Патент USA US2110689код для вставки
March 8, 1938. G, H, WOODARD 27,110,689 REFRIGERATING SYSTEM Filed March 29. 1935 I E 3'2- Y ' ' INVENTOR. 6/8011 el?/lfbodand BY _ HIS ATTORNEY I 2,110,689 Patented Mar. s; 1938 '_ UNITED STATES PATENT ‘OFFICE 2,110,689 REFRIGERATING'SYSTEM George H. Woodard, Phillipsburg, N. 3., assignor to Ingersoll-Rand Company, Jersey City, N. J., a corporation of New Jersey » Application March 29,1935, Serial» No. 13,641 10 ‘Claims. (Cl. 62-126) ' This invention relates to an improved refrig the right to make changes in various Ways with erating system, especially that part of the sys- » out departing from the principle of the inven ‘tem wherein the refrigerant is treated to put it tion or exceeding the scope and spirit of the ap pended claims. . into condition for producing the desired refrig 0n the drawing Figure 1 shows in outline a 5 crating effect. , .» In refrigerating means of the water-vapor type regrigerating system according to this invention, a liquid refrigerant is cooled in a closed vessel partly in section on the line |-l of Figure 2, and Figure 2 is a section on the line 2--2 of Fig called an evaporator and then removed there ure 1 showing an evaporator with several cham from to the placewhere it is used for the in 10 tended purpose. In prior constructions of this bers, all or part of which may be operated at 10 f ' ' kind, the refrigerant is generally admitted to the one time. The same numerals identify the same part evaporator near the top and taken out through a delivery conduit connected to the bottom. The throughout. conduit leads to a‘ force pump which is at a lower 15 level than the evaporator, so that the liquid en tore the pump with the required static head thereon. Such a disposition of parts often makes 7 . . . The numeral l indicates an evaporator in the form of a closed vessel mounted upon a suitable 15 support or foundation 2. Through a pipe 3, a ' liquid refrigerant, such as water, is introduced the apparatus too high to permit easy installa- _ into ‘this evaporator, which contains a vacuum tion, particularly when auxiliary mechanism is . high enough to cause some of the incoming re 20 mounted on top of the evaporator and the amount of vertical space is limited. ‘ ' 'One object of this invention is to provide a refrigerating system of such design that the en; frigerant to be vaporized at once. The forma 20 tion of this vapor cools the main body of the liquid by extracting heat therefrom and the liquid refrigerant lowered in temperature is removed 7 tire installation when set up in operative pos -. “by way of an outlet 6 and delivered to a conduit 5 through which it passes‘ to a cooling coil ‘6. 25 tion, is materially'reduced in height. _ I - 26 This cooling coil will be in a space or compart A. further object of this invention is to pro vide a system wherein the evaporator and, the ‘ment where the cooling edect is desired. In prac pump for removing the liquid contents of the tice heat will be absorbed by the refrigerant in evaporator are so related that the pump can be. the coil 6. The refrigerant is thus warmed be placed at substantially the same level as ‘the fore ‘it again reaches the conduit 3 and is con evaporator, thus reducing the vertical room that ducted back to the evaporator to be cooled once would otherwise be needed, while the refrigerant more. In the top of the evaporator is an opencan still enter the pump at sufficient statlc'head ing ‘l leading to the inlet 8 of a suitable evacua to enable the pump to work at its full e?iciency. tor (not shown) by which the water vapor that Another object of the invention is to provide is‘formed in the evaporator l is extracted and an evaporator adapted to facilitate the delivery discharged into a condenser to be lique?ed. The delivery conduit 5 is coupled to the evap of the refrigerant therefrom, and so arranged that, when the evaporator or part thereof is to orator I through a pump 9 which is driven by a be rendered non-operating, it canv be readily motor Hi. In the usual construction the return water pipe 3 is led into the evaporator near the 40 sealed with respect to the delivery conduit with out the use of valves or other controlling means top thereof and the outlet t is located in the bottom connected by a suitable length of pipe in the latter. Hence, with an evaporator contain ing several chambers, one or more’of same can 1 to the intake of the pump 9. Such an arrange ' easily be cut out at times when the system is to I ‘ment may make the over-all height of the ap w run at part load. Under such circumtsances paratus too great and it is often desirable that whenever refrigerating action in a chamber ‘is the height or depth of the evaporator itself be less. When the evacuator on the top of the evap suspended the discharge of the refrigerant there orator over the aperture‘l is also of considerable from is automatically stopped. , height, the need for saving space can be quite proAn additional object of the