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Патент USA US2110686

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March 8, 1938.
'
v. E. VERRALL
ELECTRORESFONSIVE
2,110,686
DEVICE
Filed March 24, 1936
‘
2 Sheets-Sheet 1
Fig. 6.
Inventor‘:
Victor“ E. \ler'r'al I,
by
Attorneg.
March 8, 1938.
2,110,686
V. E. VERRALL
ELECTRORESPONSIVE DEVICE
'
_Filed March 24, 1956
2 Sheets—Sheet 2
@112
8.
fig/0.
Fig.9
FMo
7// / /r/ 4
§
Inventor:
Victor_ E. Var-Fall,
‘by
‘ 79/
ttor-neg.
RE'ISSUED
y ‘I Patented Mar. 8, 1938
we?“
'.\w-.
UNITED STATES * PATENT OFF-ICE
EIECTRORESPONSIVE DEVICE _
Victor E. Verrall, Upper Providence Township,
_
<
Delaware County, Pa., assignor to General
’
ElectricxCompany, a. corporation of New York
Application March 24, 1936, Serial No. ‘70,580
19 Claims. (01. 171-452)
My invention relates to improvements in elec- structlon and space, including switchboard space
troresponsive devices and more particularly to
requirements, are utilized to‘ the best advantage,
protective relays and, in general, the object of
and which maybe readily modi?ed, for example,
my invention is to provide an electroresponsive
to provide different fault responsive devices hav
5 device which is an improvement over devices
heretofore known to the art.
The rapid growth and the extensive interconnection of electric systems have raised protective requirements beyond the speed and sensi10 tivity possibilities .of induction disk relays. ‘The
maximum torque of such relays is usually limited
7'" to a certain phase-angle between the circuits
energizing the relay. That this phaseéangle or
eyen a close approximation to it will exist during
15 faulty conditions‘ is uncertain,
ing a wide range of protective applications.
A 5
further object of my invention is to provide'an
The torque ob-
improved electroresponsive device unit, particu
larly for multiple unit, relays, which insures sim
Dlioity and accuracy of assembly with consequent
reduction in manufacturing costs, which requires 10
no enclosing case, and which has a high rate of
heat displacement. These and other objects of
my invention will appear in more detail herein
after.
-
I
.
'My invention will be better understood from 15
tainable in such relays for a given input is lim- ' the following description when considered in ‘
ited by inherent factors of design, such as high
air~gap reluctance and large ?ux leakage. The
connection with the accompanying two sheets of
drawings. and its scope Will be Pointed out in the
e , input under certain fault conditions to which the
appended claims
20 relay must respond may be a fraction of the rated
- input, or of the input under other fault condi-.
In the accompanying drawings. Fig- 1 is a top 20
Plan View. portly broken away and Partly in
tions further limiting the available torque and
section, of on 'electroresponsivc'dcvice embody
reducing the speed of response. ‘Moreover, be- . ihg my invention; Fig- 2 is a Part sectional view
cause of the relatively large disk, only a. small on the line 2-2 of Fig- 1; Fig- 3 is an exploded
25 portion of which is in use electrically at any in- View illustrating in Perspective parts of the de- 25
stant, the resultant disk inertia and friction load Vice shown in Figs- 1 and 2; Figs- 4 and 5 illus
delays movement in response to the torque actu- trate two groups of series connected form-wound
ally developed. While there maybe relays having
energizing coils fol‘ the device shown in Figs- 1
' relatively high speed and sensitivity for speci?c
30 applications, their construction does not conven’iently or economically lend itself to multiple unit
relays or the desired diversity in relay applicathan whereby a given construetlon can readily
and 2; Fig- 6 illustrates a multiple unit relay
assembly embodying eleotl'oresponsive devices of 30
the type shown in Figs- 1 and 2; Figs- 7 and 8 are
diagrammatic outlines of the magnetic structure
of the device shown in Figs. 1 and 2 to illustrate
be modi?ed to provide different kinds of pr'otec_
35 tion, for example, over-current, power-directlon-
modi?cations of the device for different protec
tive applications; Fig. 9 is another diagrammatic .35
a1, distance, etc.- For some applications, it is desirable that the movable member of the relay
have a practically unlimited movement or that
the developed torque be independent of move40 merit. The induction disk relay has the advantage of unlimited movement, but plunger and
pivoted magnetic armature type relays and ring '
outline of the magnetic structure of Figs- 1 and 2
illustrating another modi?cation for a di?’er
cnt application and also a form of‘torque vary
ing means; Fig. 10 illustrates the magnetic struc
ture with a modi?cation of the torque varying 40
meahsshown in Fig- 9; and Figs- 11 and 12 11
lustl‘ate modi?cations of the moving Port of the
type induction dynamometer relays do not have.
