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Патент USA US2110706

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March 8, 1938.
2,110,706
E. E. HEWITT
BRAKE CONTROL FOR HIGH (SPEED TRAINS
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INVEN'IQR
ELLIS E.HEW|TT
BY
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ATTORNEY
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March 8, 1938.
2,110,706
E. E. HEWITT.
BRAKE CONTROL FOR HIGH SPEED TRAINS
Filed Nov. 5, 1936
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March 8, 1938.
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2,110,706
BRAKE CONTROL FOR HIGH SPEED TRAINS
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INVENTOR
ELLIS E-HEWITT
ATTORNEY
»
mars
Patented Mar. 8, 1938
UNl'i‘E
STARS PATENT
2,110,706
FFiQiEZ
.
BRAKE CONTROL FGR HIGH SPEED TRAINS
Ellis E. Hewitt, Edgewood, Pa, assignor to The
Westinghouse Air Brake Company, Wilmer
ding, Pa, a corporation of Pennsylvania
Application November 3, 1936, Serial No. 108,939
(Cl. 303—21)
This invention relates to brake control for high degree of application of the brakes in steps as
63 Claims.
speed trains, and more particularly to a method
of and apparatus for controlling the brakes on
high speed trains with respect to both speed and
5 the rate of retardation of the train.
A problem of the utmost importance in the
operation of the new light weight, high speed,
passenger trains is that of stopping the trains
from high speeds in extremely short distances.
10 Such trains travel in the neighborhood of one
the train speed diminishes, in a manner such
that the degree of application is at all times, for
given track conditions, below that which would
produce wheel sliding, but high enough to
promptly bring the train to a stop.
Obviously, both of these solutions possess ad
vantages peculiar and characteristic to each.
That is to say, the retardation controller device,
or “decelakron”, possesses operating character
hundred miles per hour, or more, and since at
istics peculiar only to it, while the speed con
one hundred miles per hour a train travels a
trolled device possesses advantages or character
istics peculiar only to it. To enumerate some of
distance of one hundred and forty-seven feet per
second, it will be appreciated that the brakes
15 must be applied with great rapidity and to a high
10
the principal advantages of each, the retardation
controller device permits the maximum degree of 15
application of the brakes for predetermined
known track conditions, regardless of the train
speed, and automatically corrects for variations
in load in thetrain between stops, that is, it per
degree if the stopping distance is to be short.
Now it is well known that in the type of brakes
now universally employed the coefficient of fric
tion between the brake shoes and the vehicle
mits an increased degree of braking for a heavily 20
20 wheels is relatively low at the high speeds and
loaded train, and correspondingly permits. only
relatively high at the low speeds, generally in
creasing gradually at ?rst as the train decreases a lower degree of braking for a lightly loaded
in speed, and then increasing rapidly beginning train. The speed controlled device operates to
at some low speed. If the brakes are applied ~modify or reduce the degree of braking before
to a maximum degree at a high speed, the degree excessive changes in the rate of retardation of
must be reduced as the speed of the train the train take place, and also functions to pro‘
diminishes or otherwise sliding of Wheels will re
sult. Wheel sliding is objectionable not only be
cause ?at spots are worn on the wheel treads,
so but also because the retarding effect of a sliding
wheel is less than that of a rolling wheel.
In order to stop- the train in a short distance
it is, of course, desirable that all wheels be kept
rolling and that the maximum braking effect
0: GI
permitted by the adhesion between the wheel and
the rail be produced on each wheel.
The degree
of braking must, therefore, be regulated, as the
train decreases in speed, with a view to obtaining
both the maximum rate of deceleration and a
40
minimum of wheel sliding.
In the high speed trains now in operation two
solutions have been offered to this problem. One
solution involves the employment of a device
which operates in response to changes in ‘the rate
of retardation of the train to so control the
degree of application of the brakes as to cause
the train to be decelerated at a substantially
constant rate of retardation (within tolerable
limits), this rate being determined as that safely
permissible under predetermined track conditions.
This device is commonly known as a retardation
controller device, or “decelakron”.
The other solution to the problem involves the
employment of a device which operates in re
55 sponse to the speed of the train to reduce the
duce a. smooth stop even in trains having con
siderable slack. That is to say, whereas the re
tardation controller device does not operate until
a de?nite change in the rate of retardation has
taken place, the speed controlled device functions.
before the increased retardation occurs, and is, 1
therefore, very effective in preventing excessive
slack action in trains employing standard type
couplers between cars.
35
In order to secure the shortest possible stopping
distances for high speed trains, it is desirable that
the advantages of both the retardation controller
device and the speed controlled device he in
corporated in a brake equipment for such trains. 40
Accordingly, therefore, it is a principal object of
the present invention to provide a brake equip
ment employing both a retardation controller
device and a speed controlled device, in an ar
rangement such that the advantages of each are 4.5
fully realized without a sacri?ce of other desir
able operating features.
When in a ?uid pressure brake system an ap
plication of the brakes is eilected to a maximum
degree, it will be obvious that the danger of wheel 50
sliding increases as the brake cylinder pressure
approaches a value which produces a degree of
braking in excess of that safely permissible by
There
is then, for a given train speed, a brake cylinder 55
the adhesion between wheels and rails.
2
2,110,706
pressure below which there is little or no danger '
Figs. 1--A and 1—B, when taken together and
of Wheel sliding or of excessive rates of retarda
tion. The need for automatic regulation of
placed end-to-end, illustrate an embodiment of
the invention adapted for the head end or control
brake cylinder pressure, therefore, is primarily
car of a, train.
Fig. 2 is a fragmentary view taken along the
in the upper range of brake cylinder pressures.
In order to utilize to the fullest advantage the ’ line 2—2 of Fig. l-—B, illustrating a portion of
combination or" the retardation controller device the speed controlled device shown in that figure.
Fig. 3 illustrates a modi?cation which may be
and the speed controlled device, it is a further
made to the equipment shown in Figs. 1—A and
object of the present invention to provide a ?uid
1—B.
10 pressure brake system in which the speed con
trolled device has control of brake cylinder pres
Description 0 j embodiment of Figs. 1—A and,‘ 1—B
sures over a range up to what is considered to be
a moderately high value for the then existing
train speed, and in which the retardation con
troller device has control of brake cylinder pres
sures over a range between this moderate value
and the maximum value, for the then existing
train speed.
If the train is provided with ordinary couplers
20 between the cars, it is likely that considerable
slack must be run in when an application of the
brakes is initiated. Whether or not the slack is
large or small, it is desirable that the train slack
be closed up gradually so as to minimize the dan
25 ger of damaging shocks.
To accomplish this, the
brakes should be ?rst applied to a moderately
high value and then more gradually increased to
the maximum value. It is a further object of
this invention to .provide a brake equipment in
30 which the brakes are ?rst applied rapidly up to
a predetermined degree, and then the degree in
creased slowly up to a maximum degree, the ?rst
or rapid portion of the application being prin
cipally under the control of the speed controlled
35 device and the second or slow portion of the ap
plication being principally under the control of
the retardation controller device.
From the standpoint of safety, brake equip
ments for high speed trains should provide for
effecting applications by more than one mode of
operation, as, for example, by straight air oper
ation or by automatic operation. Moreover,
provision should be made for operating the
brakes from a. towing vehicle in the event that
the train has to be towed in; or in the event that
an ordinary type of locomotive has to be substi
tuted for the special type usually employed in
connection with high speed trains, then from it
by operation of the usual brake valve. Accord
ingly, therefore, it is a yet further object of the
invention to provide a brake equipment embody
* ing the features heretofore referred to, in which
service applications of the brakes are normally
effected by straight air operation and emergency
U! til
applications by automatic operation, with provi
sion for effecting service applications also by
automatic operation, either from the special high
speed locomotive provided, or from a standard
steam locomotive substituted for the high speed
(30
locomotive.
_
In connection with the preceding object, it is a
yet further object to subject both straight air
applications and automatic emergency applica
tions of the brakes to the joint control of the
retardation controller device and the speed con
trolled device, and to subject automatic service
applications to the control of the speed controlled
device only.
Yet further and more speci?c objects of the
invention, dealing with the provision of specially
developed mechanisms, and particular arrange
ments of these and other mechanisms, will be
more apparent from the following description,
which is taken in connection with the attached
drawings, wherein,
Considering brie?y at ?rst the embodiment
shown in these two ?gures, I have indicated a
brake cylinder at H], which is to be understood as 15
the usual type brake cylinder for operating a con
ventional type of friction brake (not shown), and
While only one brake cylinder has been shown it
is contemplated that in practice as many will be
employed as is found desirable. A relay valve is 20
indicated at l l for controlling the supply of ?uid
under pressure to and its release from the brake
cylinder ill. A speed controlled‘ device 42 controls
the supply of ?uid under pressure to and its re
lease from the relay valve H. The speed con
trolled device i 2 is in turn in part controlled by a
speed controlled switch it, which controls a plu
rality of circuits closable only when a pneumatic
switch device 54 operates.
_
The brake equipment also includes an applica 30
tion and release magnet valve device l5, a master
switch device It, a retardation controller device,
or “decelakron”, ii, an automatic valve device
l8, and a brake valve device 19. A source of
?uid under pressure is represented by a main '
reservoir 2i), which is intended to be maintained
charged from the usual compressor (not shown).
The various control pipes include a straight air
pipe 22 and a brake pipe 2%. A. main reservoir
pipe is indicated at 25 while a so~called feed 40
valve pipe is indicated at 2%, this latter pipe being
connected to the main reservoir 26 by way of a
feed valve device 2'5 of conventional design and
provided for the usual purpose of such a valve
device.
While the equipment illustrated is intended
primarily for the head end or control car of the
train, it will be hereinafter pointed out the man
her in which duplicates of some of the devices
and parts illustrated may be distributed through 50
out a train, so as to provide a complete train
brake equipment.
Considering now more in detail the devices
above referred to, it will be noted that a number
of these have been illustrated in outline form r
only. In such instances the devices are to be con
sidered as being of conventional design, or of a
particular design described and claimed in pend
ing applications, as Will be hereinafter referred
to.
The more important devices shown in outline
form only will be considered ?rst. The relay
valve device I l is preferably of the type described
and claimed in my pending application Serial No.
‘740,202, ?led August 17, 1934. The relay valve a: Cu
device ii operates upon supply of ?uid under
pressure to pipe 38 to e?ect a supply of fluid under
pressure from the main reservoir pipe 25 to the
brake cylinder ill, to a degree dependent upon
the degree of pressure in the pipe 36. Upon a 70
reduction of the pressure in the pipe 36, the
relay valve device ii correspondingly reduces
the pressure in the brake cylinder Ill.
The automatic valve device it? is preferably of
the familiar type having a service valve portion 75
2,110,706
3| and an emergency valve portion 32. As is
illustrated, the automatic valve device is con
nected to the brake pipe 24. Upon a reduction of
pressure in the brake pipe 2% at a service rate the
service valve portion 35 only responds to supply
?uid. under pressure from an auxiliary reservoir 33
to a pipe til, to a degree dependent upon the de
gree of brake pipe reduction. During a service
reduction in brake pipe pressure, the emergency
valve portion 32 does not respond.
However, upon an emergency rate of reduction
in brake pipe pressure not only does the service
valve portion 3|! respond to supply ?uid. under
pressure from the auxiliary reservoir 33 to the
15 pipe Bil, but the emergency valve portion 32 also
responds to supply ?uid under pressure from an
emergency reservoir 23 to a pipe 35, the supply
in each instance continuing until equalization
takes place between each reservoir and the pipe
20 supplied therefrom.
