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Патент USA US2110676

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Marc}; s, 1938.
2,110,676
D. C. PRINCE
ELECTRORESPONSIVE DEVICE
Filed Nov. 21. 1936
41
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Inventor‘:
Davi cl C. prinie,
His A-ttofr? ey.
1,110,676
Patented Mar. 8, 1938
UNITED STATES. PATENT OFFICE
2,110,676
_ amornoarsronsrvn mcvrcz
David 0. Prince, Swarthmore, l’a., assignor to
General Electric Company, a corporation of
.
New York
Application November '21, 1936, Serial No. 112,067
29 Claims. (o1. 175-294)
My invention relates to improvements ‘lingelece
more simple construction; Fig. 3 illustrates an
troresponsive devices, and more particularly ‘to
improvements in protective relays for polyphase
alternating current electric systems. My inven
embodiment of my invention for obtaining a
\oi’the electric quantities of two coexisting groups
tion in general relates to improvements in elec
- of polyphase quantities without undesired torque
troresponsive devices such as are disclosed and
claimed in the copending application of V. E.
Verrall, Serial No.-'l0,580, ?led March 24, 1936,
for‘ Electroresponsive device, and .assigned to the
10 same assignee as this -invention. An object of
, my invention is to provide an improved electro
responsive device which responds to a predeter
- mined function of a plurality oi’ groups of co
existing polyphase quantities.
_
15
In the manufacture of polyphase wattmetric
devices, such as wattmeters and polyphase power
directional relays,jit'has been customary to use
two or more electric current conducting rotors,
such as disks, for example, on 'a single shaft with
one or more separate electromagnetic means to
torque dependent upon a predetermined function.
eiIects; Fig. 4 illustrates diagrammatically one
way in which-the embodiment of my invention
shown in Fig. 3 may be connected to a polyphase
system to provide a torque dependent upon a
component‘ of the system power; and Fig. 5 is a 10
schematic diametrical cross-section typical of
the embodiments of my invention illustrated in
Figs. 1-4.
-
The embodiment of my invention shown in
Fig. 1 comprises a hollow magnetic ‘member I 0 15
illustrated as having a plurality of radially dis
posed inwardly extending salients ll-IG, inclu
sive, each provided with an energizing winding
II, a central magnetic member or stator l8, and
a cylindrical rotor t9 providing an electric cur .20
each rotor for producing a torque thereon. 'Such rent conducting path concentrically disposed rel
devices, because of their size, require a relatively ‘atively to the ends of the salients and to the ,
large space and switchboard area.
Moreover,
they have low ei?ciency and high inertia, and
25 therefore do not meet present day protective re
lay requirements for high torque and speed.
In accordance with my invention, I provide
an improved electroresponsive device which is
compact-and simple in construction and which
30 provides a high torque and fast operation. Fur
thermore, in accordance with my invention, I
provide an electroresponsive device in which only
one electric current conducting rotor is actuated
by a plurality of co-operating ?uxes from a plu
35 rality of poles so energized from a plurality of
groups of coexisting polyphase electric quanti
ties as to eliminate undesired torque e?ects and
‘thereby'provide a resultant torque which is, for
example, a function of the magnitudes of and
4.0 the phase displacements between certain quan
tities of the groups of coexisting polyphase quan
tities. Thus, if the quantities of one group are
the currents of a three-phase system and the
quantities of another group are the voltages of
the system, a resultant polyphase directional
torque proportional to a component of the power
of the system can be obtained. These and other
objects of my invention will appear in more de
'
not as low between alternate salients- The rotor
19 may be mounted on a shaft 20 indicated as
extending through the stator and movable rela 30
tively thereto. As pointed out in the Verrall
application referred to hereinrthe stator and
rotor may-be combined so as to rotate together.
Although such an arrangement increases the
torque efficiency, the inertia is increased in great 35
er proportion and consequently the device is not
so fast in operation.