invention is to pro m vide an evaporator to which the refrigerant is ' nounced. I therefore lead the return water pipe admitted under some pressure 'at such- a point 3 'into the interior of the evaporator at a. much that the inflow thereof assists the out?ow by posi~ lower point so that the water can be introduced near the bottom, and the pump 9 is mounted at tively impelling the refrigerant toward the out— the sarne level as the evaporator l . , let of the evaporator where it enters the delivery :35 pipe for removing same. . The foregoing and other objects and advan tages 'of this invention are fully and clearly set forth in the ensuing description, and while a preferred form of the-invention is illustrated cc herein on the accompanying drawing, I reserve . 30' , .' 40 45 - ’ The evaporator is provided with an. inclined 55 surface shown at it in Figure 1 which slopes upward from a point. near where the return water is admitted, toward the outlet. .The inclined surface, which may be the bottom of the evap orator,_is connected with the top of a vertical’. 60/ 2,110,689? In- practice this system can be operated with all or less than all the chambers working. When to de?ne an outlet well or recess I 3 in one end' all the chambers are working and the system is of the evaporator against the outlet 4 and a thus running at full load, the incoming water second recess in a horizontally distant end of the discharged‘ from the nozzles I5 collects to the til evaporator adjacent the point where the pipe 3 level shown in Figure l at the bottom of the evap enters the evaporator.‘ The outlet 5 is located at orator, and the jets created by the nozzles I5 wall or partition shown at 42 and cooperates therewith and with the walls of the evaporator I or near the bottom of the well I3 in the side of the evaporator I. Above the surface I I is a cover or screen. I4 which forms with said surface an upwardly inclined channel or throat through which the refrigerant passes on its way to‘ the well I3. At the lowest point of the sur face ‘II the return water issues through one or, 15 more nozzles I5. As shown in the drawing the force the water up along the inclined surface II and over the upper end of same so that it can ?ll the receptacles I3. As the water is urged upward along the surface I I it‘is agitated by these “10 refrigerant is forced through pipe’ 5, coil 6 and jets so that the vaporization of part is assisted. From the Wells I3 the cooled water passes to the pump and is transmitted by way of the con duit 5 to the coil 6. When operation of part 15 load is desired, one of the chambers, or when conduit 3 under some pressure and when it en there is a larger number, more than one chamber can be cut out by shutting the valve in the branch I‘! of the chamber or chambers not needed. When centrifugal evacuato-rs are connected to 20 the outlets ‘I, the evacuator for an inactive cham through the ascending guiding channel between ber may continue to rotate but then does no surface II and cover I4. During this movement useful work, and when steam evacuators are em ployed, the'steam for the evacuator of any in part of the refrigerant is vaporized, the vapor be 25 25 ing removed through the opening ‘I. By the time ‘ active chamber is cut off. To simplify the connections and reduce the the water reaches the well I3 it is lowered in number of valves which would otherwise be re temperature by several degrees and is in the con ters the evaporator it is expelled from. the nozzle or nozzles I5 with some velocity. The energy of» 20 the jet issuing from each nozzle I5 agitates the water and impels it against the force of gravity dition required. Therefore the outlet 4 does not have to be in the bottom of the evaporator but 30 can even be a short distance above the bottom as indicated in Figure 1, and the height of the evap orator as well as the height of the whole appa ratus, except for the coil 6 which may. be at any selected/point is much reduced. In fact the 35 total height is no greater than that of the evaporator alone. The energy of the incoming water thus not only divides the refrigerant into small particles but also impels the water up along the false-bottom into the well,- from which it is 40 delivered into the conduit 5. The screen I4 is, of course, spaced from the side where the pipe 3 en ters and from the top of the evaporator, and all the water which is agitated is between this screen and the surface“. The water vapor which is 45 formed inlthe operation can ?ow around the up 50 55 60 70 ' 75 quired, I make the partitions I2 high enough to trap some of the refrigerant therein and seal off any chamber which is to be renderednon 30 operating, without requiring any valves in the. branches 22 leading from the outlets 4 to the pump 9. For example, when a chamber is work ing the refrigerant, after being cooled, will fill the well I3 to the depth shown in Figure l or at‘ the 35 left of Figure 2. But when any chamber is put out of action by closing the valve