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Патент USA US2110689

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March 8, 1938.
Filed March 29. 1935
6/8011 el?/lfbodand
Patented Mar. s; 1938 '_
George H. Woodard, Phillipsburg, N. 3., assignor
to Ingersoll-Rand Company, Jersey City, N. J.,
a corporation of New Jersey
Application March 29,1935, Serial» No. 13,641
10 ‘Claims. (Cl. 62-126)
' This invention relates to an improved refrig
the right to make changes in various Ways with
erating system, especially that part of the sys- » out departing from the principle of the inven
‘tem wherein the refrigerant is treated to put it tion or exceeding the scope and spirit of the ap
pended claims. .
into condition for producing the desired refrig
0n the drawing Figure 1 shows in outline a
5 crating effect.
, .»
In refrigerating means of the water-vapor type regrigerating system according to this invention,
a liquid refrigerant is cooled in a closed vessel partly in section on the line |-l of Figure 2, and
Figure 2 is a section on the line 2--2 of Fig
called an evaporator and then removed there
ure 1 showing an evaporator with several cham
from to the placewhere it is used for the in
10 tended purpose. In prior constructions of this bers, all or part of which may be operated at 10
kind, the refrigerant is generally admitted to the one time.
The same numerals identify the same part
evaporator near the top and taken out through
a delivery conduit connected to the bottom. The
conduit leads to a‘ force pump which is at a lower
15 level than the evaporator, so that the liquid en
tore the pump with the required static head
thereon. Such a disposition of parts often makes
. The numeral l indicates an evaporator in the
form of a closed vessel mounted upon a suitable 15
support or foundation 2. Through a pipe 3, a '
liquid refrigerant, such as water, is introduced
the apparatus too high to permit easy installa- _ into ‘this evaporator, which contains a vacuum
tion, particularly when auxiliary mechanism is . high enough to cause some of the incoming re
20 mounted on top of the evaporator and the amount
of vertical space is limited.
'One object of this invention is to provide a
refrigerating system of such design that the en;
frigerant to be vaporized at once. The forma 20
tion of this vapor cools the main body of the
liquid by extracting heat therefrom and the liquid
refrigerant lowered in temperature is removed 7
tire installation when set up in operative pos -. “by way of an outlet 6 and delivered to a conduit
5 through which it passes‘ to a cooling coil ‘6. 25
tion, is materially'reduced in height. _
- 26
This cooling coil will be in a space or compart
A. further object of this invention is to pro
vide a system wherein the evaporator and, the ‘ment where the cooling edect is desired. In prac
pump for removing the liquid contents of the tice heat will be absorbed by the refrigerant in
evaporator are so related that the pump can be. the coil 6. The refrigerant is thus warmed be
placed at substantially the same level as ‘the fore ‘it again reaches the conduit 3 and is con
evaporator, thus reducing the vertical room that ducted back to the evaporator to be cooled once
would otherwise be needed, while the refrigerant more. In the top of the evaporator is an opencan still enter the pump at sufficient statlc'head ing ‘l leading to the inlet 8 of a suitable evacua
to enable the pump to work at its full e?iciency. tor (not shown) by which the water vapor that
Another object of the invention is to provide is‘formed in the evaporator l is extracted and
an evaporator adapted to facilitate the delivery discharged into a condenser to be lique?ed.
The delivery conduit 5 is coupled to the evap
of the refrigerant therefrom, and so arranged
that, when the evaporator or part thereof is to orator I through a pump 9 which is driven by a
be rendered non-operating, it canv be readily motor Hi. In the usual construction the return
water pipe 3 is led into the evaporator near the
40 sealed with respect to the delivery conduit with
out the use of valves or other controlling means top thereof and the outlet t is located in the
bottom connected by a suitable length of pipe
in the latter. Hence, with an evaporator contain
ing several chambers, one or more’of same can 1 to the intake of the pump 9. Such an arrange
' easily be cut out at times when the system is to I ‘ment may make the over-all height of the ap
w run at part load. Under such circumtsances paratus too great and it is often desirable that
whenever refrigerating action in a chamber ‘is the height or depth of the evaporator itself be
less. When the evacuator on the top of the evap
suspended the discharge of the refrigerant there
orator over the aperture‘l is also of considerable
from is automatically stopped.
height, the need for saving space can be quite proAn additional object of the invention is to pro
m vide an evaporator to which the refrigerant is ' nounced. I therefore lead the return water pipe
admitted under some pressure 'at such- a point 3 'into the interior of the evaporator at a. much
that the inflow thereof assists the out?ow by posi~ lower point so that the water can be introduced
near the bottom, and the pump 9 is mounted at
tively impelling the refrigerant toward the out— the
sarne level as the evaporator l .
let of the evaporator where it enters the delivery
:35 pipe for removing same.