Assuming, for example, that the windings l‘!
on the salients ll-IB, inclusive, are energized by
a set of three phase currents, for example, the 40
currents l, 2, 3 in the phase conductors of a
three phase circuit in the cyclic order I, 2, 2, l,
3, 3, asindicated by the numbers at the ends of
the respective windings I], then the rotating
?eld produced by the windings II on the salients 45
II, l3‘, I5 is opposite in direction to_ the rotating
?eld produced by the windings I‘! on the three
salients, I2; l4, ‘l6. Other things being equal.
_.
the following description when considered in
connection with the accompanying drawing, and
its scope will be pointed out in the appended
claims.
55
structure provides relatively low reluctance mag
netic circuits between adjacent salients although
the resultant torque is zero and the rotor 19 is
My invention will be better understood from -not actuated. However, if it were desired to 60
tail hereinafter.
50
stator so as to be rotatable in the gaps between
the vstator'and the salients. With this arrange
ment, it will be apparent that the. magnetic 25
'
In the accompanying drawing, Fig. 1 illus
trates diagrammatically an embodiment of my
invention with a winding arrangement for elimi
nati g undesired torque e?ects; Fig; 2 illustrates
dia ammatically a modi?cation of my invention
60 for eliminating undesired torque e?ects with a
produce a resultant torque dependent for ex
ample on a- component of the power flow of an
a-—c system, then six more salients energized by
the system voltages could be used. This, how
ever, makes‘ an unnecessarily large number of 55
poles,-as will be shown in connection with the
embodiment of my invention illustrated in Figs.
2, 3,-and 4.
.
,
Referring now to Fig. 2, the hollow magnetic
member ID has four salients, 2|, 22, 23, 24, for
2
2,110,676
a three-phase system of electric quantities or
in general 2(n—1) salients for an n-phase sys
tem. 'If it be assumed that the windings l1 on
the salients 2|, 22, 23, 24, are energized by the
phase currents |, 2, 3 of a three phase system
in the cyclic arder 1, 2, 3, 2, as indicated by the
numbers at the ends of the respective windings,
then the direction of the rotating ?eld produced
by the windings H on the salients 2|, 22, 23 is
10 opposite to the direction of the rotating ?eld pro
duced by the windings l1 on the, salients 2 l, 24, 23.
Other things being equal, the resultant torque
is zero and the rotor I9 is not actuated._ Sim
ilarly, if the windings I1 were energized in the
15 same order by the star or the delta voltages of
the system instead of the currents, there would
be no torque on the rotor. If desired, this torque
balance can readily be upset to produce rotation
by de-energizing one of the' windings I1. For
20 example, the winding on the salient 22 or that on
the salient 24.
Assume, however, that the magnetic member ID
has eight salients, 2|, 22, 23, 24, and 25, 26, 21,
' 28, as shown in Fig. 3.
Then if the windings I1
ergizing the adjacent salients‘ and the phase an
gles between such quantities.
.
The illustrated orders of current and voltages
are not the only arrangements for providing a
resultant zero torque by groups of alternate sali
ents. For example, instead of energizing alter
nate salient windings IT by currents in the order
I1, I2, I3, 12, they may be energized by currents
in the order —I1, —I2,1I:1, I2,‘ and similarly, in
stead of having the voltages in the order E1, E2,
E1, E3, they may be in the order —E1, —-E2, E1, E3,
the minus sign indicating a reversal in-the polar-i
ity of the connection.
In order more clearly to ‘illustrate my inven
tion, there is shown in Fig, 4 an embodiment of 15
a three-phase system comprising a three-phase
circuit whose phase conductors, designated I,
2,, and. 3, for simplicity in phase order, may con
stitute a feeder extending from a station bus 30.