devices shown in Figs 1 and 2- >
~ ‘
.
either the unlimited movement or the torque in- '
In the embodiment of my invention illustrated
45 dependent of- movement features.
’ .
in Figs. 1 and 2 by way of example, I Provide 45
An object of my invention is to, provide a high
speed and high sensitivity electroresponsive de-J
.a relay torque Producing 01' motor element which‘
comprises a hollow magnetic stator '9 having 8
vice whose speed and sensitivity-factors are sev- ‘ plurality of inwardly Projecting salients II and
eral times those of the induction disk relay and
. 50 whose movable member may have an unlimited
movement and is substantially free of end play
and chatter, and in which torque may be made
independent of movement. Another object of my
invention is to provide an improved electrore-
I2, 8- ma-gnetio member '3 centrally Positioned
relatively to and spaced from the inner ends 01‘ 50
faces of the salients, a rotor“ of electric current,
conducting material between the magnetic mem
ber l3 and the ends of the salients, and energiz
ing windings l5~and I 6 so. shaped as substantially
as sponsive device in which the materials oi'con- - to ?ll the spaces between the salients. While I 56
2
ariaeee
-
Where two or more units are thus secured to
gether, a bottom-enclosing plate 3| may be pro
have illustrated an eight salient device, it will be
obvious from what follows that my invention is
r not limited to this particular number although it
vided.
'
In order to secure the necessary perfection of
does provide'the maximum torque for the avail
able space consistent with low cost and diversity
alinement and interchangeability of units, the up
per face of the end frame 20 is cylindrically re~
cessed, leaving shoulders 32. Into this recess
there ?t cylindrical projections 33 on the lower‘
face of the end frame til. it will be obvious that
units may be thus simply assembled and yet in 10
sure the necessary precision in alinement and
the desired interchangeability. It will be noted
that the spaces between Ithe arms of the spider 2|
are ?lled by the windings 15 while the windings
it ?ll in the spaces over the spider arms, thereby
utilizing the space to the best advantages. Inas
of application.
In order to have economy of switchboard space‘,
I preferably arrange my device so that its vertical
cross-section is rectangular. For economy of ' ma
10 terial and maximum coil space so as to obtain a
high ratio of copper to iron, which is particularly
important in relays having potential windings, 1E
preferably make the stator iii of laminations in
the form of a hollow square. Tl'iis provides the
15 maximum usable cores window area; and hence
coil volume per unit of thickness for a given
space occupied by the relay. Also for economy
of construction and assembly and the greater
safety in coil life, resulting from the use of form
much as the edges of the laminations are ex
posed to the air and the coil spaces are exposed
to the inner surface of the endirames, the neces
20 Wound coils since in random-wound coils a turn <~ sary heat dissipation is secured. A notch 34 in the 20
end frame 20 provides an opening through which
may readily slip and establish an unsafe poten
the coil leads may, be led, preferably in an in-,
tial difference between adjacent turns,\li so con
struct the stator that alternate salients, such as sulating shell 35. Threaded holes 36 may be pro
H, extending inwardly from the sides of the vided in the end frames for mounting the relay.