attached to the knob I9 thereof in the inlet branch 11 and stop ping the evacuator the vacuum in that chamber will decrease and the pressure therein will rise 40 somewhat. This is'true when the inlet 8 leads to a steam jet ejector which is in open communi cation with a condenser. In such a case, when- ' ever the steam jet is stopped, the condenser pres sure will prevail in the chamber that is being 45 per and lower edges of the screen or cover for cut out. This pressure will be higher than the vacuum in that chamber and it will force down the channel on its way to the opening ‘I. A baf ?e plate may be disposed beneath the outletv the level of the liquid in'the well I3 to a point shown at the right of Figure 2. By making the opening ‘I if desired. _ , Figure 2 shows the evaporator with a partition partition I2 high enough the level of the liquid 50 will then still be above the outlet 4 and enough I6 dividing it into two compartments which ap pear in end view in Figure 2. Each compartment liquid will be trapped in this well to seal it, will be provided with an inclined surface I I while the other chamber or chambers continue joined to a tranverse partition I2 at one end, the working. Hence no valves in the branches 22 be- ' surface and partition extending from one side tween the outlets 4 and the pump are required. 55 Each well thus constitutes a simple and effective to the other of each compartment. The admis sion or supply pipe 3 is provided with branches I‘! means to facilitate the delivery of the refrig erant from the evaporator and control the out one leading to each-compartment at the end re ?ow. But valves, of course, can be included if mote from the delivery well or reservoir I3 there preferred. When centrifugal evacuators are 60 in and each of these vbranches may carry a cas used, the water is likewise trapped in the well of : ing I8 containing a valve which can be manipu lated by an outside knob or head I9. Ea‘ch‘branjch an inactive chamber, but the level thereof may I'I leads to a length of piping 20 inside the com . not sink so much. Thus the invention is well adapted to diminish partment associated therewith and at the bot- tom of each piece of piping is a transverse header the over-all height of the evaporator I and its 65 2| carrying two or more nozzles I5 in line with auxiliary devices and of the evaporator itself so the channel between the surface I I and the screen as to facilitate the installation, of the system in I4. The outlet openings 4 of the chambers of places where only a restricted amount of .space this ‘evaporator are .coupled to branch conduits is available above the support 2. The pump is 22 connected to a short pipe 23 which leads to the far enough below the level of the refrigerantln inlet port of the pump 9. In Figure 2 the pump the well I3 to have all the static head it needs and yet it is no lower than the evaporator itself. 9 is indicated in broken lines to show its posi The ‘location of the nozzles I5 near the bottom tion, although it is in front of the'plane of sec tion for this ?gure, as indicated by the line 2-2 of the evaporator enables the depth of the evap- ,. in Figure 1. orator to be considerably diminished. Thus the?’ 3 2,110,689 entire height of evaporator, pump and evacuat evaporator below the. normal level of the re ing means (not shown) above the evacuator is irigerant contained therein, a guide conduit in actually less than the aggregate height of evap the evaporator for refrigerant projected by the orator and evacuat‘or means in systems‘compris nozzle and extending upwardly to a level higher than said normal level of ~refrigerant in the evaporator, and an outlet for the refrigerant at ing ordinary evaporators with the pump under same. This result is obtained chie?y by mount ing the nozzles I5 at the lower part of the evap orator, and causing the water to ascend the in such higher level, said nozzle being adapted to agitate the refrigerant in the evaporator to fa clined surface‘ H until it reaches the wells l3 ‘ cilitate vaporization thereof, said conduit being 10 which have the depth called for between their upper ends and the outlets 4. - I claim: 1. An evaporator having an outlet, an inlet nozzle to admit a liquid refrigerant to the evaporator, and ascending guiding means over which the liquid is impelled by the jet from said nozzle to a higher level before it arrives at the outlet, said means being in part open to the evaporator to permit vapor to pass'intotheevapo rator before and after the liquid has traversed said means. 