The respective phase currents may be derived 20
through current transformers 3| connected in
the phase conductors and ‘the voltages through 1
a potential transformer 32 connected to the bus
30. In this ?gure, the current energized wind
on the four alternate salients 2|, 22, 23, 24. are ings are shown on the diagonal salients 25, 26,_
21, 28, and the voltage energized windings onthe
energized by the three phase currents of a three
phase system in the order I1, I2, 13, I2 and the vertical and horizontal salients 2|, .22, 23, 24.
windings IT on the intermediate salients 25, 26, vThus, the windings on the salients 2|, 22, 23, 24,
21, 28 are energized by three phase voltages of as ‘shown, are connected to be energized by the
30 the system in the order E1, E2, E1, E3, as in ‘ system star voltages E10, E20, E111, E311, respec
tively, and the resultant torque of the windings
dicated by the letters at the ends of the wind
ings,'the resultant torque of each group of salients on these salients alone is nothing. Similarly the
is zero. But obviously, the adjacent salients will windings on the salients 28, 25, 26, 21 are en
produce a torque whose resultant is dependent ergized in accordance with the system phase con
35 on the product'of the quantities energizing ad
ductor currents I1, I2, I1, I3, respectively, and the
jacent salients and the phase displacements of resultant torque on the windings of these salients
these quantities. In other words, the resultant alone is nothing. Taking all of the windings
torque will be proportional to EEI cos (¢+6), together, the order of energization is 11, E10, I2,
where E and I represent respectively the current E20, I1, E10, 11, E30, and the resultant torque is
40 and the voltage ‘of the circuit, ¢ the angle by consequently dependent on‘ the summation of the
which the current lags the voltage in the system, products of the voltage and current quantities
energizing the adjacent salients and a function
and 0 is the angle of lead (current leading volt
of the phase angles between the quantities. This
age) at which maximum torque occurs.
If the torque effects of the windings H on the torque is then a polyphase directional torque
salients 2|, 22, '23, 24 vwere not balanced, and proportional to a power component of the three
similarly for the torque effects of the windings |1 phase ‘ system.
Obviously, the salient windings |1 may be con
, on the salients 25, 26, 21, 28, then the above ex-'
nected in other ways to provide a power direc
pression for torque would be altered by the in
c'lusion of both current and also voltage terms tional torque which is free of terms of the second
50 of the second order. Even though the alternate 1 order in current or voltage._ Examples of some
salients are farther apart than the adjacent of the other ways in which the salient windings
salients, the reluctance of the magnetic circuit, may be connected are~given in the following ta
including two alternate salients, is relatively low ble, but this table is by no means intended to be
exhaustive of the possible arrangements which
and the torque effect of the‘windings on the alter
55 nate salients due to such unbalance may easily can be evolved without departing from the spirit
be ‘as much; as 15% of the torque e?ect of the and scope of_my invention. In this‘table, as
‘before, E used with the sub numbers 10, 20, and
windings on two adjacent salients. In accord
ance with my invention, however, the balancing 30 indicates star voltages, and with 12, 23, and
'31 delta voltages, and the minus sign indicates
of the torque effects of the windings on the al
60 ternate salients eliminates these undesired’ a reversal in the polarity of the connection.‘
torques so that the resultant torque is a true
saiimnumbm‘ '28 21 2s 22 2e 23 27 24
function of the products‘ of the quantities en
ergizing adjacent salients and the phase dis
Arrangement
Electric quantities energizing windings,
placements of such quantities. It will be ob
65 vious to those skilled in the art that, in accord
E20 I: --E10 1: —E20 1! Eu
anc with ‘the ‘principles of my invention, it is
not ecessary that one group of alternate salients
_be energized by the currents of a polyphase sys
70 tem and the other group by the voltages of the
Eu
E10
I1 —-E20
I: —E:o
1: —En
12 —En
I:
11
E20
E10
‘Eu
I: --E::
Ii -—Eu
1:
Eu
40
45
50
65
.
60
' En I1, -—Eu I: --En I: Eu
70
polyphase system, but that the two groups ~may
be’ respectively energized by two coexisting
In each of the above arrangements, the torque
groups of polyphase currents or polyphase volt ‘effect of the current energized salients alone is
ages to obtain a torque which is, as before, a zero. Likewise, the torque effect of the voltage
function of the products 'of the quantities en-_ energized salients is zero._ But the resultant
,
,
3
2,110,070 '
torque of all salients is a polyphase directional
torque proportional to a power component of the
system. Arrangement A provides the equivalent
of the so-called quadrature connection used in
multiple disk polyphase power directional re
nitudes of and the phase displacements between
lays. Arrangements B and C provide the equiv
> predetermined electric quantities of two groups
alent of the so-called adjacent connections used
in multiple ‘disk polyphase relays?