25 stator are integral therewith while the salients it
Since for mounting purposes it is desirable to
also preferably laminated may be insertable in make the cylindrical rotor i4 and its closed end
of one piece of metal so that it is in effect a. cup,
suitable recesses in the stator, as appears more
it is necessary, in order to avoid end play and,
clearly/ in Fig. 3. For alternate salients, for ex
ample, the integral salients ii, form-wound coils vibration and the highly variable torques con 30
30 i5 of a generally pyramidal shape, as shown in sequent on vibration, to so construct the rotor as
Fig. 4, may be used, while for the other salients ‘ to maintain conductivity balance about the cen
tral ?ux plane of the stator i0. While this could
i2,iorm-wvound coils 56 of a generally paral
be done by lengthening the rotor, it would'in
' lelepipedal shape may be used in order substan
tially completely to" ?ll the space between the volve more space, increase inertia, and slow the
35 salients. Thus, the coils,_i5 may be slipped on action of therelay. In order to avoid entirely 35»
the salients H and the coils !6 on the detached some of these undesirable features and minimize
salients 92, which are then set in the stator others, I thicken the rim of the rotor H, as shown,
recesses and secured by any suitable'means, such but only to an extent that it will pass through
as pins ll driven into 'holes'formed by opposed ‘ the air gaps between the salients and the central 40
40 recesses 58 in the salients at adjacent corners
- magnetic member. I have found that for highest
thereof. It will be obvious to those skilled in the ‘speed action, rotors of aluminum are preferable
art that the pyramidal coils may be placed on the to copper because although the conductivity of
diagonal salients and the parallelepipedal coils on aluminum is less ‘than copper and therefore re
the side salients but the space economy would. sults in a torque reduction, this reduction is less 45
45 not be so good .(unless the stator is otherwise than
than the gain resulting from the decrease in
weight. In order to avoid biased torques and
In order to have a self-supporting unit assembly torques that vary with rotation, the rotor should
for the parts just described without any necessity have uniform conductivity throughout. When
for acase or housing and with-the required heat copper is used I have found that, since ordinary
50 dissipating properties for such a compact iron copper may contain oxide streaks of low con 50
and 'copper assembly, I provide suitable end ' ductivity, it is preferable to use oxygen-free high
'
_
frames l9 and 20. While these may be of any conductivity coppenThe relay shown in Fig. 6 is polyphase power
suitable material, aluminum or an aluminum al
square.
'
.
,
_
loy maybe used where high ‘heat conductivity is ' directional device embodying three of the units 65
55 desired. Such materials of course provide higher
shown in Figs. -1 and 2 and a contact headand
‘cover 31, which as it forms no part of my present
heat conductivity than the stator I0 and the wind—
ings l5 and I6. The bottom frame l9 includes suit
able supporting means for the central magnetic
member l3. As shown, this supporting means is
invention other than to provide an upper bearing
for the shaft 25', is unnecessary to describe here.
For power directional actiorpthe windings l5 are 60
current windings and the- windings l6 potential
a spider 2! in a central hole 22 of which is set
and secured by suitable means, such as a nut 23,
a hub 24.015 nonmagnetic material on which the
windings. These windings may be connected to a
polyphase circuit for power directional ‘response
central magnetic member 53 is mounted. The ' in various-ways, examples of‘which are well
known to the art. If it is desired to introduce. a
dependent upon only one of the electrical
.the rotor hub.” is securedby suitable means, torque
quantitiesinvolved,
for example, a voltage re
such as, a set screw 21. The lower'end of the hub 24 may be threaded interiorly to receive a jewelled straint torque, as is often useful with power direc- step bearing 28 for the shaft 25, ‘as shown in tional rélays,.shadlng windings 38 may be pro-,
65 ,hub 24 has a central hole for a. shaft,” to which
70
Fig.
6.
