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Патент USA US2110850

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March 8, 1938.
E. B. sYMoNs
2,110,850
CRUSHING METHOD
Filed Feb. l0, 1934
häw w@
5 Sheets-Sheet 1
March 8, 1938.
E. B. SYMONS
2,1%,850
CRUSHING METHOD
Filed Feb. lO, 1934
a.
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L5
3 Sheets-Sheet 2
March 8, 1938.
E. B. sYMoNs
CRUSH ING METHOD
2,110,850
Patented Mar. 8, 1938
2,116,850
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE
2,110,850
CRUSHING LIETHOD
Édgar B. Symons, Hollywood, Calif., assignor to
Nordberg Manufacturing Company, Milwaukee,
Wis., a corporation of Wisconsin
'
Application February 10, 1934, Serial No. 710,591
3 Claims. (Cl. 83-46)
My invention relates to crushing methods and discharge chute or spcut A1, with associated for
has for one- purpose the provision of a new wardly extending side guide Walls A2. A3 il--`
crushing method, operating on a new principle
and effecting a crushing or breaking down of
larger particles to particles of small size with a
minimum use of power and a maximum crushing
speed and effectiveness. Another object is the
provision of a novel method of impact crushing,
whereby material moved along a given course,
10 for ample by gravity, is caused to take a sub
stantially instantaneous change of direction by
impact.
It may thereafter be arrested or caused
to take a second change of direction by a fur
ther impact, giving two stages of reduction at a
15 single operation. Other objects will appear from
time to time in" the course of the specification
and claims. One apparatus employed in the
practice and process herein described and
claimed, is illustrated, described and claimed in
20 my co-pending application No. 710,592, illed Feb
ruary 10, 1934.
"se-
I illustrate my invention more or less diagram
matically in the accompanying drawings, where
in-
25
-
Figure 1 is a diagrammatic side elevation of
the device;
Figure 2 is a plan view;
Figure 3 is a vertical section through the im
pact portion of the device;
30
Figure 4 is a horizontal section on the line
4-_4 of Figure 3;
Figure 5 is a section on the line 5_5 of Fig
ure 3;
.
“
FigureV 6 is a section on the line 6-6 of Fig
35
ure 3.
-
'
Like parts are indicated by like symbols
throughout the specification and drawings.
'Referring to the drawings, I show a mechanism
which may be used to practice my method,
40 though other means might be employed. I il
lustrate generally a device for elevating mate
rial, by conveyors or the like, for a free gravital
drop. It will be understood, however, that the
propulsion of the material into the impact zone,
45 preferably obtained by a free gravital drop, may
be obtained by other methods or means of pro
pulsion.
Referring to the drawings in detail, A gen
erally indicates any suitable bin or source of sup
ply of the material to be crushed. This indi
cation'is intended to be diagrammatic and clear
ly material from another conveyor, mine car or
the like might be delivered to the device without
the intermediary of a bin. For purpose of illus
55 tration, however, I illustrate the bin A and a
lustrates any suitable conveying means for ele
vating the material to be dropped and crushed. I illustrate it as an endless conveyor passing
about a lower pulley A4 and an upper pulley A5,
which may if desired be driven through the drive
pulley A6 with its belt A7 extending to any suit
able power source. It will be understood that
in this form of device, material discharged to the
conveyor A3 will move in the direction of the ar
rows upwardly along the conveyor in response
to the movement of the conveyor through its
closed path. 'I'he side walls A2 serve to prevent
any side escape of the material adjacent the point
of delivery from the spout A1.
As the material passes upwardly along the
conveyor A3 it is eventually discharged when the
conveyor passes about the pulley A5, and drops
down the vertical guide passage B. Assuming
that a mass of mixed material is discharged
down the passage B, with dust, fines and the
like, mixed in, it may be advantageous, in order
to prevent waste of crushing power, to remove
some of the fines. I may eiîect this by any suit
able screening along the path of the conveyor
A3 but find a practical solution to be the pro»,
vision of air inlet and outlet apertures in the
passage B, whereby a blast of air may be blown
across the passage, transversely of vthe path of
drop of the material. 'I'his blast of air will carry
oiï a substantial proportion of the dust or ñnes.