Arrange
ments such as A, B, C, and D may be used, for,
10 example, in relays for transmission line protec
tive purposes. Arrangements such as E and F
may find application, for example, in the tripping
control of low voltage network protectors.
From the sectional view of Fig. 5, the general
15 assembly of the parts of the electroresponsive de
vice as disclosed in the Verrall application herein
referred to will be obvious. Thus, the rotor IS,
-
current system and an electroresponsive device
comprising a single rotatable current conduct
ing member and electromagnetic means for actu
ating said member in accordance with the mag
of coexisting polyphase quantities derived from
said system including a multipole magnetic mem
her and windings thereon connected to be ener
gized ‘by said quantities‘ in a predetermined or
der, certain of said windings being energized by
the quantities of one group in a predetermined
order to produce by themselves alone substan
tially no 'torque on said conducting member.
5. In a' combination, a polyphase alternating 15
current system and anelectroresponsive device
comprising a single movable member having an
‘the shaft 20, the stator 18, and the magnetic electric current conducting path, and means for
member "I with its windings I ‘I, not shown in controlling the movement of said member in
Fig. 5, are assembled and retained by two end , accordance with the magnitudes of and the phase 20
plates ‘I .and 8. One of these is preferably of displacements between predetermined electric
magnetic material, as disclosed in the copending quantities of two groups of coexisting polyphase
application of ‘E. H. Bancker, ?led November quantities derived from said system including a '
21, 1936, Serial No. 112,069 and assigned to the magnetic member and windings thereon con
nected to be energized by said quantities in a 25
same assignee as this invention.
'
predetermined order,‘ certain of said windings
While I have shown and described my inven
tion in considerable detail, I do not desire to be being energized by the quantities of one group in
limited to the exact arrangements shown, but a predetermined order to effect by themselves
seek to cover in the appended claims all those alone no movement of said movable member.
6. In combination, a polyphase alternating 30
30 modifications that fall within the true spirit and
scope of my invention.
~
_
,
What I claim as new and desire to secure by
Letters Patent of the United States is:
1. In combination, a_ polyphase alternating
current system and a relay comprising a single
rotatable current conducting member, electro
magnetic means ‘for actuating ‘said member in
accordance with the magnitudes of and the phase
displacements between the currents and the volt
current system, an électrorespective device com
prising a single rotor having a closed electric
current conducting path, and means for actuat
ing said member in accordance with the magni-‘
tudes of and the phase displacements between
predetermined electric quantities 'of two groups
of coexisting polyphase quantities derived from
said system, including a magnetic member com
prising a plurality of radially disposed salients
netic member, and windings on said member con
nected to be energized by said currents and volt
having their extremities concentric with the con
ducting path of said rotor and windings on alter
nate salients connected to be energized in a pre
ages in a predetermined order.
determined order by the polyphase quantities of
40 ages of said system including a multipole mag»
3
2. In combination, a polyphase alternating
currentsystem and an electroresponsive device
comprising a movable member having an elec
tric current conducting path, and means for
controlling the movement of said member in ac
cordance with the magnitudes of and the phase
50 displacements between predetermined electric
quantities of two groups of coexisting polyphase
quantities derived from said system including a
magnetic structure having a plurality of salients
and providing relatively low reluctance paths be
55 tween some of said salients,‘and windings on cer
tain of said salients connected to be energized
in a predetermined order by the electric quanti
ties from one of said groups of polyphase quanti
ties to produce a substantially zero torque effect
'00
on said movable member.
1
i
45
mined order by the polyphase quantities of the
other group, the effect of each of said groups
alone on said rotor being substantially nothing.
7. In combination, an n-phase system of alter- -
nating current quantities, a hollow magnetic 50
stator having at least 2(n-1) inwardly project
ing salients, a rotor having an electric current
conducting path centrally positioned relatively
to the inner ends of said salients, and means for
establishing balanced torques on said rotor in 55
cluding windings on said salients connected to
be energized in a predetermined order by the
n~phase quantities of said system.