When the brake pipe 2t is recharged following
a service application of the brakes, the service
valve portion 3i operates to release ?uid under
pressure from the pipe 3-4, and to recharge the
25 auxiliary reservoir 33, in the manner well known
to those skilled in the art. Upon a restoration
of brake pipe pressure following an emergency
reduction therein, both the service valve portion
3i and the emergency valve portion 32 move to
release position, to release ?uid under pressure
from the pipes ill; and s5, respectively, and to
respectively recharge the reservoirs 33 and 28.
In practice, I prefer to make the auxiliary res
ervoir 33 considerably smaller than the emer
35 gency reservoir 28, so that, upon an emergency
rate of reduction in- brake pipe pressure, the
service valve portion 55! can produce a moder
ately high pressure only in the pipe 34, whereas
the emergency valve portion 32 may produce a
40 much higher pressure in the pipe 35. The pur
pose of this will be more apparent later.
The brake valve device is is preferably of the
general type described and claimed in my pend
ing application, Serial No. 105,659, ?led October
45 15, 1936. In adapting this type of brake valve
50
55
60
65
device to the brake system disclosed in the pres
ent application, I have intentionally omitted some
of the pipe connections to the brake valve device.
The feature of the brake valve device of impor
tance insofar as the present brake system is
concerned, is that both straight air and auto
matic applications of the brakes may be con
trolled by movement of a handle ill in a single
service application zone. This is made possible
by providing a selector mechanism operable by
a selector lever 33. When the selector lever 38
is in a straight air position, the brake valve is
conditioned to supply fluid under pressure from
the feed valve pipe 25 to a control pipe 40, to a
degree dependent upon the degree or extent of
movement of the handle 37 from its release posi
tion into the service application zone. Fluid
under pressure may, therefore, be supplied to the
control pipe {iii to any desired degree and may
be released therefrom by moving the handle 31
back to the release position. During this opera
tion of the handle, with the selector lever 38 in
the straight air position, the brake pipe 24 is
maintained charged.
When the selector lever 38 is turned to the
automatic position, the handle 37 may then be
moved to a service position in the same appli
cation. zone as before to reduce brake pipe pres
sure at a service rate, in the manner character
75 istic of the usual type brake valve. During this
3
manipulation of the handle, ?uid under pressure .
is not supplied to the control pipe All, and it
remains connected to the atmosphere.
Regardless of whether the selector 38 is in the
straight air or the automatic position, when the
handle 3'! is turned to an emergency position,
beyond the aforesaid service application zone, the
pressure in the brake pipe is reduced at an
emergency rate.
Considering now the speed controlled device 10
I 2, this device is essentially the same as that
described and claimed in my pending applica
tion, Serial No. 88,098, ?led June 30, 1986, and
comprises a valve section er, a diaphragm sec
tion it, a magnet valve section 5A, and a com
pensating section. it.
Considering ?rst the valve section 132, this sec
tion comprises a supply valve 46, a release valve
Al and a mechanism for operating the two valves.
The supply valve fit is urged toward seated posi
tion by a spring as and is adapted to be unseated
by movement of a lever A9 pivotally carried on
a pin 58 supported in a sliding member 5|. The
sliding member Si is urged to the right by a
spring 52, and slides in a bore 53 in the casing.
The lower end of the lever t9 engages a slide
or plunger 51%, which in turn engages a ?uted
stem 55 associated with the supply valve 456. The
upper end of the lever s9 is bifurcated to receive
a reduced portion 56 of a stem 5'! associated with
the release valve Ill. The stem 5'? is moved back
ward and forward by movement of the upper end
of the lever llil.
When the sliding member Si is moved to the
left, and carries with it the pin lit, the lever 49
will first fulcrum about its lower end to actuate
the released valve 4? to seated position, to close
communication between chamber 5&3 and an ex
haust port 59, and when the release valve has
been thus seated, the lever éld will fulcrum about
its upper end and shift the slide or plunger 54
to the left to unseat the supply valve 1&6 against
the bias of its spring till. Unseating of the sup
ply valve Mi opens communication between the
main reservoir pipe 25 and the chamber 58. The
chamber 58 is in open. communication with the
relay valve H by way of the aforementioned pipe
30, so that ?uid under pressure supplied to the
chamber 53 ?ows to the relay valve to effect
the operation thereof.
50
When the sliding member iii is actuated to
the right following the aforedescribed operation,
it will ?rst move to a point where spring 43 seats
the supply valve 6-15. If no further movement
takes place, the supply of fluid under pressure
to the chamber 58 will be lapped. However, if
the sliding member 5i continues to move to the
right, the upper end of the lever 59 will draw
the stem 5?, and consequently the release valve
4'7, to the right, and thereby release fluid. under 60
pressure from the chamber 58 to the atmosphere,
by way of the exhaust port 59.
The diaphragm section 125,; is provided to effect
movement of the sliding member 55 to the left.
The diaphragm section comprises a series of dia
phragms S59, 65, 62 and
spaced apart and dis
posed in axial relation, the eliective pressure
areas of the diaphragms decreasing in the order
named. The diaphragms form with the casing
of the mechanism a chamber 66 between the two
diaphragms 68 and
a chamber 85 between
the diaphragms til
t2, and a chamber 66
between the diaphragms £32 and
The diaphragm 68 is provided with follower
plates disposed on either side thereof and indi 75
2,110,706
cated at 6?. The diaphragm 6| is provided with
a single follower plate 68, to which the dia
phragm is secured, the follower plate having an
ponderance of fluid pressure acting on the valve
within the seated area.
,
Suitably secured in the casing enclosing the
compensating section 45 is a diaphragm iilil, sub
annular ?ange 69 and a spacing lug ‘III centrally
thereof. The diaphragms 62 and 53 are provided
with similar follower plates indicated at ‘H and
It will be noted that the follower plates
ject on its left’ hand side to the pressure of fluid
in the chamber 98 and on its right hand side to
atmospheric pressure in a chamber IIii, which
maintain the diaphragms in spaced relation, and
that the diaphragms are not connected one to
mosphere by Way of port I82.
10 the other.
The diaphragm 63 is provided with
a second follower plate 14, which is provided with
a recess ‘I5 for a purpose which will be set forth
later.
The magnet valve section M comprises three
15 electromagnets ‘I6, '57 and ‘i8, designated respec
latter chamber is at all times open to the at
The diaphragm
itiii is provided with follower plates I53 and IM 10
on either side thereof, the former follower plate
H33 being provided with a stud portion projecting
through the diaphragm and the other follower
plate H34 and having disposed on the threaded
end thereof a securing nut I05.
tively as high speed magnet valve, intermediate
speed magnet valve, and low speed magnet valve.
Projecting to the left of the follower plate I03
are two sets of lugs I06. Each set of lugs has
The high speed electromagnet ‘I6 controls the
secured thereto, as by a pin I81, an end of one
of two levers I68. ‘Each of the levers I08 is piv
otally mounted intermediate its ends on a sec
ond pin I?Q supported by one of two sets of lugs
operation of a double beat valve ‘III. The double
20 beat valve It is urged toward an upper seated
position by a spring 8i), and to a lower seated po
sition upon energization of the electromagnet ‘I6.
In its upper seated position the double beat valve
'59 opens communication between a passage 8|,
25 leading to the chamber 64 between the dia
phragms ‘Bill and GI, and the atmosphere by way
of a passage containing a restriction or, choke 82.
In its lower seated position, the double beat valve
'59 closes off this communication to the atmos
30 phere, and opens communication between a pipe
and passage 83 and the aforementioned passage
8I leading to the chamber 64.
The intermediate speed electromagnet TE con
trols a similar double beat valve 85. This double
35 beat valve is urged toward upper seated position
also by a spring 86, and to lower seated position
by the eiectromagnet ‘I? when energized. In its
upper seated position the double beat valve§85
opens communication between a passage 8?, lead
40 ing to the diaphragm chamber 65, and the at
mosphere by way of a passage containing a re
striction or choke 88, and a port 89. In its lower
seated position, the double beat valve 85 closes
this communication to the atmosphere and opens
communication between the aforementioned pipe
and passage 83 and the passage 81 leading to the
chamber 65.
The low speed electromagnet ‘I8 controls the
operation of a double beat valve 99 of slightly dif
ferent construction from the two formerly de
scribed double beat valves. This double beat
valve is urged toward upper seated position by a
spring 96 and to lower seated position by the
electromagnet it when energized. In its lower
seated position, the double beat valve 95 opens
communication between a passage 92, leading to
the diaphragm chamber 66, and the atmosphere
by way of a passage containing a restriction or
choke 93. In its upper seated position, the dou
60 Tole beat valve closes off this communication to
the atmosphere and opens communication be
tween the aforementioned passage 83 and the
passage
leading to the chamber 66.
It will be thus observed that the three elec
65 tromagnets it, ‘I? and ‘I8 control, respectively, the
supply of fluid under pressure to and its release
from the three diaphragm chambers 64, 65
and 95.
It will also be observed that three spring load-4
70 ed check valves 95, 96 and 9? provide, respec
tively, a one-way communication between each
of the passages BI, 8'! and 92 and each of the
chambers 6Q, 65 and 66, respectively. Each of
the check valves is biased to a seated position by
75 a light spring 99, and is unseated upon a pre
15
Iii} projecting from a rigid portion of the casing.
The extreme lower end of each of the levers I08
is connected by a common pin H3 to the lower
end of an arm III. The arm III is provided in
termediate its ends with a pin I I2 which is adapt
eo to ?t inth the recess 15 of the follower plate ‘I4
attached to the scall diaphragm 63.
The upper end of the arm III is cup shaped,
as indicated at I“, so as to receive the end of a 30.
stem H5. The stem I I5 is provided with an en
larged portion, as illustrated, which engages a
spring washer H6 bearing upon a spring II'I
suitably disposed in a spring housing H8. It
will thus be apparent that, as the stem H5 is ac 35
tuated to the right, the spring II‘! will be com
pressed, movement of the stem being guided by
the sliding of a rounded end portion N9 of the
stem in a bore I20 in the casing. The cupped
end I Id of the arm III is maintained in align 4.0
ment with the pin H5 by lugs I22 on either side
of the arm.
Considering now the speed controlled switch
device I3, this device comprises essentially three
sets of stationary contacts I25, I26 and I21, which 45
are adapted to be engaged, respectively, by mov
able bridging contacts I 28, I29 and I30, the
three bridging contacts being disposed on a com
mon supporting stem I3I, preferably formed of
insulating material as indicated.
The movable contact I28 is rigidly secured to
the stem n31, while the two movable contacts I29
and I38 are loosely disposed on the stem and
are movable between pairs of shoulders I32 on
the stem against the bias respectively of springs 55
I33 and I34, in a manner to be more fully de
scribed presently.
The stem I3! has secured thereto a disc I35
and between this disc and a portion I36 of a hous
ing enclosing the speed controlled switch device 60
is a spring I31, which reacts against the disc I35
to urge the stem I 3! downwardly. Upward move
ment of the stem is caused by the outward move
ment of fly ball weights I38 due to centrifugal
65
force. The ?y ball weights I38 are pivotally
mounted to a rotatable member £453 on pins I 4!.