2. A refrigerating system comprising an - evaporator, a spray nozzle disposed to discharge to the higher level. ' '7. In a refrigerating system, an evaporator for refrigerant having two or more chambers, each chamber having a refrigerant outlet, a nozzle in each chamber to inject refrigerant thereinto, vmeans within each chamber forming an upward ly inclined channel therein through which re 20 frigerant is’impelled by the energy of the dis charge of said nozzles to points above said out lets, each of said channels opening at each end a liquid refrigerant into the evaporator, means thereof into its chamber to enable vapor to es forming a delivery well to receive said refrigerant cape from the refrigerant before the liquid enters 25 and after the liquid leaves the channels, and means joining said outlets in parallel whereby at a point above said nozzle, means in the evapo rator forming an upwardly inclined bottom be tween the delivery well and the nozzle, and a member overlying said bottom forming there 30 with a channel through which the liquid re frigerant is forced by the jet from said nozzle to said well. 3. In a refrigerating system, an evaporator having a plurality of chambers, means for in 35 jecting a refrigerant into each of the chambers, the chambers each having an outlet, means form ing a delivery well within each chamber adjacent each outlet, the entrance of said wells being above said injection means, and means forming 40 an inclined channel within each chamber through which refrigerant from said injection means is impelled into said wells by the‘force of the in jected refrigerant, the ends of the channels com municating with the chambers to enable vapor 45 to pass from the liquid into the chambers be fore the liquid enters and after the liquid leaves the channels. , 4. In a refrigerating system, the combination when one of said chambers is inoperative the refrigerant in said joining means cooperates with the liquid at the outlet of said inoperative cham 30 ber to seal the latter from the operative cham bers. 8.. An evaporator tank having walls de?ning a chamber, means in the chamber cooperating with said walls to de?ne a recess inv one end of the 35 chamber and another recess in a horizontally distant end of the chamber, an inlet for liquid to the evaporator and delivering to the ?rst said recess, an outlet for liquid from the evaporator from the second said recess, said means includ 40 ing a surface extending from one recess to the other, and means to transfer liquid from the ?rst said recess over said surface to the second said recess. 9. An evaporator tank having walls de?ning‘ a chamber, means in the chamber cooperating with said walls .to de?ne a recess in one end of the chamber and another recess in a horizontally tom, a nozzle to inject a liquid‘ refrigerant into the evaporator, and means within the evaporator forming an upwardly inclined channel through distant end of the chamber, an inlet for liquid to the evaporator and delivering into the bottom of the ?rst said recess, an outlet for liquid for the evaporator from the bottom of the second which the said refrigerant is impelled by the said recess, said means including a surface ex energy of the discharge of said nozzle to a point above said outlet, each end of the channel open ing into the evaporator to enable vapor to escape top of the second recess, and means for injecting‘ . ‘ of an evaporator having an outlet above the bot to open in the evaporator adjacent the nozzle and 10 at said higher level for effecting vaporization of the refrigerant both at its entrance to the evaporator and after the refrigerant is raised from the liquid before the liquid enters and after the liquid leaves the channel. 5. An evaporator for cooling refrigerant by 60 partial vaporization, a refrigerant inlet and out let for the evaporator, refrigerant guide means open within the evaporator and interposed be tween said inlet and outlet to guide refrigerant, while it is being vaporized and cooled, from said 65 inlet to a'point above said outlet, said means providing space in, the evaporator for effective tending upwardly from the ?rst recess to the the liquid into the ?rst said recess below the normal level of the liquid therein to impart force to the liquid in the recess for impelling such liquid over said surface to the second said recess. 10. In a refrigerating system, an evaporator, means forming an inlet well in one end of the evaporator and an outlet well in the other end, said means including an inclined surface join ing said wells, a vapor outlet for said evaporator, a cover over said surface forming a. passageway therebetween and shielding said surface from said vapor outlet, and means for injecting re vaporization of the refrigerant, and means asso ciated with said inlet and said guide means to _ frigerant under pressure into said inlet well to impart kinetic energy to the entering refrigerant agitate the refrigerant therein to facilitate the 70 and impel the same over said guide means to vaporization of a part of said refrigerant and 70 said point above the outlet thereby to provide to impel the unvaporized refrigerant by the force static head on the outlet. 6. In a refrigerating system, an evaporator for cooling liquid refrigerant by partial vaporiza 75 tion, a nozzle injecting the refrigerant into the of the injected refrigerant through said passage way into said outlet well. GEURGE HI, Wt’iQDA-RD.