‘
‘
'
‘
\
\
>
vided in the faces of the salients which are ener
.
'
For assembly purposes, the corners of the end
,
' gized by the ‘quantity in question.
_
'
frames 19 and 20 and'the stator Ill may have‘ Referring now to Fig. '7 and assuming that the
registering holesv to receive hollow rivets 29 (salients H and I 2 of the stator III are provided
through which bolts 30 may be passedto fasten with energizing windings producing at any in
two‘or more unitsv together, as shownin Fig.‘ 6. stant ?uxes of, the polarity indicated and con
v70
up
.
,nected to be. energized with the current I and
two voltages E1' and E2 of an alternating current
circuit, then the torque T1 on the ‘rotor, not
shown, will be
'
'
joining the two rings 48. The member I3~may
be- laminated.
Constructions such as the modi
?cation shown in Figs. 11 and 12 provide higher
. torque than does the hollow cylindrical copper
rotor because it is possible to work within prac- '
I
T1=E1I sin A—-—E1Ez sin B
single phase power directional relay with voltage
tical limitations with smaller total air gaps be
tween the salients and the central core I3, but
because of the greater inertia of the rotating
parts, the speed will not be as great as with the
hollow cylindrical or cup rotor. While other 10
well known rotor constructions such as the squir
rel cage and hysteresis types may be used, their
restraint.
greater inertia reduces speed and sensitivity.
Aiand B being phase displacement angles de-‘
pending upon circuit constants of the relays. In
other words, the torque consists of the particular
10 directional current torque \E1I sin A opposed by a
voltage ‘torque EiEz sin B. Thus, there results a
,
-
‘Fig. 8 further illustrates-the diversity of elec15
3
‘2,110,686
troresponsive devices‘ embodying my invention.
If it be assumed that the salients II and I2 are
provided withv energizing windings producing at
any instantfluxes of the polarities indicated and
While I have shown and described my inven
tion in considerable detail, I do not desire to be 15
limited to the exact arrangements shown, but
seek to cover in the appended claims all those
modi?cations that fall within the true spirit and
connected to be energized in accordance with two
currents I1 and I2 derived from an alternating
scope of my invention.
current circuit and that the diagonal salients I2
Letters Patent of the United States is:
1. An electroresponsive device comprising a
magnetic stator in the form of a hollow square,
said stator. having a plurality of inwardly pro
are provided with short-circuited windings or
lag rings 40, then the torque T2 on the rotor (not
shown) will be
.
.
-
What I claim as new and desire to secure by 20
jecting salients, alternate salients being integral 25
25
with the stator and the other salients insertable
0 being- the phase angle lead of I1 relatively to
I2 and ¢ the phase angle which the flux in salients
I2 lags the current 12 in the windings on these
30 salients by reason of the lag rings 40. This ar
rangement provides a single phase directional
ground relay.‘
‘
The modi?cation of my invention shown in
Fig. 9 illustrates a simple over~current relay with
a variable pick-lup feature.
In this case, it will
in the stator, a magnetic member centrally posi
tioned relatively to and spaced from the inner
ends of said salients, a rotor of electric current
conducting material between said central‘mag
netic member and the inner ends of said salients
and form-wound coils for said salients so shaped
as substantially to ?ll the spaces between the
salients.
'
-
2. An electroresponsive device comprising a
35
magnetic stator in the form of a hollow square,
said stator having a plurality of'inwardly pro
be. assumed that the energizing windings 4|,‘
which may be connected to a current transformer
of an alternating current circuit, produce at any
jecting salients, alternate salients being integral
instant the polarities ‘shown.