The rotatable member I 48 is driven according to
the speed of the vehicle or train by an attached
shaft I42, which rotates in a stationary portion 70
Hi3. It is to be understood that the speed con
trolled switch device has been shown in diagram—
matic form only, for the purpose of simpli?ca
tion, and that, when employed in practice, a de
vice having the usual construction characteristic 75
5
2,110,706
of centrifuge devices of this type will be em
ployed.
‘
Considering now the pneumatic switch device
Ill, this device is embodied in a casing containing
therein a piston I55, subject on its lowermost side
to the pressure of ?uid in a chamber I46 and
subject on its uppermost side to pressure of a
spring M1. ri‘he piston M5 is provided with a
stem I88 having secured thereto and insulated
10 therefrom a contact M9, adapted to bridge and
engage two stationary contacts I58. Upon supply
of ?uid at a low pressure to the chamber I48, the
piston 56.15 moves upwardly to cause contact M9
to bridge the contacts I5Il, and upon release of
15 ?uid below this low pressure from the chamber
I86 the spring I41 actuatesthe piston I45 down
wardly to disengage contact I 49 from the con
tacts I5Ei. As is illustrated, the chamber I48 is
connected to the straight air pipe 22, and opera
20 tion of the switch device is, therefore, controlled
by straight air pipe pressure.
Considering now the application and release
magnet valve device I5, this valve device is em
bodied in a casing having a supply valve I5I and
25 a release valve I52. The supply valve I5I is
urged toward seated position by a spring I53, and
toward unseated position by an application elec
tromagnet I54!» when energized. The release
valve I52 is urged toward unseated position by a
30 spring E55 and toward seated position by a re
lease electromagnet I58 when energized.
When the supply valve I5I is seated and the
release valve I52 is unseated, the straight air
pipe 22 is in communication with the atmosphere
35 by way of an exhaust port I51.
When the re
lease valve i52 is seated and the supply valve I5!
is unseated, the communication between the
straight air pipe and the atmosphere is closed and
the straight air pipe is placed in communication
40 with the feed valve pipe 28.
The master switch device I8 is embodied in
‘a casing having suitably arranged therein in
spaced relation three diaphragms indicated at
tionary contact I68. The stem will then have to
compress the spring I14 to effect engagement of
contact I84 with the contact I 68. The purpose
of this arrangement will appear more clearly
later.
The retardation controller device, or decela
kron, shown at I1 is embodied in a casing con
taining a slidable weight or body I18 movable
back and forth in a right line in the direction of
travel of the vehicle or train. At one end of the 10
bodyis positioned a lever I19, pivotally mounted
to the casing intermediate its ends at I8, and
carrying at one end a roller I8! and at the other
end a roller I812. The roller I8I bears against
the body I18, While the roller I82 bears against 15
the end of a slide valve I83, this slide valve con
trolling communication between the aforemen
tioned pipe I89 and another pipe I813, as well
as between the pipe I69 and an exhaust port I85.
A spring I85 acts upon the opposite end of the 20
slide valve I83, and, therefore, urges the slide
valve toward the left. While it has not been so
illustrated, the tension on the spring I88 may
be varied to suit the occasion.
The retardation controller device is disposed on 25
the head end car in a train in a manner such
that, when the train is decelerating, the result
ing force of inertia acts to shift the body I18 to
the left, this movement of the body being opposed
by the spring I86. The spring I88 is a calibrated 30
spring so that the degree of movement of the body
I18 is proportional to the rate of deceleration of
the train. At a particular rate of deceleration,
the slide valve I83 will be shifted to a position
where it blanks communication between pipes
I69 and I84, and at a particular higher rate of _ ~
deceleration to the position where the pipe I88
is connected to the exhaust port I85.
The operation of this embodiment of my inven
tion will now be described.
4-0
Running condition
When the vehicle is running under power, or is
The diaphragms I85 and I55 are of equivalent
effective pressure areas, while the diaphragm I82
coasting, the brake valve handle 31 is maintained
in the release position. With the main reservoir
20 fully charged, fluid under pressure will be
delivered at feed valve pressure to the feed valve
pipe 28, from whence it will flow to the brake
valve device I9, and to the chamber below the
supply valve IBI in the application and release 50
valve device I5. Fluid at main reservoir pressure
will be delivered to the main reservoir pipe 25,
from whence it will ?ow to the relay valve de
vice II, and to the chamber to the left of the
supply valve 46 in the speed controlled device I2.
Within the brake valve device III, a communi
cation is established, in the release position of the
handle 31, between the feed valve pipe 28 and the
brake pipe 24, and the brake pipe will be thus
charged to feed valve pressure. From the brake 60
pipe 24, ?uid under pressure will flow to the
automatic valve device I8, and therein to the
service and emergency valve portions, and from
these two valve portions, respectively, to the
65 has a smaller effective pressure area than either
of the other two diaphragms.
-
auxiliary reservoir 33 and the emergency reser 65
voir 28. The entire brake system will thus be
I68, I5I and I82. ‘These three diaphragms are
all secured together by means of a stem I83. The
45
stem I83 carries an electric contact I64 insulated
therefrom, which is adapted to engage, upon
movement of the stem I83 to the left, ?rst a re
silient stationary contact I65, and then a sim
contact 88.
50 ilar
The diaphragm I80 has, at one side thereof, a
chamber I81, which is in open communication
with the straight air pipe 22. The diaphragms
IBI and I82 have therebetween a chamber I68,
which is in open communication with a pipe I89
.55 leading to the retardation controller device I1.
The diaphragm I52 has a chamber I18 to the
other side thereof which is in open communica
tion with a pipe I1 I. The chamber between the
two diaphragms Itiil and I8 is, at all times, open
to the atmosphere, and is, therefore, at atmos
pheric pressure.
Disposed in the left end of the switch device
casing is a small plunger I13 urged to the right
by a spring I14. When the stem I55 moves to
the left, the end I15 will engage the plunger I13,
whereupon the spring I14 will tend to arrest fur
ther movement of the stem to the left. At the
time the stem engages the plunger, the movable
contact I84 will have engaged the stationary con—
tact I85 but will not have yet engaged the sta
charged and become ready for operation.
As has been previously indicated, applications
of the brakes may be effected by either straight
air operation, or by automatic operation. In
addition, the maximum degree to which the
brakes may be initially applied at any given time
depends upon the speed of the‘vehicle at that
time, so that, in describing the operation of the
brake system illustrated, it is necessary to take
6
2,110,706
into account the speed of the vehicle. ‘For the
purpose of illustration, it will be assumed that the
which includes the contacts I49 and I 53, con
ductor I95, contacts 525 and I28, and conductor
vehicle has a maximum speed of one hundred
I86 leading to the high speed electromagnet "I6,
miles per hour, and in describing the operation
of the brake system illustrated other speed values
will be assumed to facilitate the understanding
of the operation of certain of the apparatus
and the other of which includes contacts I26 and
I29, and conductor I 9? leading to the inter
mediate speed electromagnet ll. The electro
magnet ‘Iii actuates the double beat valve ‘I9 to
lower seated position, and the intermediate speed
electromagnet ll actuates its double beat valve
85 also to lower seated position.
Fluid under pressure in the straight air pipe
22 may then ?ow through a branch pipe W3 to
a conventional type double check valve device I99,
where it shifts the valve therein to upper posi
tion, and ?ows to the aforementioned pipe 83.
From the pipe 33 ?ow continues through the
passage 33 in the speed controlled device I2, and
from thence past the now opened lower seat of
the double beat valve ‘It to the passage 8| and
diaphragm chamber 64. Fluid under pressure
also flows past the open lower seat of the double
beat valve 85 to the passage 8? and the diaphragm
chamber 65. Similarly, fluid under pressure also
flows from the passage 83 past the open lower
seat of the double beat valve 9i! (‘although the
low speed electromagnet ‘I8 is deenergized at
this time) to the passage 92 and the diaphragm
chamber 56. It will be observed that the pas
sage 83 extends into the chamber 98, so that
fluid under pressure is also supplied to this cham
ber to the right of the small diaphragm 63.
Thus upon initiating an application of the
brakes when the Vehicle is traveling at a speed
in excess of sixty miles per hour, ?uid under
pressure is supplied to all of the diphragm cham
bers as well as to the chamber 98 to the right
of the small diaphragm $53. It has been assumed
that ?uid under pressure is supplied to the
straight air pipe to a high degree, so that it is
not necessary to consider at this time the func
employed.
'
'
Further, it will be assumed that the main res
ervoir 25 is maintained charged to a pressure
value in excess of one hundred pounds (per square
inch), as, for example, one hundred and twenty
or one hundred and twenty-?ve pounds; and
that the feed valve device '21, which is to be un
15 derstood as being of conventional design, will
deliver ?uid to the feed valve pipe 26 at a pressure
of one hundred and ten pounds.
Straight air service applications above sixty miles
per hour
When the vehicle is traveling at a speed in
excess of some chosen high speed, as, for exam
ple, sixty miles per hour, the parts of the speed
controlled switch device I3 will be in the posi
That is to say,
25 tions illustrated in Fig. l—B.
the ?y-ball weights l38'will have been moved
outwardly far enough, for any speed between sixty
and one hundred miles per hour, to have caused
the contact I28 to engage and bridge the two
contacts I25, and the contact I29 to similarly
bridge and engage the contacts I26. It will be
noted that contact I35 is out of engagement with
the contacts I21.
7
Now if it is desired to eiiect a straight air
35 service application of the brakes, the operator
?rst makes certain that the selector lever 38 is
in the straight air position, and then moves the
brake valve handle 3i’ into the service applica
tion zone to a degree according to the desired
40 degree of application of the brakes. It will be
assumed that the handle 31 is moved to the
extreme end of the service application Zone, cor
responding to a full service application, in which
event ?uid under pressure will be supplied to the
45 control pipe 46 until the pressure in this pipe
attains the maximum value of say one hundred
pounds.
Fluid under pressure in the control pipe MI ?ows
to one side of a conventional type double check
50 valve device I98, where the valve therein is shifted
to lower position, and fluid under pressure then
flows to the pipe I‘II. From the pipe I'iI, ?uid
?ows directly to the chamber I10 in the master
switch device it. This ?ow takes place at a rapid
55 rate so that the small diaphragm I62 responds
immediately and moves the stem I63 to the left,
far enough to compress the stop spring I'M. The
contact I54 then engages both of the stationary
contacts I55 and ‘I65. This connects a battery
60 IQI to each of two'train wires I92 and I83, ener
gizing both the release electromagnet I56 and
the application electromagnet I54. The release
valve I52 is thus seated and the supply valve
I5! is unseated. Fluid under pressure then ?ows
65 from the feed valve pipe 25 to the straight air
pipe 22. From the straight air pipe 22, ?uid un
der pressure ?ows to the chamber I46 in the
pneumatic switch device I4.
In the switch device I4, the piston I45 is im
mediately actuatedrupwardly at a low pressure
to cause contact M8 to bridge the contacts I50.
The closing of these contacts immediately ener
gizes both the high speed electromagnet ‘I6 and
the intermediate speed electromagnet "IT, by com-,
75 pletion of two circuits from a battery I94, one of
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
tioning of the compensating section 45 of the
speed controlled device, as this portion of the
device is useful primarily in connection with low
straight air pipe pressures.
Fluid pressure acting to the right and also to 45
the left of each of diaphragms El, 62 and 63 will
render these three diaphragms ineifective, but
?uid pressure acting to the right of the dia
phragm B8 ?exes this diaphragm to the left, and
thereby shifts the sliding member 5i so as to
50
?rst seat the release valve 4'! and to then unseat
the supply valve iii. Fluid under pressure will
then ?ow from the main reservoir pipe 25 to the
chamber 58, from whence it will ?ow through
pipe 30 to the relay valve device II. The relay 55
valve device will respond to the pressure of this
fluid to produce a corresponding pressure in the
brake cylinder I?.
