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Патент USA US2110729

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March 8, 1938.
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<2. A. HOGGATT
2,110,729
CONSTRUCTION MATERIAL
Original Filed Jan. 3, 1933
VENTOR
6/: 85/97‘
. #060,477"
BY wasrmm 8W
ATTORNEYQ
12,110,729
I . Patented Mar. 8, i938 '
UNITED ‘STATES
PATENT ‘OFFICE "
2,110,729 _
cousrauc'rron MATERIAL
' Gilbert‘ A. Hoggatt, Snyder, N. Y'., assignor to
Certain-Toad Products Corporation, New York,
N. Y., a corporation of Maryland
'
~ ~ .
Original application January‘ 3, 1933, Serial No.
649,777. , Divided and this application Novem'—_
ber 10, 1936, Serial No. 110,080
7 Claims. (Cl. 72-124)
ing material if such material is applied to the base
This invention relates to construction mate
rials, especially construction materials of ?brous surface. Moreover, the methods of producing
the shiplap or rabbeted edge in many cases have
composition. The invention has ‘particular ref
erence to wall -boards"with edges preformed to .' been wasteful, particularly when making‘ pro
particular shapes in'i'order to provide tight joints vision for the space toform a lock for the plaster ‘5 "
5 - between adjacent ‘boards.
"or covering material.
The problems arising in the use of construction
1
'
1
'
-
One object of the present invention, therefore,
materials which must be laid as units or elements -
is to provide a form of shiplap or rabbeted edge
of greater. or less size include the proper forma
for covering units or for wall boards which will
incorporate the features of the forms of units and 10
tion of the joints between such elements to insure
continuity of a surface to be exposed or to pre
' - vent leakage or in?ltration of air through the
structure, as well as to provide a proper support
at the joint for superimposed surfacing materials.
15 Especially in wall boards which are used in
abutted relation to form a continuous surface of
the wall is it desirable or necessary that the con
tinuity of the ?nished surface shall not be marred
wall boardsheretofore proposed but which will
properly take care of the'expanslon. \
Another object of the invention is to utilize a »
method of making such rabbeted edge units or
wall boards which will avoid waste of material 15 '
and secure a production thereof at low cost. ‘
In order to provide more effectively for the ex-v
pansion which ,occurs in construction units and
' by the joint and also that the joint shall be strong . which results in buckling of the units or cracking
and of such form as to prevent the leakage of
' 20
air therethrough, particularly when laid upon an
_ outsidewall. _ Moreover, the joint should be of
- such‘ form in many cases as properly to support
a plaster applied upon the wall board and over
the joint. It is frequently necessary in such
25 cases to provide a lock for the plaster which will
assist in preventing cracking and breaking away
of the plaster at the joint.
7
i
,
of the surface thereofor cracking and breaking 20
away of materials such as wall plasters applied .
thereto, the present invention proposespa form -
of rabbeted joint in which provision is made for
expansion of the joint by means of a space be
tween portions of the adjacent edges of adjacent 25
units while other portions of the edges are in substantial abutment.
>
The edges, however, are so '
‘formed that the portions in abutment may yield
To accomplish such purposes in various typesv under the force of expansion without undue de
' a O.
of construction materials and in wall board, it
has heretofore been proposed to form the edges
0 the units or- elements or of the wall boards
th a so-called “shiplap” or rabbeted 'edg'e.
». Such units or boards may be laid with the‘rabbet
35 of one unit lapping upon the reverse rabbet of
I 'an adjacent unit. Moreover, it ‘has heretofore
_
1 been proposed so- to form such shiplap or rabi
beted edges that when the units or the boards are
so lapped a space of_ greater or less width is left
between
adjacent edges of the units orv boards
.40 on that the
side thereof which is to-be exposed'
, This arrangement provides a recess into which.
plaster or other covering
,
aterial may enter to
form a lock for said coveri g material and makes,
formation or distortion of these portions to effect 30'_
adversely the covering material applied thereto.
Provision is made, therefore, both for the lock
of the covering material such as plaster and for
the expansion of the base unit such as a wall
i
I
board. Cracking and breaking of the plaster or ,35
covering material at the joint are thereby pre- '
vented and buckling of the units,v and consequent
cracking of the face of the covering material or
plaster which occurs when the base is not free to ‘
, expand is also prevented.
40
- The preferred method by'which the product of
the invention is produced comprises the severing
of the material from which the unity is to be
formed in such ‘a way as to remove a minimum of '
45 possible a greater thickness of the plaster over, material, as by a ?ne saw cut, and the subse- 45
quent separation of the two portions‘ of the ma
‘the joint and thereby a stronger plaster joint.