8. In combination, an n-phase system of alter
nating current quantities, a magnetic member
having at least 2(n—1) radially disposed salients,
60
3. In combination, a three-phase alternating
current system and a relay comprising a single a rotor having an electric current conducting
path concentrically positioned relatively to the
rotatable current conducting member, and elec
tromagnetic means for actuating said member in ends of said salients, and means for establishing
accordance with the magnitudes of and the balanced torques on said 'rotor including wind ,65
phase displacements between‘ the currents and /ings on said salients connected to be energized
the voltages of said system including a multipole in a. predetermined‘ order by the n-phase quan
titles of said system.
magnetic member and windings thereon con
I nected to be‘energized by said currents and volt
70 ages in a predetermined order, certain of said
windings being energized by one kind'of system
electric quantities ‘to produce on said rotatable
' current conducting member no torque dependent
up
one group and windings on the remaining sali
ents connected to be energized in a predeter
on only the one kind of quantities.
\
4. In combination, a, polyphase alternating
9. In combination, an n-phase alternating cur
rent system, a hollow magnetic stator having 70
4(n-1) inwardly projecting salients, a rotor hav
ing an electric current conducting path centrally
positioned relatively to the inner ends of said
salients, windings on alternate salients connect
ed to be energized in a predetermined order. by 75.
l
..
4
- 2,110,076
one set of n-phase electric ‘quantities of said
on said rotatable member, and windings on the
system, and'windings on the other salients con
other salients energized by the alternating cur
rent quantities of the other n-phase system.
nected to be energized by another set of n-phase
electric quantities of said system, the resultant . 414. In combination, two n-phase systems of
torque effect on said rotor vof each set of wind
alternating current quantities, a magnetic struc
ings being substantially nothing but the re
ture\having an even number of salients, a ro
sultant torque effect of the windings on ‘adjacent
tatable current conducting member concentri
cally'positioned relatively to the ends of said
salients being dependent on the‘summation of
the products of the quantities energizing adjacent
salients, windings\on alternate salients energized
10 salients and the angular displacement of said
in a predetermined order by the alternating cur
rent quantities of one of said n-phase systems
to provide of themselves alone substantially no
torque on said rotatable member, and windings‘
on the othersalients energized in a predeter
quantities.
.
10. In combination, an n-phase alternating
current system and an electroresponsive device
comprising a stator having 4(n-1) radially dis
15. posed salients, a rotor having an electric cur
‘mined order by, the alternating current quanti 15
ties of the other 11.-phase system to provide of
rent conducting path concentrically positioned
relatively to the ends of said salients, and means
themselves alone substantially no torque on said
rotatable member.
15. In. combination, an n-phase system of al
ternating current quantities, a magnetic struc 20
ture‘ having a plurality of salients and provid
ing relatively low reluctance paths between some
of said salients, a rotatable electric current con
for producing a polyphase directional torque on
said rotor including windings on alternate sali
ents connected to be energized in a predetermined
order by the currents in the phase conductors
of the system, and windings on the other salients
connected to be energized in a predetermined
order by voltages of the system, the resultant
ducting member concentrically positioned rela—
- torque’e?ect on said rotor of each set of wind
ings alone being substantially nothing. '
tively to the ends of said salients, and windings
on said salients ‘energized in a predetermined or,
der by the alternating current quantities of said
.
11. In combination, an n-phase alternating
current system, a magnetic member having at
least 4(n-1) inwardly projecting salients, a rotor
30 having an electric current conducting path con
-n-phase system to provide substantially no torque
on said rotatable member.
I
16. In combination, two polyphase systems of 30
centrically positioned relatively to the ends of
alternating current quantities and a device com
prising a movable member, and means for ‘con
said salients, windings on alternate salients con
nected to be, energized‘ in a predetermined or
der by one set of n-phase electric quantities of
said system and windings on the other salients
connected to be energized, by another set of
n-phase ‘electric quantities of said system, the __
trolling the movement of- said member in ac
cordance with a predetermined function of the
quantities of both 'of said systems including a
magnetic structure having a plurality of salients
and providing relatively low reluctance paths beresultant torque effect on said rotor of each set ‘ tween some of said salients, and windings on said
‘of windings being substantially nothing and the
salients, certain of said windings being connect
(0 resultant torque effect or the windings on ad
ed to be energized in a predetermined order by 40.
jacent salients being dependent ‘on the summa - electric quantities of one of said polyphase sys
tion'of the products of the quantities energizing \ tems to produce of themselves alone a substan
adjacent poles and .the angular displacements
of said <quantities.