Fluid under pressure in the straight air pipe
22 also flows to the chamber it? of the master 60
switch I6, and acts upon the diaphragm I60 in
opposition to the fluid pressure acting on the
small diaphragm I52, and when the degree of
pressure in the chamber I81 reaches a value
which is in the same relation to the pressure in 65
the chamber Eli? as the area of the small dia
phragm E62 is to the area of the diaphragm I68,
the spring PM will shift the stem I63 to the right
so that contact IEi?l disengages from the contact
I66, but holds engagement with the contact I65. 70
The application electromagnet I54 will then be
deenergized, so that the supply of ?uid under
pressure to the straight air pipe will be lapped.
As the pressure in chamber 58 of the speed con
trolled device IZ attains a value equal to that 75
7
2,110,706
in the straight air pipe 22 and in chamber 64,
diaphragm 60 will be ?exed to the right far
enough for supply valve 46 to be seated. The
relay valve l i will then lap brake cylinder pres
sure at a corresponding value.
There will thus be quickly established a mod
gree of application of the brakes only over a
limited range of brake cylinder pressures.
When the rate of retardation has decreased
su?iciently, the slide valve l83 may open com-1
munication between pipes I69 and lull, so that
the pressure in chamber lSB will increase, but
erately high degree of application of the brakes,
the choke 2M and timing reservoir 2st permit
which is not equivalent to the degree of pres
sure supplied to the control pipe All, but which
only a slow increase in pressure in this chamber,
10 is proportional thereto.
Fluid under pressure supplied to the pipe l‘ll
?ows also to the pipe Hill, and through the re
tardation controller device W to the pipe I69
and the chamber I58 between the diaphragms
It! and E52. But the pipe I813 contains a re
striction or choke 2% which greatly retards this
?ow, and in addition, the pipe “59 has connected
thereto a timing reservoir 2M, of su?icient vol
‘ ume to very appreciably delay the build up of
20 pressure in the chamber I63. Eventually and
after a predetermined interval of time the pres
sure in the chamber I68 will attain a value equal
to that in the chamber I'll).
, As the pressure in the chamber the acts upon
25 the larger diaphragm l?l, it will, at some par
ticular value, again shift the stem H63 to the
left, compressing the spring Ht, to again ener
gize the application electromagnet I55. This
will result in increasing straight air pipe, pres
30 sure, and correspondingly increasing brake cyl
inder pressure to a value which is substantially
equivalent to that in the control pipe M], since
the two switch diaphragms let and it! are of
equal areas. It will be apparent, of course, that
35 this increase in straight air pipe pressure will
take place slowly because the pressure in cham
ber I68 increases slowly.
so that brake cylinder pressure is increased very
slowly and the liability of producing an exces 10
sive and undesirable rate of retardation is min
imized.
Now as the speed of the vehicle diminishes,
the speed controlled switch device it will act at
substantially sixty miles per hour to cause the
contact lit to disengage from the contacts 52‘",
while holding the contacts M9 in engagement
with the contacts I25. The high speed electro~
magnet ‘it will be then deenergized, and double
beat valve ‘i9 will move to its upper seated. posi 20
tion, where it will connect the diaphragm cham
ber (ill to the atmosphere by way of the restric
tion or choke 82. Fluid under pressure will then
be very slowly released from the chamber bit to
the atmosphere.
This Will result in the pressure in the chamber
58 overbalancing that in the chamber 6%, Where
upon the release valve ll'i will unseat just enough
to gradually release fluid under pressure from the
chamber 58 to the atmosphere until such time
as the pressure remaining in the chamber 58 is
balanced by the steady pressure in the chamber
65 acting on diaphragm El, which occurs when
the pressure in chamber 663 has been ?nally ex~
hausted. That is to say, when the chamber M
has been exhausted the pressure in chamber 58
Will have been reduced to a value which bears to
One of the reasons for quickly effecting an
the original value the same relation as the area
application of the brakes to a moderately high
of the diaphragm Bl bears to the area of the
40 degree is to permit a more gradual run-in oi
any slack which may exist in a train to which
the system has been adapted. Another reason,
having to do with the functioning of the retar
dation controller device, will be more clear later.
It will, however, ‘be-apparent at this point that
45
by the arrangement provided a moderately high
degree of application of the brakes is quickly
effected, followed immediately by a slow increase
in the degree of application to a value substan
50 tially equivalent to the pressure established in
the control pipe it.
Now as the brakes are app-lied to the maximum
degree possible for a service application, the
vehicle will begin to decelerate at an increasing
rate of retardation. The resulting force of in
ertia acts upon the retardation controller body
H8 and urges it to the, left. If, before the speed
of the vehicle has diminished to sixty miles per
hour, the rate of retardation should increase to
60 a value such that slide valve I83 is shifted to
the position where the pipe E69 is connected to
the atmospheric or exhaust port 555 (which is
a relatively large port), fluid under pressure will
be released rapidly to the atmosphere from the
65 chamber H58.
This will, of course, result in a
reduction in brake cylinder pressure, tending to
arrest the increase in rate of retardation, and
to possibly also diminish it. It should be noted,
diaphragm 6d, assuming, of course, that there
has not, in the meanwhile, occurred any change
in straight air pipe pressure.
The relay valve ll responds to the reduction of
pressure in the chamber 58 to correspondingly
reduce brake cylinder pressure. Due to the ac
tion of the choke or restriction 82 in permitting
the pressure in chamber EM to reduce at a sloW
rate only, the change in brake cylinder pressure
occurs slowly so that there is no great change
in the rate of retardation of the vehicle due to 50
this change in pressure. Where the brake sys
tem is adapted to a train, this gradual change
or" pressure may be made to take place in close
approximation to the tendency of the rate of
retardation to increase due to the increasing
coe?icient of friction between the brake shoes
and the wheels, although this may not be prac
ticable in all instances. At any rate, the change
in pressure can be readily made slow enough to
60
keep the cars in the train bunched.
When the speed of the vehicle has diminished
to a chosen intermediate speed, as, for example,
thirty-?ve miles per hour, the speed controlled
switch device it will operate to cause contacts
529 to disengage from the contacts 9%, while 65
holding contacts let and 121 disengaged, and this
158, it cannot reduce the degree of application
will deenergize the intermediate speed electro
magnet “all. The double beat valve 85 will then
move to upper seated position, to release fluid
under pressure from the diaphragm chamber 65
to the atmosphere by way of the choke or restric
of the brakes below the value corresponding to
tion 88.
that produced by supply of ?uid under pressure
to the chamber Ht only. That is to say, the
before, the pressure in the chamber 65 will be
however, that even should the retardation con
troller device completely exhaust the chamber
75 retardation controller device can modify the de
In a manner similar to that described
gradually reduced, whereupon the valve section
132 will operate to similarly reduce the pressure 75
8
2,110,706
in chamber 58 since the area of diaphragm 62
is less than that of diaphragm 8!, and conse
quently e?ect a like reduction
brake cylinder
pressure.
When the speed or" the v icle has reduced to
a chosen low speed, as, for e nple, ?fteen miles
per hour, the contact 53%} of the speed controlled
switch device will engage the contacts l2l', and
thus energize by way ofconductor
the low
speed electromagnet 38. Double beat valve 99
will be then shifted to lower seated position, and
thus release fluid under pressure ‘from the cham
ber 63 to the atmosphere past the choke or re
striction 93. This will result in a further reduc
tion in brake cylinder pressure, in the manner
previously described, so that, when the chamber
66 has been ?nally exhausted, the pressure in the
brake cylinder it) will have attained a value
which is in relation to the pressure in cham
ber 98 as the area of the small diaphragm 63
bears to the area of the large diaphragm 59.
Now if at any time during the deceleration of
the vehicle the rate of retardation should increase
above that for which the retardation controller
25 spring I85 has been designed, or adjusted, the
retardation controller device will operate to re
duce the pressure in the switch chamber N58, to
further reduce straight air pipe pressure. The
pressure in the diaphragm chambers of the speed
30 controlled device l2 varies as the pressure in the
straight air pipe varies, because upon decrease
of pressure in the'passage 83 and chamber 93,
the check valves 95, 96 and ill will unseat to
permit release of ?uid under pressure from each
0:: Cl of the diaphragm chambers til, 65 and 66.
It will be seen then that a reduction in straight
air pipe pressure, e?ected as a result of opera
tion of the retardation controller device, will
result in a similar reduction in brake cylinder
40 pressure, the retardation controller device in any
case being ineifective to reduce brake cylinder
pressure below a value which corresponds to the
degree of pressure in chamber We of the master
switch device, but which value bears a different
relation thereto for each speed range considered.
As the vehicle comes to a stop, the body H8 of
the retardation controller device will assume the
position illustrated, since the force of inertia act
ing theron is now absent, so that, if the retarda
ion controller device has previously reduced the
pressure in the switch chamber ltd, pressure will
now be restored in a very short time.
This will,
of course, result in the maximum possible brake
cylinder pressure for speeds below ?fteen miles
per hour.
If now it is desired to effect a release of the
brakes, the brake valve handle Si is turned to
the release position, whereupon ?uid under pres
sure will be released from the control pipe st! to
the atmosphere. This will resuit in a release of
fluid under pressure from the two switch cham
bers I68 and lit, it being noted that a one-way
check-valve device 2533 is provided to insure a
prompt release of fluid under pressure from the
chamber H58. Release of ?uid under pressure
from the two chambers I88 and Nb e?fects de
energization of both the" application electro
magnet iti and the release electromagnet I 5%,
whereupon straight air pipe pressure will be cor
respondingly reduced, and thereby effecting a
corresponding reduction in brake cylinder
pressure.
As will be obvious from the description thus
far, a graduated application and a graduated re
lease‘ of the brakes may be effected by proper ma
nipulation of the brake Valve handle 37.
Straight air service application between speeds of
thirty-?ve and sixty miles per hour
If at the time of initiating the application of
the brakes thevehicle is traveling above thirty
?ve miles per hour but below sixty miles per
hour, the high speed electrcmagnet ‘it will be de
energized, due to contact E23 having pr viously 10
disengaged from the contacts iZo. Therefore,
when ?uid under pressure is supplied to the
straight air pipe 22 by operation of the applica
tion and release magnet valve device [5, it can
flow only to the diaphragm chambers
6E and 15
9B. The degree of brake cylinder pressure which
results, therefore, will be in proportion to straight
air pipe pressure in the same relation as the
area of diaphragm Si is to the area of diaphragm
6B, and will thus not be as great as that attain
able above sixty miles per hour.
This degree, however, may be suficient to cause
operation of the retardation controller device 11,
in which event it will, as before described, vary
the pressure in the switch chamber Hit only to 25
reduce the degree of application suiiiciently to
prevent the rate of retardation from exceeding
the desired limiting value.
Now as the speed of the vehicle diminishes to
thirty-?ve miles per hour, the intermediate speed 30
electromagnet ‘ll will be deenergized, whereupon
the brake cylinder pressure will be reduced in
the manner already described. Asthe speed of
the vehicle diminishes to ?fteen miles per hour,
a further decrease in brake cylinder pressure will
be effected.