_ The problem of expansion in such a construc
, tion, however,‘ has not been suitably ‘solved.
While'such a space as will provide for a lock in
5
some cases will also take (care of. the expansion,
nevertheless in many cases the abutment of the
‘ edge of oneof the boards against the rabbet of
the other board prevents the free expansion of
the board which is necessary to-prevent buckling
; 55V and cracking or breakage ofthe plaster or ‘cover
terial along a line connecting the cuts.
- ‘
Such a method is the subject of my prior ap
plication, Serial No. 649,777, ?led January '3,
1933, of. which‘ the present application is a 50
division, and provides for the formation of a ,
rabbeted edgeby making two such saw cuts
transversely of the surface of the unit on oppo-‘ 'v
site surfacesof said unit, said cuts being spaced 5
from each other in- a direction parallel to the 55
1
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2
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2,110,729
~
While heretofore it has been proposed to use
boards presenting a recess, such as that shown
surfaces. The ‘cuts. do not extend through the
unit from one surface to the other and the line
of severage or‘ cleavage substantially connects
the inner ends of the two outs in the body of I
the material.
The invention will be more clearly understood ‘
from the following description taken in connec-'
tion with the drawing in which:
at ii in the ?gure, in such prior constructions
the edges of the boards have been so formed
that when the v edge 6 abuts the surface It the‘
edge II will abut-the surface 3 of the rabbet of
the adjacent board.
expansion as it is easier to abut the boards when
laying. Thus no provision has been made for ex
pension of the board because the abutment of
the surfaces I l and 3 prevent relative movement
The ?gure shows inlone embodiment of the in
10 vention an assembly of units having rabbeted
edges.
.
In the figure is shown in cross section the ap
plication of the invention to a joint between wall
boards. The wall board I is formed at its left
15 hand edge in the ?gure with a rabbeted recess
of said boards.
end edge surface H of the tongue ID of one
board and the surface 3 of the rabbet of the over
lapped board. When expansion of the boards
takes place the edge, l.l may move toward the
surface 3 without bringing pressure thereon
which will cause the boards to buckle or which‘ 20
will bring upon the joint forces which will tend
to destroy the joint and cause cracking of the
plaster applied thereto. It' now should be clear
of which the surface 2 forms the surface to be
lapped upon the rabbeted edge of an adjacent
board, is formedwith a bevel surface 5 extend
20 ing from the v-shaped edge 6 reversely upon the
tongue 4. The thickness of the tongue 4 is ap
proximately one-half the thickness of the board
. I, and correspondingly the depth. of ‘the surface
that to provide the space between the'surface II_
3 is approximately one-half the thickness of said
board. These proportions, however, may be
varied within the scope of the‘ invention.
At the opposite edge of the board I and in the.
reverse hand from the tongue 4 is1 formed the
In the present . invention, as
shown in the ?gure, a space is left between the '
provided by the surfaces 2 and 3. The tongue 4,
'25
It has been‘ found to be
difficult to persuade workmen to leave space for
.
and the surface} it is necessary to form the 25
- surface I! of the overlapped tonguev ill on one
edge of the board with less length in the direc
tion of the width of the board than the length in
tongue it having an’ end surface ii and a longi- . said direction of the surface .2.
As may be seen
30
tudinal surface I2.:_The height of the surface II,
is approximately one-half the thickness of the
in the figure, thedifference in length (if the sur— 30
40
surface 'I_ of-the board may be ~substantially the
used as a base for‘ plaster or stucco, sheets or
face 2' and of the surface I! in the overlapped
arrangement of the boards leaves the necessary
board. Thus the surface.“ is about at the mid
dle of the thickness of the board. From the space between the surface H and the surface
inner end of the surface. II of the tongue III a ' l for expansion-of the boards when the V edge
35
bevel surface It extends inwardly toward the is abutted‘ against the bevel it.
As a particular example of the proportions
center of the length of the board but outwardly‘
toward the‘ upper surface "I thereof to form with which are practicable for the embodiment of the
the surface If an obtuse angle. The angle of invention, those suitable for a wall board may
the bevel surface It with respect to the upper be given. For so-called insulating lath which isv
panels of the standard size of 96 inches length
same as that of the surface 8 with said upper
byv 48 inches width may be reduced to smaller
panels of approximately 48 inches by 16‘ ‘inches
surface 1. However, if desired,‘ the angles of
these two surfaces may be different to suit par
" - tlcular conditions.