with the stator and the other salients insertable
Then the relay
30
40 torque will be a function of the square of the
in the stator, a magnetic member centrally posi
current. In order to secure‘ this torque and pro- ' tioned relatively to and spaced from the inner 40
vide for varying the pick-up, I provide in recesses
‘ends of said salients, a rotor of electric current
on the central magnetic member I3 short-cir
conducting material rotatably mounted for move
cuited windings or rings‘ 42 which, in the posi
tion shown, encircle the flux components in the
horizontal salients II but not the flux compo
nents in the vertical salients II. The central
ment in the gaps between said central magnetic
member and the inner ends of the salients, and V45
form-wound coils for said salients so shaped as
substantially to ?ll the spaces between the
‘ magnetic member I3 is secured to a movable arm '
43 whereby theposition of the member I3 can
be changed so'that the rings 42 encircle less and
less of the flux in the horizontal salients and.
more and more in the vertical salients. In-this
way, the torque on the rotor, not shown, can be
varied gradually to zero and its direction re
versed if desired. Thus, if the arm 43 moves
over a suitably graduated scale 44, this can be
_ used to control the, pick-up torque of the relay.
The relative pitches of the shading ring and
salients.
'
3. An electroresponsive device comprising a
magnetic stator in the form of a hollow- square,
an integral salient extending inwardly from each 50
side of said stator, an inwardly extending di
jagonal salient insertable in each of the inner
corners of said stator, a magnetic member‘ cen
trally positioned relatively to and spaced from
the inner ends of said salients, a rotor of elec
tric current conducting material mounted for
55
movement in the gaps between said central mag
salient is a measure of the range of adjustment.
netic member and the inner ends of the salients,
60. Thus, in Fig. 9, the pitch is large but 'for a
form-wound coils having a generally pyramidal 60
micrometer adjustment the pitch can be small, shape for mounting on one of the groups of said
as shown in Fig. 10, in which the pitch of the salients, and form-wound coils having a gen
ring 45 relatively to the salient is small.
' erally parallelepipedal shape for mounting on
Instead of having the central magnetic mem
the other group of salients.
ber I3 stationary, I- may make it rotatable and
4. An electroresponsive device comprising a 65
combine with it the function of the electric cur
magnetic stator in the form of a hollow square,
rent conducting rotor by applying to the exposed an integral salient extending inwardly from the
faces of the magnetic member I3, as indicated ' middle of each side of said stator, an inwardly '
in Fig. 11, a copper coating 46 either by plating extending diagonal salient insertable in each of
' or spraying.
For rotatable movement, the mem
ber I3 may be provided with a suitable nonmag
netic hub 4'1, as shown.
the inner corners of said stator, a magnetic .70
member centrally positioned relatively to and.
Instead of plating the ' spaced from the inner ends of said salients, a
top and bottom faces, copper rings 48 may-be rotor of electric current conducting,.materia1
used and the copper coating 49 applied to the rotatably mounted for movement'in the gaps
cylindrical face of the member I3v electrically between said central magnetic member and the
4
aiiacee
said member relatively to and spaced from the
inner ends of said salients, a shaft extending
through said central magnetic member and one
of said end frames, a rotor of electric current
conducting material mounted on said shaft and
movable in the; gaps between said central mag
netic member and the inner ends of said salients
and a bearing for said shaft mountable in said
inner ends of the salients, form-wound coils
having a generally pyramidal shape for mount
ing on said integral salients, and form-wound
coils having a generally parallelepipedal shape
for mounting on said insertable salients.
5. An ‘electroresponsive device comprising a
magnetic stator in the form of a hollow square,
said stator having a plurality of inwardly pro
jecting salients, alternate salients being integral
support.
to fill the spaces between the salients.