The retardation controller device may, of
course, operate at any time that the rate of re
tardation exceeds the limiting value, to reduce
the pressure in the chamber
to in turn re
40
duce brake cylinder pressure, but it is, of course,
operable to vary brake cylinder pressure over a
very limited range only, regardless of the speed
range considered.
Straight air service application between speeds of
fifteen and thirty-?ve miles per hour
45
If, at the time the brake application is in
itiated, the vehicle is traveling above ?fteen miles
per hour but less than thirty-?ve miles per hour, 50
not only will the contact lit be out of engage
ment with the contacts 525, but the contact 129
will also be out of engagement with the contacts
iZ?. Thus both the high speed electromagnet l6
and the intermediate speed electromagnet T! will 55
be deenergized. Fluid under pressure can then
only be supplied to the diaphragm chambers 66
and 98, and the degree of brake cylinder pres
sure produced bears to straight air pipe pres
sure the same relation that the area of the dia
60
phragm 82 bears to the area of the diaphragm
66. In all other respects, the functioning of the
parts of the brake system will be substantially as
in the-manner heretofore described.
It should, therefore, be apparent from the fore 65
going that the initial degree of application of the
brakes is determined according to the speed
range in which the vehicle is operating at the
time of initiating an application of the brakes.
For the higher speeds, that is, from sixty miles 70
per hour to one hundred miles per hour, the max
imum brake cylinder pressure may be produced.
In an intermediate speed range, that is, from
thirty-?ve to sixty miles per hour, only moderate
ly high brake cylinder pressures can be produced.
2,110,706
in the lower speed range, that is, from ?fteen to
thirty-?ve miles per hour, only low brake cylin
der pressures can be produced, and under ?fteen
miles per hour only very low brake cylinder pres
sures can be produced.
Since the brake cylinder pressures which can
will be greater than that
as, for example, one hun
Fluid under pressure in
?ow through the double
to the pipe Ill and the
chamber I10. From this point on the operation
of the brake system is substantially the same as
it is possible that the brake cylinder pressure
described for the full service application, brake
wheels. To prevent this, and to insure that at
least the brake shoes will be pulled up snugly
against the wheels, the compensating portion 45
has been provided.
Assuming now that ?uid has been supplied to
the chamber 99 to ?ve pounds pressure only, this
cylinder pressure being a maximum for speeds‘
above sixty miles per hour, and being reduced as 10
the speed of the vehicle diminishes, and also being
subject to limited control by the retardation con
troller I‘I.
Fluid under pressure supplied to the pipe 34 by
the service valve 3| is of no avail at this time due 15
to the fact that the pressure of ?uid in the
diaphragm B3'only, it could at most produce only
straight air pipe 22 and the branch pipe 598 will
greatly exceed the pressure in the pipe 363, as in
practice I prefer to make the auxiliary reservoir
33 comparatively small so that the ultimate pres» 20
one or two pounds pressure in the chamber 58,
sures delivered by it can never exceed a modere
pressure will act upon the right side of the small
diaphragm 63, and also on the left side of the
diaphragm I00. If the pressure acted upon the
which would produce a like brake cylinder pres
sure. This pressure is too low to pull the brake
shoes up tight against the wheels. But with pres
sure acting upon the diaphragm I00, this dia
phragm ?exes to the right, thus rocking the two
levers I08 about their pivot pins I09, and this
ately high pressure in the straight air pipe.
The
application will, therefore, be entirely dependent
upon the pressures delivered to the pipe 35 by
the emergency valve section 32.
During an emergency application, the retarda~
tion controller device Il may function as before
described for a full service application.
In prac
moves the lower end of the arm III to the left,
as viewed in Fig. 1—B.
The arm III presses its pin II2 against the
controller device adjusted to permit a certain. -
follower plate ‘I4, assisting the ?uid pressure act
ing upon the diaphragm 03 in shifting the slid
maximum rate of retardation during service ap
plications of the brakes, and a higher rate of
ing member 5| to the left.’ The parts are so de
signed that for pressures up to ?ve pounds in the
chamber 98 the compensating mechanism acts to
cause a like pressure to be produced in the cham
retardation during emergency appllcations.~ This
is accomplished by providing an adjusting mech
ber 58, and thus in the brake cylinder I0 also.
setting of the retardation controller device, such
But as the pressure in the chamber 98 exceeds
?ve pounds, the follower plate I04 attached to the
40 diaphragm I00 will strike lugs 204 and thereby
be ineifective to produce an increase in force
acting to swing the lower end of the arm III to
the left. Moreover, the spring II‘! is so designed
that as the pressure in chamber 58 becomes equal
to the ?ve pounds acting on the diaphragm I00,
the parts of the valve section 42 will move to
lap position.
The compensating mechanism,
therefore, is effective only for pressures around
?ve pounds and below.
Emergency application
,When it is desired to effect an emergency ap
plication of the brakes, the brake valve handle TI
is turned to the emergency position, whereupon
the pressure in the brake pipe 24 is released to
the. atmosphere at an emergency rate. At the
same time, ?uid under pressure is supplied to the
control pipe 40 to the maximum possible degree,
which will be one hundred pounds for the case
60 assumed.
Upon an emergency reduction in brake pipe
pressure, both the emergency valve portion 32 and
the service valve portion. 3| in the automatic Valve
device respond, the emergency valve portion sup
65 plying ?uid under pressure to the pipe 35 leading
to the double check valve device I90, and the
service valve portion supplying ?uid under pres
sure to the pipe 34 leading to the double check
valve device I99.
>
With ?uid under pressure supplied to both
sides of the double check valve device I90, the
valve therein will move upwardly or downwardly
depending upon on which side the pressure is the
greater. In practice I prefer to make emergency
75 reservoir 28 large- enough so that the pressure
70
supplied to the pipe 35
supplied to the pipe 40,
dred and ten pounds.
the pipe 35 may then
check valve device 199
be produced below ?fteen miles per hour are low,
would be insufhcient in some instances to cause
10 the brake shoes to be pulled up against the
50
a e
tice, it has been usual to have the retardation
anism which operates upon initiating an emer»
gency application of the brakes to change the
for example, as is illustrated and claimed in my
pending application Serial No. ‘741,063, ?led Au
gust 23, 1934. I have not included this adjust
ing feature in the presentv disclosure, because it
forms no part of the present invention.
To effect a release of the brakes following an
emergency application, the brake valve handle 3?
is returned to the release position, whereupon the
brake pipe is again recharged to its normal pres
sure. Both the emergency valve section 32 and
the service valve section 3 I, of the automatic valve
device, return to release position, where ?uid
under pressure is released from both the pipes
35 and M. This, of course, results in a. reduction
of pressure in both switch chambers I68 and iii]
to effect a full release of the brakes as heretofore
described.
‘
Automatic service application of the brakes
Automatic service applications of the brakes are
intended to be eifected only when it is impossible
to effect applications by straight air operation, or
when the vehicle is beingtowed by a standard \
steam locomotive or the like.
When it is desired to effect an automatic service
application of the brakes, the selector lever 30 is
turned to the automatic position, and the brake
valve handle 37 is then turned to service position
where it is left long enough to reduce brake pipe
pressure to the desired degree. The reduction in
brake pipe pressure which results takes place at
a service rate, so that the service valve portion 38
only of the automatic valve device responds. This
valve portion then supplies ?uid under pressure
from the auxiliary reservoir 33 to the pipe 34, the
pressure of this fluid shifting the valve in double
check device I9I downwardly, and ?uid under
pressure then flowing to the pipe 03.
'
10
2,110,706
If the speed of the vehicle is at this time above
sixty miles per hour, ?uid under pressure flows
from the pipe 83 to all of the diaphragm cham
bers 6t, 65, 6'5 and 98, but if the speed is lower
Cl than sixty miles per hour, the ?ow will be to only
such chambers as are in communication with the
passage 83 at that time.
It will be noted that the service valve 31 sup
plies ?uid under pressure directly to the pipe 83,
and that this supply is not under the control of
the retardation controller device 1?. As before
indicated, the auxiliary reservoir 33 is made suffi
ciently small so that the pressure delivered to the
pipe 35 is considerably lower than that which is
15 usually established in the straight air pipe 22 dur
ing either a straight air service application or an
emergency application. As a consequence, the
need for retardation control is not of as great
importance.
The speed controlled device 12 is, however,
operative to control brake cylinder pressure dur
ing this type of application with relation to the
speed of the vehicle, and functions in the manner
already described.
When it is desired to effect a release of the
brakes following this type of application, the
brake valve handle 37 is returned to release posi
tion to restore brake pipe pressure. The service
valve 3! then returns to release position to release
30 fluid under pressure from the pipe 34.
Modi?cation shown in Fig. 3
The modi?cation shown in Fig. 3 deals with the
substitution of a novel type of pilot relay valve
1'3 121 device 219 and a standard master switch device
215 for the master switch device 16 shown in
Fig. 1-A.
The master switch device 21 1 is preferably iden
tical with the master switch device 15 of Fig.
40 1—A, except that the two diaphragms i8! and
it?! of that switch device are now replaced by
a single diaphragm 2H2, which is of the same
effective pressure area as the diaphragm at the
opposite end of the switch device subject to
nected together, that is to say, each diaphragm
is independently movable.
The two diaphragms 218 and 219 coact with
the casing of the valve device to form a cham
ber 225 between the two diaphragms, and a
chamber 226 to the right of the diaphragm 219.
.A light spring 221 in the chamber 226 holds the
two diaphragms in contact.
The diaphragm chamber 225 is connected to
the aforementioned pipe E69, while the chamber 10
226 is connected to the aforementioned pipe 111.
The chamber 58 of the valve section 216 is con
nected to the chamber 214 of the master switch
device 21!, by way of the aforementioned pipe
2w. The chamber to the left of the supply valve 15
46 is connected to the main reservoir pipe 25.
In the operation of the modi?cation shown in
Fig. 3, when ?uid under pressure is supplied to
the control pipe 40 or pipe 35, it will ?rst ?ow
rapidly by way of pipe 111 to chamber 226. The 20
pressure of this fluid will act upon the smaller
diaphragm 219 to operate the valve portion 216
to supply ?uid under pressure from the main
reservoir pipe 25 to pipe 2i5 and switch chamber
2M, this flow taking place at a rapid rate, so 25
that a moderately high pressure is established
in the chamber 214 very quickly; The master
switch device 211 will then operate the applica
tion and release magnet valve device 15, as here
tofore described, to effect rapidly a brake cylin 30
der pressure, the value of which is in proportion
to the pressure in. the chamber 226, of the pilot
relay valve device, in the same relation that the
area of the smaller diaphragm 219 bears to the
larger diaphragm 218, assuming a vehicle speed 35
above sixty miles per hour.
Fluid under pressure supplied to the control
pipe 58 and pipe ill will also ?ow to the dia
phragm chamber 225, by Way of choke 290, pipe
I84, the retardation controller device 1'1, and pipe 40
169. This flow will, as previously described, take
chanically arranged similar to the diaphragm
H51 in the master switch device 16, that is, it is
place at slow rate, and will cause the pressure
in the switch chamber 214 to be gradually in
creased to a value substantially equivalent to
the pressure in the control pipe 40. This will in
turn cause the brake cylinder pressure to be
increased to a. corresponding degree.
It will, therefore, be observed that the arrange
connected to a stem 213 similar to the stem
163, and is subject on one side to ?uid pressure
in a chamber 214. The chamber 214 is in open
communication with a pipe 255 leading to the
performed by the switch device id of Fig. 1--A,
that is, ?rst quickly effecting a moderately high
degree of application of the brakes, followed by
straight air pipe pressure.
