close

Вход

Забыли?

вход по аккаунту

?

Патент USA US2110622

код для вставки
March 8,> 1938.
'
„
E. 'Fxscl-'IEL
2,110,622
AUTOMATIC SPEED STABILIZ-ING DEVICE FOR AIRCRAFT
Filed March ‘7, 1935
¿f ,ff
7
ß
Passed
s, 193s
2,110,622
UNITED STATES PATE-NT oEElcE
' 2,110,822
AUTOMATIC SPEED s'rABnJzmG DEVICE
FOR amenan
Eduard Fischel, Berlin-Charlottenburg, Ger
many, assigner to Siemens Apparate und
Maschinen G. m. b. H., Berlin, Germany, a cor
poration of Germany
1935, Serial No.
Applicatiî? Germany
March '7, March
7. 1934
13 Claima .
My invention relates to automatic speed stabi
lizing devices for aircraft, and more particularly
for airplanes.
_-
Speed stabilizing devices for aircraft in which
5 the relative speed of ilight is maintained constant
9,820
(ci. 2447-78)
by means of an altimeter which is set for the de
sired altitude, for instance, with the aid oi’ a
servo-mechanism.
~
`Further details of the invention, particularly
by the automatic adjustment of the elevator in lalso-the device serving to measure the speed oi’ s
accordance with the departures of the relative ñight relativeto ground are described hereinafter
wind speed from a desired speed to be maintained
constant are well known. En this case the dy
10 namic pressure oi’ the relative wind acts, as a
rule, on a diaphragm which is subjected to a
counter-tension proportional to the desired speed
of night. The deñections ci the diaphragm are
then transmitted to the elevator by means of a
in connection with an embodiment shown in the _
accompanying drawing in a diagrammatic form.
The speedometer G consists of a frame l, whichis suspended by means of the two pivots 2’ and 2” 10
in the two supports 3’ and 3", arranged trans
versely with respect to the direction of the lon
gitudinal axis of the airplane indicated by the
correspondingly controlled servo-mechanism so arrow P. The center of gravity of the frame l
that the control stick is pushed forward, if the withthe gyroscopes placed therein lies below the l5
relative speed of flight is too small, whereas it is suspension axis 2'-2", so that the device con
pulled back if the relative speed oi night is too stitutes a' gyrd-pendulum. In the frame there
are two gyroscopes rotating in opposite direc
20
The_invention has for its object to provide a tions which- possess the same couple but in oppo
device for automatically stabilizing the absolute site directions and are so coupled with one an 20
speed of flight, that is to say, the speed relative other by means of toothed segments 5' and 5"
that their dedections will be equal in angular
te ground ci airplanes which may differ con
extent but opposite in direction. vThe precession
siderably from the relative speed of night depend
25 ing upon the force and the direction of the wind axes 6' and 6" mounted in the pendulum frame i
are arranged in parallel relation to the direction 25
relative to the direction of course. The mainte
nance of the absolute speed oi flight relative to of ñight, whereas the axes of rotation of both
ground to a constant value may be very desirable gyroscopes‘ are vertical, so that both gyroscopes
are sensitive to swings about the transverse axis
in many cases, particularly if commercial air
of the airplane. The gyroscopes are held in their
planes are to travel according to a certain sched
zero position by springs ‘i attached to the preces- 3o
‘Jie of times. The stabilization oi’ the absolute sion
axes thereof. «On the precession axis t" a
speed of iiight may be accomplished according to
magnet 8 is arranged to turn in unison with said
the invention >by the elevator control- of the air
axis and with the casing of the gyroscope 4",
plane, for instance, by aservo-mechanism which said
magnet being energized in a manner well
35 adjusts the elevator, being automatically regu
known in the art through the conductors 8', 35
lable in accordance with the deñections oi' a meas
uring device for the speed of ilight relative to which energization is proportional to .the direc
tional force acting on the gyroscopes in view of
ground. ïn'this case the regulation is only pos
the rotation of the earth. The distance of the
sible within certain limits determined by a rela
40 tive wind speedometer. This is necessary in center of gravity of the entire gym-pendulum
order to ensure the maintenance of the relative from the suspension axis 2'- ’, on the one hand, 40
and the spring forces, on the other hand, are
speed required for the minimum lift of the alr
plane at a constant value, in such cases in which preferably so balancedthat the gym-pendulum
possesses an oscillation period corresponding ap
the airplane is añected by a strong wind blow
proximately to that of a mathematical pendulum
45 ing in the direction of ilig t.
