I2.
The fact that in this disposition there occurs
an action only upon the curves of the paths in
30 one plane, while in the plane at right angles
thereto the path curves do not undergo any
change in direction, shall be explained for those
rays which travel in planes at right angles to each
other and which pass through the axis of the tube
35 l 0. The rays traveling in the plane A-A, Fig. 11),
shall be indicated by the marginal rays l3, l4.
They traverse as they enter and leave the equi—
potential surfaces indicated in Figure 10!. by dotted
lines whereby curving of the path is produced.
40 The curvature occurs upon entrance into the
plates l I, l 2 in the same sense as on leaving them
so that the convergence of the rays I3 and Hi
traveling in the plane A—A is increased. The
cathode rays leave the plates H, l2, as will be
seen, inside the solid angle which is bounded by
the marginal rays l3’ and M’. The arrangement
thus described may be termed an electrical cylin
drical lens from its analogue in optics.
In the plane being at right angles to the former
and which in Fig. 1a is indicated by 3-38, no
de?ection of the cathode rays takes place at all,
for the equipotential surfaces are traversed by
the cathode rays traveling in the plane B-—B ex
actly at right angles.
55
In using the construction as shown in Figure 2,
one pair of plates, for instance Ha, Ha, cause
verged in another plane perpendicular to the
plane of convergence caused by the ?rst pair of
plates, with the result that the cross-section of
the beam of electrons at the point of focus is 15
shall be described in more detail in what follows
by reference to the drawing wherein Figures 1a,
15
(Cl. 250-275)
The invention is concerned with an arrange
ment which serves to act on the path or trajec
If the plate arrangement shown in Fig. 1 is used
twice, with the two plate pairs Ha, 12a, and l lb,
l2b, being mounted at right angles to each other,
with two corresponding or cooperating plates
1. In an electron tube, means to develop an
electron beam including a cylindrical potential
surface, means to position the said surface co
axial with respect to the developed beam, a ?rst
and a second pair of opposed plane surfaces, 25
means for supporting said pairs of surfaces so
that the developed beam passes therebetween with .
the plane of said ?rst pair of surfaces normal to
the plane of said second pair of surfaces, said sur
faces being adapted to be maintained at substan 30
tially the same potential and at a potential nega
tive with respect to the potential of said potential
surface whereby the electron beam will be con
verged and focused into a small and substantially
square area.
35
2. In an electron tube, means to develop an
electron beam including a cylindrical potential
surface, means to position the said surface co
axial with respect to the developed beam, 2. ?rst
and a second pair of opposed plane surfaces,
0
means for supporting said pairs of surfaces so
that the developed beam passes therebetween
with the plane of said ?rst pair of surfaces nor
mal to the plane of said second pair of surfaces, 45
said surfaces being adapted to be maintained at
substantially the same potential and at a poten
tial negative with respect to the potential of said
potential surface whereby each pair of surfaces
will produce a cylindrical electron lens.
3. The method of operating electron beam tubes
which comprises the steps of releasing a stream
of electrons from a source, directing the released
electrons in the form of a beam toward an im
pact area, and electrically compressing the beam
in perpendicular directions to produce perpen
dicular cylindrical lens effects.
MAX KNOLL.
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