The diaphragm 212 may be considered as me
pilot relay valve device 218.
The pilot relay valve device comprises two sec
tions, a valve section 216, and a diaphragm sec
tion 211. The valve section 216 may be identical
with the valve section 42 of the speed controlled
device 12 of Fig. 1-3, and the corresponding
parts of the two valve devices are indicated by
like numerals, the description heretofore given
for the valve section 42 applying to the valve
section 216.
'
The diaphragm section 21?, of the pilot relay
, valve device 210, comprises two ?exible dia
phragms 218 and 219 of different effective pres
sure areas, disposed in spaced relation, the
former diaphragm being provided with follower
plates 220 and the latter diaphragm being pro
vided with follower plates 221. The left hand
follower plate 221 is provided with an annular
?ange 222 and a spacing lug 223, which maintain
the two diaphragms in spaced relation. It is
to be noted, however, that neither the diaphragms
75 nor their follower plates are, in any way con
ment shown performs the same functions as are
a slow increase in the degree of’ application until
the degree of application is equivalent to the
control pipe pressure.
CI Ci
The retardation controller device 1‘! is there
after operable to control the pressure. in the
chamber 225, just as it was operable to control
the pressure in the chamber 168 of the master
switch device 16.
60
Adaptation of brake system to a train
While the brake system embodying the inven
tion has been illustrated as being adapted to a
single vehicle only, it may be readily adapted to (i5
a train comprising a plurality of cars by merely
duplicating certain of the parts shown.
Each
car will, of course, be equipped with one or more
brake cylinders, for which one relay valve device
IE only is required. Each vehicle is preferably
equipped with one speed controlled device 12,
although it may in some instances be found more
desirable to provide one speed controlled device
for two or more cars.
Each speed controlled
device may have itsown speed controlled switch 715,
11
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l3, or one such switch may be provided for all
of the speed controlled devices.
Each car in the train is preferablyprovided
with an application and release magnet valve
(a device l5, while one master switch device IE only
need be provided, preferably located on the head
end or control car.
The same applies for the
retardation controller device ll.
With respect to the automatic valve device l8,
10 since the brake pipe 24 extends throughout the
train, it is preferable that one of these devices,
together with the two reservoirs 28 and 33,
should be provided on each car of the train.
Thus it will be seen that by mere duplication
of certain of the parts on succeeding cars in a
means may vary the degree of application of the
brakes.
6. In a vehicle brake system, in combination, a
brake cylinder, means for effecting a supply of
fluid under pressure to said brake cylinder rapid
ly up to a chosen value, means for increasing
brake cylinder pressure slowly to a degree above
said chosen value, means operated according to
the rate of retardation of the vehicle for con
trolling brake cylinder pressures above said 10
chosen value, and speed controlling means for
controlling brake cylinder pressures below. said
chosen value.
'7. In a vehicle brake system, in combination, a
brake cylinder, means for effecting a supply of 15
fluid under pressure to said brake cylinder, means
train, a complete brake system results.
Experience and preference will, of course, dic
tate modi?cations and arrangements other than
‘operated according to the rate of retardation of
the vehicle for varying brake cylinder pressure
those disclosed and described, so that it is not
to maintain a substantially constant rate of re
my intention to be limited to the particular illus
trations given, nor otherwise than by the spirit
and scope of the appended claims.
means for controlling the range over which said
retardation controlled means may vary brake
Having now described my invention, what I
claim as new and desire to secure by Letters
Patent, is:
1. The method of controlling vehicle brakes,
which comprises, eifecting an application of the
brakes, and controlling the degree of the applica
tion jointly with respect to both speed and the
30 rate of retardation of the vehiclelin a manner
tardation of the vehicle, and speed controlled 20
cylinder pressure.
8. In a vehicle brake system, in combination, a
brake cylinder, means for establishing a com
munication through which ?uid under pressure
is supplied rapidly to e?ect a rapid supply of
?uid under pressure to said brake cylinder, means
for establishing a different communication
such that during the application the minimum
‘degree of the application is controlled with re
spect to the speed and the maximum degree of
the application is, controlled with respect to the
through which ?uid under pressure is supplied
slowly to slowly increase the degree of the brake
cylinder pressure, means operated according to
the rate of retardation of the vehicle for con
trolling the supply of ?uid under pressure through
,
35 rate of retardation.
2. The method of controlling vehicle or train
‘means for controlling brake cylinder pressure re~
gardless of through which communication ?uid
under pressure is supplied to establish brake
40 slowly up to a maximum degree, controlling the
9. In a vehicle brake system, in combination,
with respect to the rate of retardation of the
vehicle or train, and controlling the degree of
45 the application below the said predetermined de
gree with respect to the speed of the vehicle or
train.‘
.
~
3. In a vehicle or train brake system, in combi
nation, means for effecting an application of the
brakes, speed controlled means, means operated
according to the rate of retardation of the vehicle
or train, and means so constructed and arranged
that said speed controlled means controls the
degree of application of the brakes over a prede
termined range and said retardation controlled
means controls the degree of application over a
different range.
4. In a vehicle brake system, in combination,
means for e?ecting an application of the brakes
60 to a predetermined degree, means for increasing
the degree of application of the brakes to a maxi—
mum degree which is above said predetermined
degree, speed controlled means for controlling
the degree of application of the brakes below said
65 predetermined degree, and means operated ac
cording to the rate of retardation of the vehicle
for controlling the degree of application of the
brakes above said predetermined degree.»
5. In a vehicle brake system, in combination,
70 means for effecting an application of the brakes,
means operated according to the rate of retarda
tion of the vehicle for controlling the degree of
application of the brakes‘, and means operated
according to the speed of the vehicle for varying
the range over which said retardation controlled
30
said second communication, and speed controlled
brakes, which comprises, eifecting quickly an ap
plication of the brakes to a predetermined degree,
increasing the degree of the application more
degree of the application between the said pre
determined degree and the said maximum degree
UL
cylinder pressure.
’
40
speed controlled means for controlling a com
munication through which ?uid under pressure is‘
supplied to effect an application of the brakes,
?uid pressure operated brake control means for
controlling the supply of ?uid under pressure to 45
said'comrnunication, and means operated accord
ing to the rate of retardation of the vehicle for
controlling at least in part the operation of said
brake control means.
10. In a vehicle brake system, in combination,
speed controlled means for controlling the de
gree of application of the brakes, means includ
ing a ?uid pressure operated device for control
ling the operation of said speed controlled means, 55
and means operated according to the rate of re
tardation of the vehicle for controlling in part
the supply of ?uid under pressure to said ?uid
pressure operated device.
11. In a vehicle brake system, in combination, 60
a ?uid pressure operated switch device operated
upon supply of ?uid under pressure thereto to
effect an application of the brakes, means estab
lishing a communication through which ?uid
under pressure is supplied at an unrestricted rate
to operate said switch device, means establishing
a second and separate communication through
which ?uid under pressure is supplied at a re
stricted rate to additionally effect the operation
of said‘ switch device, and means operated ac
cording to the rate of retardation of the vehicle
for controlling said second communication.
12. In a vehicle brake system, in combination,
a brake control device having two chambers and
operable upon supply of ?uid under pressure to 75
12
2,110,706
either or both of said chambers to ‘effect an ap
plication of the brakes, means for e?ecting a sup
ply of ?uid under pressure to both of said cham
a brake controlling device having two chambers
and operable upon supply of ?uid under pressure
bers, and means operated according to the rate
of retardation of the vehicle for controlling the
plication of the brakes, manually operated means
for e?fecting a supply of ?uid under pressure to SI
both of said ‘chambers, means operated accord
ing to the rate of retardation of the vehicle for
pressure in one of said chambers.
13. In a vehicle brake system, in combination,
a ?uid pressure operated device having two
chambers and operable upon supply of ?uid un
der pressure to one of said chambers to eifect
an application of the brakes to one degree and
upon supply of ?uid under pressure to both of
said chambers to e?ect an application of the
brakes to a different degree, means for effecting
a supply of ?uid under pressure to ‘both of said
chambers, and means operated according to the
rate of retardation of the vehicle for varying the
pressure in one of said chambers without affect
ing the pressure in the other chamber.
20
14. In a vehicle brake system, in combination, a
?uid pressure operated switch device having two
chambers and operable upon supply of ?uid under
pressure to one or both of said chambers to effect
an application of the brakes, means for establish
ing a communication through which ?uid under
pressure may be supplied at an unrestricted rate
to one of said chambers, means for establishing a
separate communication through which ?uid un
der pressure may be supplied at a restricted rate
30 to the other of said chambers, and means oper
ated according to the rate of retardation of the
vehicle for controlling one of said two com
munications.
15. In a vehicle brake system, in combination, a
?uid pressure operated switch device having a
plurality of chambers and operable upon supply
of ?uid under pressure to one or more of said
chambers to effect an application of the brakes,
and operable upon the variation of pressure in
40 one of said chambers to modify the degree of ap
plication of the brakes, means for effecting a
supply of fluid under pressure to one or more of
said chambers, and a retardation controller de
vice for controlling the variation of pressure in
45 one of said chambers.
16. In a vehicle brake system, in combination,
a brake controlling device having two chambers
and operable upon supply of ?uid under pressure
to one of said chambers to effect an application
of the brakes to one degree and operable upon
supply of ?uid under pressure to both of said
chambers to effect an application of the brakes
to a different degree, manually operated means
for effecting a supply of ?uid under pressure to
both of said chambers, and means operated ac
cording to the rate of retardation of the vehicle
for controlling the pressure of ?uid in one of said
two chambers.
17. In a vehicle brake system, in combination,
electro-responsive means for e?‘ecting and con
trolling the degree of application of the brakes, a
?uid pressure operated brake control device hav
ing a plurality of chambers and operable upon
supply of ?uid under pressure to one or more of
said chambers to control the operation of said
electroresponsive means, means for effecting a.
supply of ?uid under pressure to all of said cham~
bars to e?ect the operation of said electrorespon
sive means to apply the brakes, a retardation
controller device operated according to the rate
of retardation of the vehicle, and means respon
sive to operation of said retardation controller
device for varying the pressure in one of said
chambers.
'
18. In a vehicle brake system, in combination,
to one or both of said chambers to effect an ap
controlling the pressure in one of said chambers
and operable at a chosen rate of retardation to
close communication between said one chamber
and said manually operated means, and means
operable to permit release of ?uid under pressure
from both of said chambers by manipulation of
said manually operated means regardless of the
operation of said retardation controlled means.
19. In a vehicle brake system, in combination,
electrically controlled valve means for control
ling the application and the release of the brakes,
a ?uid pressure operated switch device having
two chambers and operable upon supply of ?uid 20
under pressure to one of said chambers to effect
an application of the brakes to a chosen degree
corresponding to the pressure in said chamber,
and operable upon supply of ?uid under pres
sure to the other of said chambers to effect an "
increase in the degree of application of the brakes
above that corresponding to the pressure in said
?rst chamber, means for effecting a supply of
?uid under pressure to both of said chambers to
initiate an application of the brakes, and means 30
operated according to the rate of retardation of
the vehicle for varying the pressure of ?uid in
said other chamber, the variation of pressure in
said other chamber being ineffective to reduce
the degree of application of the brakes below
said chosen degree.