_
of the length of the radius of the earth, i. e., 45
To avoid great changes o1' altitude or the air
plane with the above stabilization of speed'caused amounting to approximately ,84 minutes. The
by the adiustment of the elevator control it is pendulum has then the property of remaining
preferable to bring about simultaneously with this vertical at all times, independently oi' any hori
50 control an automatic stabilization of altitude by zontal acceleration. Furthermore, the gyroscopes,
controlling the propelling force of the airplane in which 'are not under the influence of the actual 50
accordance with the departures from the desired rotation of the earth, indicate by their deñection
altitude. This may be effected automatically in of precession the speed> which the airplane has
a manner well known in the art by controlling the relative to ground in the direction of the arrow P.
55 supply of gas to the driving motors of the airplaneV 'I'he horizontal -acceleratlons to which. the pen
great.
,
-
dulum is subjected cannot impair the vertical l ,
2
`
9,110,699
pomtion and, therefore, can not cause the gyro
apparatus to oscillate. I'The speed relative to
ground attained by adjusting the elevator con
trol or by varying the propelling force o! the air
plane is, however, at once properly determined
by a corresponding increased or decreased deñec
tion of the gyroscope. The decrease of the de
ñection oi' the gyroscope is brought about by an
'
1
justable throttling valve Il'. The movement of
the piston lla depends upon the differential ac
tion of the pressures acting thereon through the
channels 2lb and llc. The distance traversed is
proportional to the adjusting speed of the piston
I1. Since the latter moves, however, in propor
tion to the deñection of the pivoted magnet Il
the rod 22 is displaced in accordance with the de
electrolytic system s arranged on the precession ' fiection of the contact arm of the said magnet
10 axis C'.
The main electrode of the system 8 is
disposed on the precession axis of the gyroscope l'
and the counter-electrodes arranged at both sides
of the main electrode are secured to the casing o!
the electrolytic system, which casing is mounted
15 on the pendulum frame I in any suitable manner
(not shown) which permits said casing to be
turned about its axis either by hand or, if desired,
also by an electric remote transfer system in ac
cordance with the speed oi' ñight relative to ground
to be maintained at a constant value in such a
manner that the main electrode disposed on the
precession axis of the gyroscope will swing with
respect tothe counter-electrodes in accordance
with the departures ci the speed of flight at that
particular moment from the desired speed rela
tive to ground.
The two~ currents ilowing from the main elec
trode to the counter-electrodes of the electrolytic
system serve to energize the coils, wound in op
30 posite direction, of the armature of an electric
pivoted magnet Il whose contact arm II is, con
sequently, deilected opposite to the force of the
and with the speed with which this contact arm
deilects. 'I'his additional adjustment of the
speed in accordance with the departures from the
desired speed relative to ground has the purpose
oi' damping the oscillations, which occur in the
regulating device in the neighborhood of the de
sired speed relative to ground.
, ’
The precession deflection of the >reversing indi
eating .gyroscope 21 transmitted to the right '
hand end of the diñerential lever 2l is superposed
on the above-mentioned two control magnitudes
acting on the left hand end of the diiïerential
lever.
The rotation axis 21' as wellas the pre
cession axis 21" perpendicular thereto lie in the
position of rest in a vertical plane determined by
the direction 'of ilight. The gyroscope is, con-A
sequently, sensitive to swings about the trans
verse axis of the airplane and detiects in accord
ance with the angular speed of the airplane
swings about such transverse axis, since the arm
2B arranged on the precession axis is normally
held in a central position by the springs 29. By
means of a rod ,30 and a lever 3|, the sum of all
three control magnitudes is transmitted to the
control valve I! for the servo-motor 33 adjusting
the elevator 34. The servo-motor causes at the
same time through the dliîerential lever 3| the
control valve 32 to return to its original position
so that the deilectlon of the elevator is exactly
proportional to the displacement ot the rod 3l, i.
e., proportional vto the sum of the abov'e-men
tioned three control magnitudes.