. being materially thickened to maintain the cur
iii. an electroresponsive device comprising a 10
with the stator and the other salients insertable
in the stator, means insertablc between the ad= hollow magnetic stator, a plurality of, salients
extending inwardly from said stator, a magnetic
jacent corners of said salients for rigidly main
membencentrally positioned relatively to and
taining said insertable salients in place, a mag
' netic member centrally positioned relatively to spaced from the inner ends of said salients, a
cylindrical rotor of electric current conducting _
15 and spaced from the inner ends of said salients,
a rotor of electric‘ current conducting material. material of substantially uniform thickness
rotatably mounted for movement ‘in the gaps mounted for movement in the gaps ‘between said
between said central magnetic member and the _ central magnetic member and the inner ends'of
inner ends of the salients, and form—wound the salients, one end of said rotor beingsub
coils
for said salients so shaped as substantially stantially closed and the rim of the other end 20
20
25 salients, an end frame on each face of said ‘stator,
rentconductivity balance of the rotor, and en
ergizing windings for said stator.
11. A relay motor unit comprising a hollow
magnetic" stator having a plurality of inwardly 25
means for fastening together the end frames
and stator of a unit, means for aligning a plu
rality of units including projections and open
ings on said end plates, a central magnetic mem
ber supported by one of said'end frames and
said salients, a rotor of electric current conduct
ing material rotatably mounted for movement 30
6. A relay motor unit comprising a hollow
magnetic stator having a plurality of inwardly
projecting salients, windings for energizing said
projecting salients, windings for energizing said
salients, a magnetic member centrally positioned
relatively to and spaced from the inner ends of
in the gaps between said central magnetic mem
centrally positioned relatively to and spaced from
her and the inner ends of the salients, and ?ux i
I the inner ends of said salients, and a rotatably
mounted cylindrical member of electric current‘ shading means including a short-circuited wind
ing mounted on said central magnetic member.
conducting material movable in the gaps between
.12. A relay motor unit comprising a hollow 35
35 said central magnetic member and the inner
magnetic stator having a. plurality of inwardly \
ends of said salients.
7. A relay motor unit comprising a hollow
magnetic stator having a plurality of inwardly
projecting salients, coils for energizing said sali
ents, an end frame on each'face of said stator
projecting salients, windings for energizing said
salients, a magnetic member centrally positioned
I forming with the edges of said stator an en
closure for said‘ coils, said frames being of a
material of high heat conductivity, means for
- fastening together the end frames and the stator
4
of a unit, a central magnetic member supported
by one of said end frames and centrally posi
tioned relatively to and spaced from the inner
ends of said salients, and ‘a rotor of electric cur
winding.
rent conducting material between said central 50 magnetic member and the inner ends of said
salients.
'
' 13. A power directional electroresponsive, de-'
vice comprising a magnetic stator in the form 50
‘ of a hollow square, an integral salient extending
inwardly from each side of said stator, an in
8. A relay motor unit comprising a hollow mag
netic stator having a. plurality of inwardly pro
wardly extending diagonal salient insertable in
jecting salients, windings for energizing said sall
55 ents, an end frame on each face of said stator,
means for securing said end frames and stator
together, for the alinement and the fastening of
a plurality of units, a central magnetic mem
ber supported by one~of said end frames and
60
relatively to and spaced from the inner ends of
said salients, a rotor of electric current conduct 40
ing material rotatably mounted for movement in ‘
the gaps between said central magnetic‘ member
and the inner ends of the salients, flux shading
including a short-circuited winding
means
mounted on said central magnetic member, and 45
means for turning said central magnetic mem
ber to vary the effect of said short-circuited
centrally positioned relatively to and spaced
from the inner ends of said salients, a shaft ‘ex
each of the inner corners of said stator, a form
Woundcurrent coil having a generally pyramidal 55
shape for mounting on» one of the groups of said
salients, a form-wound potential coil having a
- generally parallelepipedal shape for mounting on
the other group of' said salients, a magnetic
member centrally“ positioned relatively to‘ and 60
spaced from the inner ends of said salients, and
tending through said central magnetic meniber
a rotor of electric current conducting material
and one of said end frames, a rotor of electric .betweenisaid member and the inner ,ends of the ‘
current conducting material mounted on said salients.