20. In a vehicle brake system, in combination,
a brake controlling device having two chambers
and operable upon supply of ?uid under pressure
to both of said chambers to effect an application
of the brakes and operable upon variation of pres
sure in either of said chambers to vary the degree
‘of application of the brakes, means for forming a
communication to one of said chambers through
which fluid under pressure may be supplied at an 4 5
unrestricted rate, and means for forming a com
munication to the other of said chambers through
which ?uid under pressure may be supplied at a
restricted rate, and means operated according
to the rate of retardation of the vehicle for con
trolling said second communication and operable
at a chosen rate of retardation to rapidly reduce
the pressure of ?uid in said second chamber.
21. In a vehicle brake system, in combina'ton,
valve means for controlling the application and ‘ -
the release of the brakes, means including a con
trol device having a plurality of chambers to
which ?uid under pressure is supplied for con
trolling the operation of said valve means, means
for effecting a supply of ?uid under pressure to 60
said chambers to effect the operation of said valve
means to apply the brakes, a retardation con
troller device for controlling the pressure of fluid
in one of said chambers, and means controlled
with respect to the speed of the vehicle for inde
pendently controlling the operation of said valve
means.
22. In a vehicle or train brake system, in com
bination, valve means for controlling the appli
cation and the release of the vehicle or train d
brakes, electroresponsive means including a ?uid
pressure operated switch device having a plurality
of chambers and operable upon supply of ?uid
pressure to said chambers to effect the operation
of said valve means to apply the brakes, manually
2,110,706
operated means for effecting a supply of ?uid un
der pressure to one of said chambers rapidly and
a supply of fluid under pressure to another of
said chambers more slowly, to effect an applica
tion of the brakes, inertia operated means for
controlling the pressure of ?uid in said last men
tioned chamber, to vary the degree of application
of the brakes, and means controlled by the speed
of the vehicle for also varying the degree of ap
10 plication of the brakes.
23. In a vehicle brake system, in combination,
magnet valve devices for controlling the applica
tion and the release of the brakes, a ?uid pres
sure operated switch device having a plurality of
15 chambers and operable upon variation of pres
sure in one or more of said chambers to control
the operation of said magnet valve devices, manu
ally operated means for controlling the supply of
?uid under pressure to and ‘its release from said
20 plurality of chambers, means operated according
to the rate of retardation of the vehicle for con
trolling the pressure of ?uid in one of said cham
bers, and means controlled by the speed of the
vehicle for varying the degree of application of
25 the brakes independently of variation of pres
sure in any of said chambers.
24. In a vehicle brake system, in combination,
valve means for controlling the application and
the release of the brakes, means including a ?uid
30 pressure operated switch device for controlling
the operation of said valve means, means oper
ated according to the rate of retardation of the
vehicle for controlling the operation of said
switch device, and means controlled by the speed
of the vehicle for also controlling the operation of
said valve means.
25. In a vehicle brake system, in combination,
valve means for controlling the application and
the release of the brakes, means including a ?uid
40 pressure operated switch device for controlling
the operation of said valve means, means oper
ated according to the rate of retardation of the
vehicle for controlling the operation of said switch
means, and means controlled by the speed of the
45 vehicle for also controlling the operation of said
valve means and operable as the speed of the
vehicle diminishes due to application of the brakes
to cause said valve means to reduce the degree
of application of the brakes.
26. In a vehicle brake system, in combination,
50
?uid pressure operated valve means for con
trolling the application and the release of the
brakes, means for forming a communication
through which ?uid under pressure is supplied to
, effect the operation of said valve means, means
including a fluid pressure operated switch device
for controlling the supply of ?uid under pressure
to and its release from said communication, means
operated according to the rate of retardation of
60 the vehicle for exercising a limited control over
the operation of said switch device, and means
operated by and in response to the speed of the
vehicle for controlling the manner in which the
pressure of ?uid supplied to said communication
acts upon said valve means.
27. In a vehicle brake system, in combination,
13
forming‘ a communication to said second chamber
through which ?uid under pressure may be sup
plied at an unrestricted rate, means for forming
a communication to said ?rst chamber through
which ?uid under pressure may be supplied at a
restricted rate, and a retardation controller device
for controlling said second communication.
28. In a vehicle brake system, in combination,
a ?uid pressure operated switch device for con
trolling the application and the release of the 10
brakes, said switch device having two diaphragms
of different effective pressure areas, said two dia
phragms being so constructed and arranged as to
form therebetween a ?rst chamber and to one
side of the smaller of said two diaphragms a sec 15
ond chamber, means for forming a communica
tion through which ?uid under pressure may be
supplied at an unrestricted rate to said second
chamber, means for forming a communication to
said ?rst chamber including a choke and a tim
ingreservoir associated therewith, and a retarda
tion controller device for controlling the pressure
of ?uid in said ?rst chamber only.
29. A control device for a ?uid pressure brake
comprising, in combination, a plurality of con
tacts, a plurality of movable abutments, means
cooperating with said abutments to form, three
pressure chambers, one of said chambers being
between two of said abutments, another of‘ said
chambers being to‘ one side of one of said two 3O
abutments, and the third of said chambers being
to one side of a still different abutment, and
means for operating said contacts in response to
movement of said abutments upon variation of
pressure in one or more of said chambers.
30. A control device for ?uid pressure brakes
comprising, in combination, a casing, three dia
phragms coacting with said casing to form three
pressure chambers, two of said diaphragms being
of equal pressure area and the third of said dia
phragms being of lesser eifective pressure area
than the other two, a first of said chambers being
between one of the large diaphragms and the
small diaphragm, the second of said chambers
being to one side of the small diaphragm, and the
third of said chambers being to one side of the
third diaphragm, a plurality of normally opened
contacts, and means associated with said three
diaphragms and so constructed and arranged that
upon supply of ?uid under pressure to one or
both of said ?rst and second chambers said con
tacts are closed and upon supply of ?uid under
pressure to said third chamber at least some of
said contacts are opened.
31. In a vehicle brake system, a combination,
a control device having a plurality of chambers
to which ?uid under pressure is supplied to ef
fect an application of the brakes, means for
manually effecting a supply of ?uid under pres
sure to both of said chambers, automatic means
operated upon a decrease of ?uid pressure there
in for e?ecting a supply of ?uid under pressure
to both of said chambers, and means operated ac
cording to the rate of retardation of the vehicle
for controlling the pressure of ?uid in one of
said chambers regardless of whether supplied by
a ?uid pressure operated switch device for con
said manually operated means or said automatic
trolling the application and the release of the
brakes, said switch device having two movable
abutments of different eifective pressure areas,
means.
one of said abutments being subject to ?uid pres
sure in a ?rst chamber and the other of said
abutments being subject on one side to ?uid pres
sure in said first chamber and on the other side
75 to ?uid pressure in a second chamber, means for
' 32. In a vehicle brake system, in combination,
electroresponsive means for controlling the ap~
plication and the release of the brakes, means
including a ?uid pressure operated switch de
vice having two chambers, for controlling the
operation of said electroresponsive means, manu
ally operated means for effecting a supply of 75
14
2,110,706
?uid under pressure to both of said chambers, a
normally charged pipe, an automatic valve de
vice operated upon a predetermined reduction of
10
15
20
25
30
pressure in said normally charged pipe for ef
fecting a supply of ?uid under pressure to both of
said chambers, and a retardation controller de
vice for controlling the pressure of ?uid in one
of said chambers regardless of whether supplied
by said manually operated means or said auto
matic valve device.
33. In a vehicle brake system, in combination,
a control device for controlling the application
and the release of the brakes, said control device
having two chambers and being operable upon
supply of fluid under pressure to one of said
chambers to effect an application of the brakes
to one degree and operable upon supply of ?uid
under pressure to both of said chambers to effect
an application of the brakes to an increased de
gree, manually operated means potentially ef
fective to effect a supply of ?uid under pressure
to both of said chambers, automatic means op
erable upon a reduction of pressure therein to
potentially effect a supply of ?uid under pressure
to both of said chambers, valve means for se
lecting between said potential sources of supply,
and means for restricting the rate of supply to
one of said chambers regardless of from which
source the supply is effected.
34. In a vehicle brake system, in combination,
applications of the brakes to be under the con
trol of said speed controlled means only,
3'7. In a vehicle brake system, in combination,
valve means for controlling the application and
the release of the brakes, means for forming a
communication through which ?uid under pres
sure is supplied to effect the operation of said
valve means, speed controlled means for control
ling the action of the pressure in said communi
cation upon said valve means, means including 10
a ?uid pressure operated switch device for con
trolling the supply of ?uid under pressure to said
communication, a retardation controller device
for controlling operation of said switch means,
a normally charged pipe, and a valve device op
erated upon a reduction of'pressure in said pipe
for eifecting a supply of ?uid under pressure to
said communication at a time. when said switch
device is not operated or is ineffective to operate.
38. In a fluid pressure brake system, in combie -'
nation, a brake cylinder, valve means for con
trolling the supply of ?uid under pressure to and
its release from said brake cylinder, speed con
trolled means operated by and in response to the
speed of the vehicle for controlling the opera
tion of said valve means, electroresponsive. means
including a ?uid pressure operated switch device
for also controlling the operation of said valve
means, said switch device having a plurality of
chambers to which fluid under pressure is sup- .
a ?uid pressure operated switch device for con
plied to effect the application of the brakes and
trolling the application and the release of the
in which the pressure of ?uid is varied to vary
brakes, said switch device having two chambers
and operable upon the supply of ?uid under
the degree of application of the brakes, manually
35 pressure to one of said chambers to effect an ap
plication of the brakes to one degree and oper
able upon the supply of ?uid under pressure to
both of said chambers to effect an application of
the brakes to an increased degree, manually
40 operable means for eifecting a supply of ?uid
under pressure to both of said chambers, auto
matic valve means for effecting a supply of
?uid under pressure to both of said chambers,
valve means for selecting between said two sup
4.5 plies, means for delaying the supply of ?uid un
der pressure to one of said chambers, and a re
tardation controller device for controlling the
degree of pressure in one of said chambers ac
cording to the rate of retardation of the. vehicle.
35. In a vehicle brake system, in combination,
valve means for controlling the application and
the release of the brakes, speed controlled means
operated according to the speed of the vehicle, re
tardation control means operated according to
the rate of retardation of the vehicle, means op
erative during normal service or emergency ap
plications of the brakes to cause the degree of
application to be under the joint control of said
speed control means and said retardation con
60 trol means, and means operative upon effecting
an auxiliary service application of the brakes for
causing said speed controlled means only to con
trol the degree of the application.
'
36. In a vehicle brake system, in combination,
speed controlled means operated by and in re
sponse to the speed of the vehicle, retardation
controlled means operated by and in response to
the rate of retardation of the vehicle, means for
e?ecting an application of the brakes by straight
air operation or by automatic operation, and
means for causing all straight air applications
and automatic emergency applications of the
brakes to be under the joint control of said speed
controlled
means
and said retardation con
trolled means, and for causing automatic service
operable means for effecting a supply of ?uid
under pressure to said chambers, automatic :
valve means for also effecting a supply of ?uid
under pressure to said chambers, and retarda
tion control means for controlling the pressure
of ?uid in one of said chambers, said retardation
control means being ineffective to reduce brake 40
cylinder pressure below a value permissible ac
cording to the operation of said speed controlled
said last mentioned means.~
39. In a vehicle brake system, in combination,
a ?rst valve means for controlling the applica
tion and the release of' the brakes, speed con
trolled means operated by and in response to the
speed of the vehicle for controlling said ?rst
valve means, a second valve means for also con
trolling the operation of said ?rst valve means, 50
and means including a retardation controller de
vice for controlling the operation of said second
valve means.