’ needle Il of a controlled valve. This valve con
The departures of the speed of flight relative
sists substantially ci the cylinder I8> and of the »
to ground from the desired speed adjusted or set
piston I1 displaceable therein. The piston I1 is on
thel electrolytic casing lact upon the elevator
designed as a` dißerential piston having surfaces control
only within a predetermined range. The
45 I1' and I1" of different areas. The pressure right hand end of the differential lever Il car
medium, for‘instance oil, is supplied to the cylin
ries a hook 35 cooperating with a loop 30 which is
de‘r VIt through a pressure regulating valve I8 and secured to the diaphragm 31 of a diiïerential
springs I2 in accordance with the deflections of
the main electrode relatively to the counter-elec
trodes. The deflection ci the'contact arm I I cor
responds, therefore, to the departure of the speed
of flight at that particular moment from the de
sired -speed relative to ground. These deflections
are transmitted by means of the link I I’ and the
40 double lever I4 iulcrumed aitrll to the control
the conduit Il. 2l denotes the discharge con-> manometer controllable from a distance, for in
duit.’
3`- '
stance by being eonnected to a Pitot static air
is well known the controlledl valve operates speed indicator 38 exposed to the relative wind.
as’i'ollows: If the control needle I5 moves, for> -The diaphragm 31 is preferably subjected byA
instance, in the downward direction it throttles means of a spring l! to a counter-tension in ac
at'first the passage 2i, so that the pressure in cordance with the relative wind pressure corre
the upper chamber increases and the piston I1 ' sponding to the mean speed of the airplane. The
moves,
It, however,
consequently,
the needlein the
Il moves
downward
in the upward deflections o_i the diaphragm 31 then correspond
to the departures o! the speed ofthe relative wind
direction the passage 2l is completely opened >so » at that particular moment from this mean rels
- that approximately the same pressure prevails at tive speed of flight. If the speed. relative Yto
both sides of the passage 2l. The oil then exerts
ground owing to a strong wind diners consider
pressure only against the> lower piston surface ' _ably from _the speed oi' the relative wind it will
I1" so that the piston moves in the upward di
' rection until the needle Il again throttles‘jthe
beapparentthat whentherelativespeedotiiight
passage 2i to suchfan extent that forces acting
on both surfaces I1' and I1" ofthe differential
~piston
or balanced. The piston
amountthediaphragmßïadjœtsthe lever I4,it
being assumed that thevdlrectional force of the
will, therefore. Drßtically follow the movements_ of the control needle Il.
increases or decreases above or below a certain
mssnet Ilas comparedtothatoi'thediaphragm
I1isrelatively
n
Y
.
~
_»
I1 a further piston Ila is
l The above-described'devioe cooperates prefer
ably with an automatic device (not shown) for
sition shown in the drawing by springs 22'.
vice maybedesignedhiawelleknownmanner
.
,Within the-piston
slidlblyarranged‘hichissecuredtothecontrol
'stabililzingthealtitullieoftlleairplainewhichd|e--rod'tl. The piston Ila is held in the central po
' Furthermore, the piston 23 of a damping cylin
der 24 nlled with oil or the like is arranged on
the rod 22, the cylinder “being provided with a
by-pass conduit having arranged therein an ad
_sothatinthecaseotdeparhiresfromthealti
tude to be maintained constant an altimeter
whichthepilotmsysetbyhandi'ortheparticular
slums»
to the.“
2,110,622
driving motor of the propellers through a regu
lating device with servo-motor in such-a manner
that the propelling force is increased if the alti
tude drops below the predetermined value and is
decreased if the altitude rises above the prede
termined value. In the case, in which the speed
of flight relative to ground lies below a predeter
mined constant value the speedometer G acts
upon the control valve 32 through the magnet I0'
3
aircraft propeller sc as to counteract any varia
tions in altitude that might be due to the opera
tion of said speed-stabilizing mechanism.
'7. In an aircraft, a gyroscopic device responsive
to the speed of the craft with respect to the
ground, said device comprising a gyroscope sys
tem free from the effect of the earth’s rotation
and ‘mounted to swing about a suspension axis,
and a. speed-stabilizing mechanism controlled by
and the controlled valve in such a manner that
the control stick is pushed forward.` TheV alti
meter which now indicates an altitude below the
predetermined value then influences the gas sup
ply of the propeller motor, thus increasing the
15 tractive force until the airplane has again at- f
tained the desired altitude. The tractive force of
said gyroscopic device.
.