.
to form the insulating lath. The width of ship
-
lap boards, shown in the figure by the dimension
It will be noted from the ?gure showing three
45
40,
A, correspondingly would be approximatelyld
.such wall boards; one lapped upon the other, that
inches from the V‘ edge 6 to the corner formed
' the V-shapededge t substantially abuts against
by surfaces l2 and I’.
,the' bevel surface it of the adjacent board. As
As an example of the '
dimensions necessary for the rabbeted edges, the
following may be given: For a thickness of board
~in'adjacent units may move with respect to each ‘ about it" the length of the surface '1 may be
other as in any shiplap construction. while about ti" and the length of the surface I! may
these surfaces 2 and. I! have been shown asv be about 1/4", thus leaving a space of approx
straight lines, they may be, otherwise formed to imately V4" for expansion. In a board of such
suit different conditions‘ provided the form of a thickness .the depth of the surface 3 is ap
one with respect‘ to the other is such that the proximately 5’4" and similarly the dimension of
the surfaces 2 and ii are substantially-longitudi
50 nally of thelwiiith of the board, these surfaces
_the surface II is approximately V4". Thus the
overlapping tongue4 of .one board may move
upon the overlapped tongue ll of the adjacent
board without substantial distortion of the
tongues vor substantial movement transverselyv
of the surfaces of the boards. ~ As the V edge of
surfaces 2 and I! are positioned substantially at
the center of the thickness of the board.v The
angle of the bevel surfaces 5 and It may be con- _
yeniently 45 degrees or in some ‘cases the angle
the overlapping tongue 4 moves against the bevel ‘which these surfaces make with the surface ‘I
surface it of an adjacent board under the force ' upon which plaster is to‘be applied may be ap
of expansion, a slight yielding or compression or proximately 120 degrees. Various modi?cations '
_ even a slight crushing of such V edge may occur. of the dimensions ‘may be made within the scope
As the edge 0 presents oniya small amount .of of the,invention, and in order to insure align-v
material against the surface i3, such yielding or _ ment of they surfaces 1 slight clearances between
even such crushing will ,not produce substantial the surfaces 2’ ‘and I: may be provided for.
Moreover, in different forms of units different di
deformation of the joint and plaster or other cov
ering material applied upon the surface ‘I and mensions and clearances and different angles of
_ ‘extending into the recess II‘ between the surfaces the bevel surfaces may be used. It willbe ap
5 and II of- adjacent boardswili not be subject parent that a movementof one board with re
to an extreme force whlchjwili tend to crack spect to the other-may’produce a compression
the plaster at the joint and to cause it'to chip off or a crushing'of the V edge 8 upon the surface
is
or break. away.
.
,
'
’ II of the adjacent board but that ample space a 75
aria-m9
.,
v
I
_
3
v
allowed between‘ the surfaces II- and 3 for such ' takes the edgewise bearing of said rabbet against
expansion without bringing the surfaces lI-and 3
vinto contact.
.
,
In order to form the V-shaped recesses or'
for overlapping upon the rabbeted edges of simi~
beveled surfaces which have been described above
lar units, the length of the rabbet of one edge
of .the unit being longer than that of the other
in connection with the ?gure, a cutter or in some
cases a grinding wheel which has a form in sec
tion to provide at its rim a. V of the desired angle
10
the other member.
_ 2. A structural unithaving two vrabbeted edges
y
5 ,
edge thereof, the portion of the unit adjacent the ‘
long length of the rabbet being beveled on its
and of the desired position with respect to the 1 exterior end surface so to form a V edge with
plane of rotation, i. e., whether symmetrical ‘with said long rabbet that said V‘, edge substantially 10
said plane of rotation of said cutter or other». takes the bearing of edgewise contact between said
wise, may be used. ‘Thushin one operation a similar units.
bevel edge board may be produced in the manner
3. A structural unit having two rabbeted edges-a
described in my prior application, Serial No. _ for overlapping, upon the rabbeted edges of simi
15 649,777, filed January 3, 1933. By using in ac-. lar units, the length of the rabbet of one edge
cordance with the process .of said prior appli
of the unit being longer than that of the other
cation a saw or cutter of proper width for the edge thereof, the portion of the unit adjacent the
lower cut the width of the space between the ‘long length of the rabbet being beveled on its
surfaces H and 3 are shown in the ?gure may be exterior end surface to form a V edge with said
'imade such as to leave room for expansion of the ' long rabbet,.the portion of the unit adjacent the}?
boards. By suitably positioning the saws or the ' 1 interior transverse surface of the rabbet of shorter 39,-.