45
12. In combination, a three-phase alternating
current system, a hollow magnetic stator having
eight vinwardly projecting salients;v a magnetic '
member centrally positioned relatively to and
tially zero torque effect on said movable meme
ber.
'
.
-
17. In combination with a three-phase alter
nating current system and. a relay comprising a
a
single rotatable current‘ conducting member,
electromagnetic means for actuating said mem
her. in accordance with a component of the poly
spaced from the inner ends of said salients, a
rotor of electric current conducting material ro
phase power of the system, including a multipole
tatably mounted for movement in the gaps be
tween said centrally positioned magnetic mem
ed- to be energized-by the curr'ents and the volt-v
magnetic member and windings thereon connect
’ her and the inner ends of the salients, windings‘, ages of the system in a‘ predetermined order. '
’on alternate salients connected'to be energized
55 in a predetermined order by the currents‘in the
phase conductors of said system, and windings
on the other salients connected to be‘ energized
in a predetermined order by the system volt
18. In combination, two ‘polyphase systems of
alternating current quantities‘ and a relay com-. 55
prising‘ a single rotatable current conducting
member, electromagnetic means for, actuating said member in accordance with a predetermined '
ages, the resultant torque e?'ect on the rotor of function of the magnitudes of and the phase dis
each set of‘windings being substantially nothing _ placements between the quantities ) of said two
and the resultant torque: e?ect of the windings . systems including a multipole magnetic member
on adjacent salients being dependent on ‘the
summation of the products or the currents and
the voltages energizing adjacent salients and
the angular displacements of said cin'rents and
voltages.
_
. I
'_
and windings thereon connected to be ener
gized by the quantities of said two systems in a
' - predetermined order.
19, In combinatiomtwo polyphase‘ systems of
‘current quantities, an electrore
13. In combination, two n-phase systems of alternating,
sponsive device comprising a movable current
alternating current quantities, a magnetic struc
ture having an even number of salients, a ro
70 tatable current conducting member concentrically
conducting member and electromagnetic means
for controlling the movement of said member in
positioned relatively to the ends of said salients, ' accordance with the magnitudes of and the
phase displacements between predetermined
predetermined order by: the alternating current electric quantities of said two polyphase sys-'
quantities of one of said n-phase systems to pro 'tems including a magnetic member having a
75 vide of, themselves alone substantially no torque . plurality of-salients all of which are disposed on
windings on alternate salients energized in a
65
2,1 10,676 -
one side of said movable current conducting
member, windings on certain of said salients con
nected to be energized in a predetermined order
by the. electric quantities from one of said sys
tems of polyphase quantities to produce a sub
stantially zero torque effect on said movable cur
rent conducting member and windings on others
of said salients connected to be energized in a »
predetermined order by electric quantities from
10. the other of said systems, the resultangv torque
e?ect of said windings being‘ dependent on the
summation of the products of the electric. quan
tities energizing the salients and the angular dis
, placements of said quantities.
15
20. In combination, an n-phase alternating cur~
- 5
rent electric system, a rotatable electric current
‘conducting member, a magnetic structure having
a. plurality of salients all disposed on one side
of said rotatable member, and windings on said\
salients energized in' a predetermined order by 5
electric quantities of two groups of coexisting
palyphase quantities derived from said n-phase
system to provide a torque on said rotatable mem
ber dependent on the magnitudes of and the
phase displacements between said quantities, the
windings onycertain .of said salients being ener-"
.giz'ed in a predetermined order by the quantities
of one group to produce a substantially zero
torque effect on said rotatable'member.
'
,
DAVID C. PRINCE.
15
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