40. In a vehicle brake system, in combination,
a valve device for controlling the application and 55
the release of the brakes, said valve device hav
ing a plurality of chambers to which ?uid under
pressure is supplied to effect an application of
the brakes, means for effecting a supply of ?uid
under pressure to said chambers, and a retarda 60
tion controller device for varying the pressure of
fluid in one of said chambers.
41. In a vehicle brake system, in combination,
valve means for controlling the application and
the release of the brakes, said valve means hav
ing a ?rst chamber to which ?uid under pres
sure is supplied to effect an application of the
brakes to one degree, and having a second cham
ber to which ?uid under pressure is also supplied
to effect an application of the brakes to an in 70
creased degree, means for eifecting a supply of
?uid under pressure to both of said chambers,
and a retardation controller device for varying
the pressure of ?uid in one of said chambers,
said retardation controller device being ineffec
2,110,706
tive to reduce the degree of application of the
brakes below that corresponding to the effect of
the pressure of ?uid in said other chamber.
42. In a vehicle brake system, in combination,
a valve device for controlling the application and
the release of the brakes, said valve device having
a ?rst chamber to which ?uid under pressure is
supplied to effect an application of the brakes to
a chosen degree, and having a second chamber to
which ?uid under pressure is supplied to increase
the degree of application of the brakes above said
chosen degree, means forming a ?rst communica
tion to said ?rst chamber through which ?uid
under pressure is supplied at an unrestricted
rate, means forming a second communication to
said second chamber through which ?uid under
pressure is supplied at a restricted rate, and a
retardation controller device for controlling said
second communication.
43. In a vehicle brake system, in combination,
a valve device for controlling the application and
the release of the brakes, said valve device hav
ing two movable abutments of di?erent effective
pressure areas, one of said'abutments being re
sponsive to ?uid pressure in a ?rst chamber, and
the other of said abutments being responsive to
?uid pressure in a second chamber, means form~
ing an unrestricted communication leading to
said ?rst chamber, means forming a restricted
communication leading to said second chamber,
and a retardation controller device for control
ling one of said two communications.
44. In a vehicle brake system, in combination,
a ?rst valve means for controlling the applica
tion and the release of the brakes, a second valve
means for also controlling the application and
the release of the brakes, speed controlled means,
retardation controlled means operated according
to the rate of retardation of the vehicle, and
40 means whereby said ?rst valve means is con
trolled only by said speed controlled means, and
whereby both said ?rst valve means and said
second valve means are controlled by said re
15
the release of the brakes, said valve device hav
ing two diaphragms of di?erent effective pres
sure areas, the larger of said diaphragms having
a ?rst chamber to one side thereof, and the
smaller of said diaphragms having a second Cl
chamber to one side thereof, means for effecting
a supply of ?uid under pressure to said second
chamber to effect an application of the brakes to
a chosen degree, means for also e?ecting a sup
ply of ?uid under pressure to said ?rst chamber 10
to increase the degree of application of the
brakes to a maximum value above said chosen
degree, and a retardation controller device op
erable to vary the pressure in said ?rst chamber
whereby to vary the application of the brakes
between said maximum value and said chosen
degree.
48. The method of controlling the brakes for
vehicles or trains, which comprises, initiating an
application of the brakes, establishing the initial v
braking force according to the speed of the ve
hicle or train, and then varying the braking force
jointly according to both the speed and the rate
of retardation of the vehicle or train.
49. The method of controlling the brakes for a
vehicle or train, which comprises, initiating an
application of the brakes, establishing the initial
braking force according to the speed of the ve
hicle or train, reducing the initial braking force
in steps as the speed of the vehicle or train 30
diminishes, and varying the degree of braking
force between each of said steps as required to‘
prevent the rate of retardation from substan
tially exceeding a chosen value.
50. The method of controlling the brakes for
vehicles and trains, which comprises, initiating
an application of the brakes, and varying the
degree of the application jointly with respect to
both the speed and the rate of retardation of
the vehicle such that the degree of the appli 40
cation is variable over a ?xed range above a pre
determined vehicle speed, and variable over a '
?xed but di?erent range below said predeter
tardation controlled means.
mined speed.
45. In a vehicle brake system, in combination,
a valve‘ means for controlling the application and
the release of the brakes, said valve means hav
ing two unconnected movable abutments each
of which has a chamber to one side thereof,
application of the brakes, and controlling the
degree of the application partly in response to
vehicle speed and partly in response to
means forming an unrestricted communication
to one of said chambers, means forming a di?er
ent communication to another of said chambers,
means associated with said second communica
tion for delaying ?ow of ?uid under pressure
therethrough, and a retardation controller device
for controlling the flow of ?uid through and the
release of ?uid from one of said communications.
46. In a vehicle brake system, in combination,
51. The method of controlling the brakes for
vehicles or trains, which comprises, initiating an
the rate of retardation of the vehicle such that 50
there is established for each of a plurality of
speed ranges a di?erent but ?xed set of upper
and lower limits between which the degree of
the application is varied.
52. The method of controlling the brakes for 55
vehicles or trains, which comprises, initiating an
application of the brakes, establishing the initial
degree of the application according to the speed
a valve means for controlling the application and
the release of the brakes, said valve means hav
ing a plurality of movable abutments with a
of the vehicle or train, and thereafter controlling
the degree of the application jointly in response 60
to both the vehicle speed and the rate of retarda
chamber to one side of each, and being operable
to control the operation of said valve means ac
cording to which of said chambers has ?uid
established for each of a plurality of speed ranges
under pressure supplied thereto, manually oper
able means for supplying ?uid under pressure to
said chambers, automatic valve means operable
upon a reduction of pressure therein for supply—
ing ?uid under pressure to said chambers, and a
retardation controller device for controlling the
tion of the vehicle or train such that there is
a different upper and lower limit between which
the degree of the application may be varied.
53. In a vehicle or brake system, in combina
tion, means operable to effect an application of
the brakes to each of plurality of certain differ
ent uniform‘degrees of braking force, means re
sponsive to the speed of the train for so con 70
regardless of whether supplied by said manually
trolling said brake application means as to cause
it to establish di?erent ones of said certain de
operated means or said automatic valve means.
grees of braking force for different train speeds,
pressure of ?uid supplied to one of said chambers
47. In a vehicle brake system, in combination,
75 a valve device for controlling the application and
and retardation control means for so controlling
said brake control means as to cause it to estab 75
16
2,110,706
lish for a given rate of retardation di?erent de
grees of bral’n'ng force for different train speeds.
54. In a vehicle or train brake system, in com
bination, means for eifecting an application of
the brakes, speed controlled means, means oper
ated according to the rate of retardation of the
vehicle or train, and means so constructed and
arranged that said speed controlled means estab
lishes the initial degree of application of the
10 brakes, while said retardation controlled means
is thereafter operable to modify said initial de
gree of application, and both said speed controlled
means and said retardation controlled means
subsequently cooperate to jointly modify the de
gree of the application as the speed of the ve
hicle or train diminishes.
55. In a vehicle or train brake system, in com
bination, means for effecting an application of
the brakes, speed controlled means, inertia
20 means, and means so constructed and arranged,
that either or both of said speed controlled
means and inertia means may be effective at any
time during an application to control the degree
25
of the application.
56. In a vehicle brake system, in combination,
means for effecting an application of the brakes,
means operated according to the rate of retarda
tion of the vehicle for controlling the degree of
application of the brakes, and means operated
30 according to the speed of the vehicle for decreas
ing the range over which said retardation con
trolled means may vary the degree of application
of the brakes.
57. In a vehicle brake system, in combination,
a brake cylinder, means for establishing a com
munication through which ?uid under pressure is
supplied rapidly to effect a rapid supply of ?uid
under pressure to said brake cylinder, means for.
establishing a diiierent communication through
which ?uid under pressure is supplied slowly to
slowly increase the degree of the brake cylinder
pressure, inertia operated means for controlling
the supply of ?uid under pressure through one
of said communications, and speed controlled
means for controlling brake cylinder pressure re
gardless of through which communication ?uid
under pressure is supplied to establish brake cyl
inder pressure.
58. In a vehicle brake system, in combination,
a brake control device having two chambers and
operable upon supply of ?uid under pressure to
either or both of said chambers to e?ect an ap
plicaticn of the brakes, means for effecting a
supply of fluid under pressure to both of said
chambers, and inertia operated means for con
trolling the pressure in one of said chambers.
59. In a vehicle brake system, in combination,
a brake cylinder, a valve device for controlling
the supply of ?uid under pressure to and its
release from said brake cylinder, said valve de
vice having a plurality of chambers to and from
which ?uid under pressure is supplied and re
leased to effect the supply to and release from
said brake cylinder, means for effecting a supply
of ?uid under pressure to said plurality of cham
bers, and an inertia operated device for control
ling the pressure of ?uid in at least one of said
chambers.
10
60. In a vehicle or train brake system, in com
bination, means for effecting an application of
the brakes, speed controlled means, inertia oper
ated means, means controlled by said speed con
trolled means for establishing the initial degree 15
of application of the brakes according to which
of a plurality of speed ranges the vehicle or train
is traveling in at the time of initiating the ap
plication, and means controlled by said inertia
operated means for varying the degree of the ap 20
plication over a range which bears a substantially
constant relation to the initial degree of the ap
plication as established by said speed controlled
means.
>
61. In a vehicle brake system, in combination, 25
a brake cylinder, a control pipe to which ?uid
under pressure is supplied to effect an applica
tion of the brakes, inertia operated means for
controlling the degree of straight air pipe pres
sure, means responsive to straight air pipe pres
sure for controlling the supply of ?uid under
pressure to and its rel-ease from said brake cylin
der, and speed controlled means for controlling
said last mentioned means.
62. In a vehicle brake system, in combination, 35
a brake cylinder, a straight air pipe, means for
effecting a supply of ?uid under pressure to said
straight air pipe to effect an application of the
brakes, a retardation controller device for con
trolling straight air pipe pressure, valve means 40
responsive to straight air pipe pressure for con
trolling the supply of ?uid under pressure to and
its release from said brake cylinder, and speed
controlled means operated according to the speed
of the vehicle for controlling the operation of
said valve means.
63. In a vehicle or train brake system, in com
bination, means for establishing a control pres
sure to e?ect an application of the brakes, speed
controlled means, means operated according to
the rate of retardation of the vehicle or train,
means so constructed and arranged that said
speed controlled means and said retardation con
trolled means cooperate to jointly control the de
gree of application or" the brakes, and a switch -
device operated by said control pressure for ren
dering said speed controlled means effective.
-
ELLIS E. HEWI'I'I‘.
CERTlFICATE OF CORRECTION.
Patent No. 2,110,706.
ELLIS E. HEWITT.
March‘ 8, v.1958.
It is hereby certified that error appears in the printed specification
of the above numbered patent requiring correction as follows: Page 11, sec
ond column, line 11, ,claim 6, for the word "controlling" read controlled;
page 12, second column, line 75, claim 22, after "fluid" insert under; page
1h, second column, line L5, claim 58, vstrike out the words "said last men
tioned; and that the said Letters Patent should be read with this correc
tion therein that the same may conform to the recordv of the case in the
Patent Office.
_
Signed and sealed this 27th day of September, A. D. 19586
Henry Van Arsdale
(Seal)
|
n
Acting Commissioner of Patents.
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