The foregoing and other objects and advan
tages 'of this invention are fully and clearly set
forth in the ensuing description, and while a
preferred form of the-invention is illustrated
cc herein on the accompanying drawing, I reserve
’ The evaporator is provided with an. inclined 55
surface shown at it in Figure 1 which slopes
upward from a point. near where the return water
is admitted, toward the outlet. .The inclined
surface, which may be the bottom of the evap
orator,_is connected with the top of a vertical’. 60/
In- practice this system can be operated with
all or less than all the chambers working. When
to de?ne an outlet well or recess I 3 in one end' all the chambers are working and the system is
of the evaporator against the outlet 4 and a thus running at full load, the incoming water
second recess in a horizontally distant end of the discharged‘ from the nozzles I5 collects to the til
evaporator adjacent the point where the pipe 3 level shown in Figure l at the bottom of the evap
enters the evaporator.‘ The outlet 5 is located at orator, and the jets created by the nozzles I5
wall or partition shown at 42 and cooperates
therewith and with the walls of the evaporator I
or near the bottom of the well I3 in the side of
the evaporator I. Above the surface I I is a cover
or screen. I4 which forms with said surface
an upwardly inclined channel or throat through
which the refrigerant passes on its way to‘
the well I3. At the lowest point of the sur
face ‘II the return water issues through one or,
15 more nozzles I5. As shown in the drawing the
force the water up along the inclined surface II
and over the upper end of same so that it can
?ll the receptacles I3. As the water is urged
upward along the surface I I it‘is agitated by these
refrigerant is forced through pipe’ 5, coil 6 and
jets so that the vaporization of part is assisted.
From the Wells I3 the cooled water passes to
the pump and is transmitted by way of the con
duit 5 to the coil 6. When operation of part 15
load is desired, one of the chambers, or when
conduit 3 under some pressure and when it en
there is a larger number, more than one chamber
can be cut out by shutting the valve in the
branch I‘! of the chamber or chambers not needed.
When centrifugal evacuato-rs are connected to 20
the outlets ‘I, the evacuator for an inactive cham
through the ascending guiding channel between ber may continue to rotate but then does no
surface II and cover I4. During this movement useful work, and when steam evacuators are em
ployed, the'steam for the evacuator of any in
part of the refrigerant is vaporized, the vapor be
25 ing removed through the opening ‘I. By the time ‘ active chamber is cut off.
To simplify the connections and reduce the
the water reaches the well I3 it is lowered in
number of valves which would otherwise be re
temperature by several degrees and is in the con
ters the evaporator it is expelled from. the nozzle
or nozzles I5 with some velocity. The energy of»
20 the jet issuing from each nozzle I5 agitates the
water and impels it against the force of gravity
dition required. Therefore the outlet 4 does not
have to be in the bottom of the evaporator but
30 can even be a short distance above the bottom as
indicated in Figure 1, and the height of the evap
orator as well as the height of the whole appa
ratus, except for the coil 6 which may. be at
any selected/point is much reduced. In fact the
35 total height is no greater than that of the
evaporator alone. The energy of the incoming
water thus not only divides the refrigerant into
small particles but also impels the water up along
the false-bottom into the well,- from which it is
40 delivered into the conduit 5. The screen I4 is, of
course, spaced from the side where the pipe 3 en
ters and from the top of the evaporator, and all
the water which is agitated is between this screen
and the surface“. The water vapor which is
45 formed inlthe operation can ?ow around the up
quired, I make the partitions I2 high enough
to trap some of the refrigerant therein and seal
off any chamber which is to be renderednon 30
operating, without requiring any valves in the.