14. A power directional electroresponsive de
65 shaft and movable in the gaps between- said cen
tral magnetic member and the inner ends of said vice comprising a. magnetic stator in the form’
‘of .a hollow square, anintegral salient extend
9. A relay motor unit comprising a hollow mag
ing inwardly from each side of said stator, an '
netic stator having a plurality of inwardly pro
inwardly extending diagonal salient insertable
70 jecting salients, windings for energizing said in each of the inner corners of said statorl-sa
salients, an end frame on each face of said-stator, form-wound current coil having a generally‘
means for securing said-end frames ‘and stators pyramidal shape for mounting on said ~integral~
together for the alinement of, and the fastening salients, a form-wound potential coil having a
together of a plurality of units, a central mag
generally, parallelepipedal shape for mounting-7;
salients.
.
‘
‘
‘
75 netic member, a support centrally positioning
on said diagonal salienw,‘ a magnetic member
_
5
2,110,686
centrally positioned relatively to and spaced
from the inner ends of said salients, a rotor of
electric current conducting material between said
member and the inner ends of said‘salients, and
aligning'said relay units including a projection
means for providing a torque on said rotor de
on one end frame of a unit registerable with
an opening on the adjacent end frame of the
pendent only on the energization of the poten
tial windings including short-circuited windings
units, means for supporting said shaft so as cen
in the end faces of the diagonal salients.
15. A relay motor unit comprising a hollow
10 magnetic stator having a plurality of‘ inwardly
projecting salients, coils for energizing said
salients, an end frame on eachiace of said stator
forming with the edges of said stator an en
closure for said coils, means for ‘fastening to
15 gether the end frames and the stator of a unit,
a central magnetic member supported by one
of said end frames and centrally positioned rela
tivelyto and spaced from the inner ends of said
salients, and a rotor of electric current conduct
20 ing material between said central magnetic
member and the inner ends of said salients.
16. An electroresponsive device comprising a
hollow magnetic stator, a plurality of salients
extending inwardly from said stator, alternate
v25 salients being inserted in the stator, ‘a magnetic
member centrally positioned relatively to and
spaced from the inner ends of said salients, a ro
tor .of electric current conducting material
mounted for movement in the gaps between said
30 central magnetic member and the inner ends of
the salients, form-wound coils having a gener
ally pyramidal shape mounted on alternate sa
as
frames and stator together and a rotor of elec
tric current conducting material, means for
lients, and form-wound coils having a generally
parallelepipedal shape for mounting on the other
salients.
17. A relay assembly comprising a plurality of
' relay units mounted one against the other, each
of said units comprising a magnetic stator hav
inga plurality of inwardly projecting salients,
40 windings on said salients, an end frame for each
face of said stator, means for fastening said end
next unit, a shaft carrying the rotors of said
trally to position said rotors relatively to the in
ner ends of said salients including a bearing in
one of said end frames, and means for securing 10
said units together.
,
‘
18. A relay unit comprising a magnetic stator
having a plurality of inwardly projecting sali
ents, certain of said salients being integral with
the stator and the other salients being insert 15
able in the stator, a magnetic member centrally
positioned relatively to the inner'ends of said '
salients, coils for said salients so shaped as sub
stantially to ?ll the spaces between the salients,
and a short-circuited electric current conduct~ 20
ing path centrally positioned relatively to the in
ner ends of said salients and adapted to rotate
in response to the ?uxes ?owing between said
salients and said central magnetic member when
25
said coils are energized.
19. An electroresponsive device comprising a
magnetic stator in the form of a hollow square,
a salient extending inwardly from each side of
said stator substantially perpendicular to said
side, a salient extending diagonally inward from 30
each comer of said stator, alternate salients of
all of said salients being integral with said stator
and the other salients being insertable in the sta
tor, a magnetic member centrally positioned rel
atively to and spaced from the inner ends of 85
said salients, a closed current conducting path
rotatable in the gaps between said central mag
netic member and the inner ends of said salients,
and windings'for energizing said salients.
40
VICTOR E. VERRAIL.
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