'
8. In an aircraft, a gyroscopic device responsive
to the speed of the craft with respect to the
ground, said device comprising a gyroscope system
free from the eii‘ect of the earth’s rotation and
mounted to swing about a suspension axis, a
speed-stabilizing mechanism operatively con
nected with and controlled by said gyroscopic de
or decreased through the adjustment of the ele
vator and through the change of the altitude of vice, and adjustable means in the connection be
20 the airplane caused thereby until the airplane has tween said gyroscopic'deviceA and said speed-sta
again attained the desired speed of flight relative bilizing mechanism for setting the desired speed
to ground. In this case extremely small changes to be stabilized.
9. In an aircraft, a gyroscopic device responsive
of altitude will practically occur, since both the
to the speed of the craft with respect -to the
device
above-described
for
the
stabilization
of
the
25
speed and the device for stabilizing the altitude ground, said device comprising a gyroscope- sys
which influence the driving gear operate veryA tem free from the effect of the earth’s rotation
and mounted to swing about a _suspension axis,
sensitively.
a >speed-stabilizing mechanism ‘operatively con
I claim as my invention:
-l. In an aircraft, a device responsive to the nected with and controlled by said gyroscopic
30 Speed of the craft with respect- to the ground, device, and adjustable means in the connection
between said syroscopic device and said speed
speed-stabilizing mechanism, an operative con
nection from said device to said mechanism, and stabilizing mechanism, said adjustable means in
means responsive to the speed of the craft with> cluding a magnetic transmission controlled by
respect to the surrounding air, for interrupting a precession axle of said gyroscopic systemand
adjustable for setting the desired speed to be con
or establishing said operative connection.
trolled.
Y
the motor will, therefore, be indirectly increased
2. In an aircraft, a device responsive to the
speed of the craft with respect to the ground,
speed-stabilizing‘mechanism, an operative con
nection from said device to said mechanism,
means responsive tothe speed of the craft with
respect to the surrounding air, and means, con
trolled by such first-mentioned means, for estab
Y,
said operative connection only when .the
speed of the craft with respect tothe surround
ing air drops below a predetermined limit.
3. In an aircraft, an elevator, a device respon
sive to the speed of the craft with respect to the
ground, an operative connection from said device
_to said elevator, and means responsive- to the
speed of the craft with respect to the surround
>ing air, for interrupting or establishing said op
erative connection.
f
4. In an aircraft, an elevator, a device respon
sive to the speed of the craft with respect to the
sroimd, >an operative connection from said de
vice to said elevator, means responsive to the
speed of the craft with respect to the surround-`
a
10. In an aircraft, a gyroscopic device respon
sive to the speed of the craft with respect to the >
ground, said device comprising a gyroscope sys
tem free from the effect of the earth’s rotation
and mounted to swing about a suspension axis, a
speed-stabilizing mechanism, an operative con 40
nection from Said syroscopic device and said
mechanism, said connection including a movable
member, and means for controlling said member
in response to the speed at which the craft swings
about its transverse axis.
11. In an aircraft, a gyroscopic device respon- '
sive to the speed of the craft with respect to the
ground, said device comprising a gyroscope sys
tem free from the effect of the earth’s rotation
and mounted to swing about a suspension axis,
a speed-stabilizing mechanism, an operative con
nection from said gyroscopic device and said
mechanism, said connection including a movable
l
member, and a _reversing _indicating gyroscope
connected with said member and controlling it' in 55
response to the speed at which the craft swings
ing air, and means, controlled by such iirst-men
tioned means, for establishing said Voperative con
nection only when the speed of the craft with.
about its transverse axis.
with respect to the surrounding air.
stabilize the speed of thecraft.
>
i2. In an aircraft having“ its p
force
respect to the surrounding air drops below a pre- ` controlled for maintaining a desired altitude, an
elevator, a device responsive to the speed of the
determined limit.
5. An apparatus according to claim 1, in which craft with respect to the ground, an operative
a Pitot static air speed indicator is employed as connection from said device to said elevator for
the means responsive to the speed of the craft adjusting the altitude of the craft as required to
»
6. In a propelled aircraft, a device responsive
to the speed of 'the craft with respect to the
ground, a speed stabilizing mechanism controlled
70 by said device, and means responsive to the alti
tude of the craft for controlling the action o1' the
‘
13. In an aircraft, a device responsive to the 05
speed of the craft with respect to the ground and
means, controlled by said device, for stabilizingv
saidspeedofthecraf.
EDUARDFISCHEL.
'. 70
Документ
Категория
Без категории
Просмотров
0
Размер файла
542 Кб
Теги
1/--страниц
Пожаловаться на содержимое документа