branches 22 leading from the outlets 4 to the
pump 9. For example, when a chamber is work
ing the refrigerant, after being cooled, will fill the
well I3 to the depth shown in Figure l or at‘ the 35
left of Figure 2. But when any chamber is put
out of action by closing the valve attached to the
knob I9 thereof in the inlet branch 11 and stop
ping the evacuator the vacuum in that chamber
will decrease and the pressure therein will rise 40
somewhat. This is'true when the inlet 8 leads
to a steam jet ejector which is in open communi
cation with a condenser. In such a case, when- '
ever the steam jet is stopped, the condenser pres
sure will prevail in the chamber that is being 45
per and lower edges of the screen or cover for cut out. This pressure will be higher than the
vacuum in that chamber and it will force down
the channel on its way to the opening ‘I. A baf
?e plate may be disposed beneath the outletv the level of the liquid in'the well I3 to a point
shown at the right of Figure 2. By making the
opening ‘I if desired. _
Figure 2 shows the evaporator with a partition partition I2 high enough the level of the liquid 50
will then still be above the outlet 4 and enough
I6 dividing it into two compartments which ap
pear in end view in Figure 2. Each compartment liquid will be trapped in this well to seal it,
will be provided with an inclined surface I I while the other chamber or chambers continue
joined to a tranverse partition I2 at one end, the working. Hence no valves in the branches 22 be- '
surface and partition extending from one side tween the outlets 4 and the pump are required. 55
Each well thus constitutes a simple and effective
to the other of each compartment. The admis
sion or supply pipe 3 is provided with branches I‘! means to facilitate the delivery of the refrig
erant from the evaporator and control the out
one leading to each-compartment at the end re
?ow. But valves, of course, can be included if
mote from the delivery well or reservoir I3 there
preferred. When centrifugal evacuators are 60
in and each of these vbranches may carry a cas
used, the water is likewise trapped in the well of :
ing I8 containing a valve which can be manipu
lated by an outside knob or head I9. Ea‘ch‘branjch an inactive chamber, but the level thereof may
I'I leads to a length of piping 20 inside the com . not sink so much.
Thus the invention is well adapted to diminish
partment associated therewith and at the bot- tom of each piece of piping is a transverse header the over-all height of the evaporator I and its 65
2| carrying two or more nozzles I5 in line with auxiliary devices and of the evaporator itself so
the channel between the surface I I and the screen as to facilitate the installation, of the system in
I4. The outlet openings 4 of the chambers of places where only a restricted amount of .space
this ‘evaporator are .coupled to branch conduits is available above the support 2. The pump is
22 connected to a short pipe 23 which leads to the far enough below the level of the refrigerantln
inlet port of the pump 9. In Figure 2 the pump the well I3 to have all the static head it needs
and yet it is no lower than the evaporator itself.
9 is indicated in broken lines to show its posi
The ‘location of the nozzles I5 near the bottom
tion, although it is in front of the'plane of sec
tion for this ?gure, as indicated by the line 2-2 of the evaporator enables the depth of the evap- ,.
in Figure 1.
orator to be considerably diminished. Thus the?’
entire height of evaporator, pump and evacuat
evaporator below the. normal level of the re
ing means (not shown) above the evacuator is
irigerant contained therein, a guide conduit in
actually less than the aggregate height of evap
the evaporator for refrigerant projected by the
orator and evacuat‘or means in systems‘compris
nozzle and extending upwardly to a level higher
than said normal level of ~refrigerant in the
evaporator, and an outlet for the refrigerant at
ing ordinary evaporators with the pump under
same. This result is obtained chie?y by mount
ing the nozzles I5 at the lower part of the evap
orator, and causing the water to ascend the in
such higher level, said nozzle being adapted to
agitate the refrigerant in the evaporator to fa
clined surface‘ H until it reaches the wells l3 ‘ cilitate vaporization thereof, said conduit being
10 which have the depth called for between their
upper ends and the outlets 4.
I claim:
1. An evaporator having an outlet, an inlet
nozzle to admit a liquid refrigerant to the
evaporator, and ascending guiding means over
which the liquid is impelled by the jet from said
nozzle to a higher level before it arrives at the
outlet, said means being in part open to the
evaporator to permit vapor to pass'intotheevapo
rator before and after the liquid has traversed
said means.
2. A
- evaporator, a spray nozzle disposed to discharge
to the higher level.