cutters or the grinding wheels, the dimensions
length being beveled to form'an obtuse angle
desired for the surfaces 2 and I2 as well as for
with said rabbet of shorter length, the remaining
the relation of the other surfaces ‘of the edges of
transverse surfaces of the two rabbets being‘ in‘ I
the board may be obtained. - -
In‘ applying the invention in the production of ‘
units or elements of some kinds of materialthe
cleavage or breakage of the body‘ structure of the
material along the line of cleavage may result in
surfaces ‘which are not sufllciently smooth. These
surfaces may result from the tearing away of
?bres from one side, by the other or from. the
interspersed relation of the particles forming the
body structure, said particles having parts there
of extending over the line of cleavage into the
body structure on the opposite “side thereof. In
some cases such rough surfaces are not a disad
vantage, particularly when the units or elements
are to be lapped again in the same position as ‘
such relation to their respective rabbets as" to
provide clearance therebetween when said V, edge
is in contact with said obtuse beveled edge.
_4. A wall board having two of its edges rabbeted
in‘generally complementary relation to permit
one edge of one wall board to be lapped upon the -30
other edge of another board, the length of the
tongue of the, rabbet of one edge being greater
than the length of the tongue of the'rabbet of
the other edge,. said rabbets being so formed that
when the edge of the longer tongue is abutted
against the interior end surface of the other
rabbet the tongue of said other rabbet will not
abut the interior end surface of the first. rabbet,
said longer tongue having its abutting edge of
40 that in which they were broken‘ apart. In some substantially less thickness than the thickness
cases, however, it may be necessary to smooth of said tongue to provide yielding contact when
these surfaces by running the separated units or in said abutting relation.
'
portions over an emery wheel or other device to;
5. A wall board having two of' its edges rabbeted
bring the rough surface down substantially to in generally complementary relation to permit
' i
the center of the width of the board.
one edge of one wall board to be lapped upon the
.'
This is the more necessary when units. such ‘"as
wall boards are to be arranged upon a supporting
structure without any superimposed coating such
as plaster which will cover the joint, although
'50 in some cases it- may be also necessary to smooth
the rough surface in order to insure that the ex
terior surfaces of two adjacent boards shall be
aligned.
'
,
'.
~
‘
46
,
7
While the invention has been described and
I illustrated more particularly in connection with
Wall boards, it is applicable to other types of .
construction units and construction materials,
whether of granular or ?brous or other body
other edge of another board, the length of the
tongue of the rabbet of one edge being greater
than the length of the tongue of the rabbet of. » '
the other edge, said rabbets being so formed that
when the edge of the longer tongue is abutted
against the interior end surface of the other‘
*rabbet the tongue of said other rabbet will not‘
abut the interior end surface of the ?rst rabbet,
said longer tongue having its exterior end sur
face so formed with respect to the length‘ of the 55
tongue as to present a relatively weak edge for
abutment against said interior end surface of
' the other rabbet.
'
,
6._A wall board having shiplap edges, one of C -
60 structure. In particular, however, the invention 'the tongues; of said edges being longer than that
is useful in the formation‘ of shiplap edges on of the other, said longer tongue being formed
panelsof wall boards of ?brous materials which ' with a beveled edge, the interior end surface of
have not a great resistance to crushing of the the other shiplap edge of said board being formed
‘edge thereof when reduced» in thickness or relative to said beveled edge substantially to
brought to a sharp edge.
take the bearing thereof under edgewise ex
pansion-of said wall board in two boards with
What‘ is claimed is:
l. A structural member having rabbeted edges their edges in lapped arrangement.
inv generally complementary relation to permit ‘
7. A structural member having rabbeted edges
lapping one edge of one member upon the other in generally complementary relation to ‘permit
65
edge of another member and having one rabbet
one edge of 'one member to be lapped upon the 70
longer than the other, the shape of that por
other edge of another member, the length of the
tongue of the rabbet of one edge being greater
than the length of the tongue-of the rabbet of
the other edge, the shape of the tongue of the
‘ tion of .the member forming the longer rabbet
being such as to provide an edge ofrrelatively
weak structure with respect _to the remaining
structure of the member, which edge substantially ' longer rabbet being such as to provide an edge 75
4
2,110,729
of relatively weak structure with respect to the
remaining portion of said tongue, said tongues
of said rabbets being so formed with respect to
each other that said weak edge of the longer
5 tongue may contact a surface of the other rabbet
of said other member but so as to provide clear
ance between the remaining surfaces of the
rabbets which would offer resistance to edgewise'
movement of said members with‘respect to each
other.
.
GILBERT A. HOGGA'I'I‘.
5
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