'7. In a refrigerating system, an evaporator for
refrigerant having two or more chambers, each
chamber having a refrigerant outlet, a nozzle in
each chamber to inject refrigerant thereinto,
vmeans within each chamber forming an upward
ly inclined channel therein through which re 20
frigerant is’impelled by the energy of the dis
charge of said nozzles to points above said out
lets, each of said channels opening at each end
a liquid refrigerant into the evaporator, means
thereof into its chamber to enable vapor to es
forming a delivery well to receive said refrigerant
cape from the refrigerant before the liquid enters 25
and after the liquid leaves the channels, and
means joining said outlets in parallel whereby
at a point above said nozzle, means in the evapo
rator forming an upwardly inclined bottom be
tween the delivery well and the nozzle, and a
member overlying said bottom forming there
30 with a channel through which the liquid re
frigerant is forced by the jet from said nozzle to
said well.
3. In a refrigerating system, an evaporator
having a plurality of chambers, means for in
35 jecting a refrigerant into each of the chambers,
the chambers each having an outlet, means form
ing a delivery well within each chamber adjacent
each outlet, the entrance of said wells being
above said injection means, and means forming
40 an inclined channel within each chamber through
which refrigerant from said injection means is
impelled into said wells by the‘force of the in
jected refrigerant, the ends of the channels com
municating with the chambers to enable vapor
45 to pass from the liquid into the chambers be
fore the liquid enters and after the liquid leaves
the channels.
4. In a refrigerating system, the combination
when one of said chambers is inoperative the
refrigerant in said joining means cooperates with
the liquid at the outlet of said inoperative cham 30
ber to seal the latter from the operative cham
8.. An evaporator tank having walls de?ning a
chamber, means in the chamber cooperating with
said walls to de?ne a recess inv one end of the 35
chamber and another recess in a horizontally
distant end of the chamber, an inlet for liquid to
the evaporator and delivering to the ?rst said
recess, an outlet for liquid from the evaporator
from the second said recess, said means includ 40
ing a surface extending from one recess to the
other, and means to transfer liquid from the ?rst
said recess over said surface to the second said
9. An evaporator tank having walls de?ning‘
a chamber, means in the chamber cooperating
with said walls .to de?ne a recess in one end of
the chamber and another recess in a horizontally
tom, a nozzle to inject a liquid‘ refrigerant into
the evaporator, and means within the evaporator
forming an upwardly inclined channel through
distant end of the chamber, an inlet for liquid
to the evaporator and delivering into the bottom
of the ?rst said recess, an outlet for liquid for
the evaporator from the bottom of the second
which the said refrigerant is impelled by the
said recess, said means including a surface ex
energy of the discharge of said nozzle to a point
above said outlet, each end of the channel open
ing into the evaporator to enable vapor to escape
top of the second recess, and means for injecting‘ .
‘ of an evaporator having an outlet above the bot
open in the evaporator adjacent the nozzle and 10
at said higher level for effecting vaporization of
the refrigerant both at its entrance to the
evaporator and after the refrigerant is raised
from the liquid before the liquid enters and after
the liquid leaves the channel.
5. An evaporator for cooling refrigerant by
60 partial vaporization, a refrigerant inlet and out
let for the evaporator, refrigerant guide means
open within the evaporator and interposed be
tween said inlet and outlet to guide refrigerant,
while it is being vaporized and cooled, from said
65 inlet to a'point above said outlet, said means
providing space in, the evaporator for effective
tending upwardly from the ?rst recess to the
the liquid into the ?rst said recess below the
normal level of the liquid therein to impart force
to the liquid in the recess for impelling such
liquid over said surface to the second said recess.
10. In a refrigerating system, an evaporator,
means forming an inlet well in one end of the
evaporator and an outlet well in the other end,
said means including an inclined surface join
ing said wells, a vapor outlet for said evaporator,
a cover over said surface forming a. passageway
therebetween and shielding said surface from
said vapor outlet, and means for injecting re
vaporization of the refrigerant, and means asso
ciated with said inlet and said guide means to _ frigerant under pressure into said inlet well to
impart kinetic energy to the entering refrigerant agitate the refrigerant therein to facilitate the
70 and impel the same over said guide means to vaporization of a part of said refrigerant and 70
said point above the outlet thereby to provide to impel the unvaporized refrigerant by the force
static head on the outlet.
6. In a refrigerating system, an evaporator
for cooling liquid refrigerant by partial vaporiza
75 tion, a nozzle injecting the refrigerant into the
of the injected refrigerant through said passage
way into said outlet well.
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