I illustrate therefore, an inlet passage B1, outlet
passages IB2 and air propelling means B3, where
by the fine material may be carried oil. It will
be understood, of course, that such passages are
screened as at B4 or provided with mesh of such
size that the particles desired to be crushed can
not escape. The use of this preliminary air
cleaning in many circumstances is helpful but
the crushing method may be used without it.
Assume that the material to be crushed has
been dropped by the conveyor A3 or by any other
suitable means, into the top of the passage B,
and that it is falling downwardly through said
passage. It will be understood that the passage
B may be of such length that the material, if
dropped on a fixed surface or anvil, would be
moving fast enough to be crushed by the impact
of its gravity accelerated drop. However, I ob
tain a more efficient crushing action by employ
ing a moving impact member provided with one
or more impact faces E9, the speed of movement
and the angle of which, in relation to the drop
of the particles along the passage B, is such as 55
2
2,110,850
to cause an immediate stoppage and change of
direction of the individual particles. 'I‘his re
three separate sections. These sections are se
cured to the rotor as by bolts E3 and tie plates E3.
duces to a minimum friction or abrasion of the
The bolts E3 pass through apertures in the rim
D10 or the transverse ribs D13 and smaller bolts
E4 pass through the tie plates E3 and the adjoin
impact surface, which would otherwise be very
great, and cause a redirection of the particles,
as shown in Figure 3, along a new direction of
travel, at the end of which the particles may
again be arrested by a second crushing impact
against the plates G0. It will be understood that
ing free end of one of the ring sections E and are
connected at their inner ends with interior wear
plates E5 as shown for example in Figure 6. The
impact plate or plates proper indicated as E", rest
10 whereas preferably the speed of the particles as
on the forward inclined faces of the transverse 10
they move along the passage B is sumcient to
ribs D13. Each plate has a. laterally extending
lug E0 at each side, which lugs are seated in cor
responding slots El in the side plates or rings E.
In order to hold the wear plates in place, I pro
vide wedges E10 which slide between the opposed 15
edges of the side ring E as shown for example in
cause their crushing or separation upon impact,
I may rely only partially or in some circumstances
little or not at all, upon the actual drop of the
material and, by speeding up the impact member,
may obtain a crushing separation by the rotation
of the impact member through the falling stream
of particles. l It will be understood, however, that
in the form shown in the present drawings the
20 passage B may illustratively be considered to be
of sufficient height to impart to the particles a
velocity _suiiicient to cause their crushing in re
sponse to a stoppage at the end of their fall. The
stoppage and change of direction causes a very
substantial crushing or reduction in size of the
particles and the particles are directed in a stream
against the second impact member G0, where they
receive a second impact, and thus are subjected
to two stages of reduction in immediate succes
30
sion.
-
"
In the practice of my method, the high gravity
spout or chute B is an important factor, as it im
parts to the falling particles a gravital speed or
acceleration sufñcient to carry substantially all
of the falling particles into the path of the impact
members El.
Tne height ofthe chute B is so re
lated to the peripheral spacing of the members E'1
and to the speed of rotation of the rotor, that all
or substantially all of the particles are contacted
40 by a full face impact, which prevents, or reduces
to a minimum, the glancing blows against the
upper edge of the impact members E", which
would otherwise prevent the substantiallyinstan
taneous and complete change of direction de
45 scribed elsewhere herein and diagrammatically
illustrated by the arrows and the stream of par
ticles shown in Figure 3.
Referring to the specific structure for obtaining
this result, I provide a housing generally indi
cated as C, which includes the top portion C1,
the rear wall C3. the forward wall C3, and side
walls C4. C5 indicates any suitable lower dis
charge chute which has an inclined wall C0 and
if desired an intermediate inclined wall C".
The housing C may be fixed upon any suitable
55
foundation D, as shown in Figure 5, and adjacent
the housing are bases or supports D1 for any suit
able bearing systems D3 in which rotate the ends
D4 of the shaft D3. D0 is a drive pulley for the
60 shaft D3 which may be in communication with
any suitable power source. I illustrate, for ex
ample, in Figure 2, the belt D0 and the motor D'1
with its drive pulley D0. It will be understood
that the shaft D3 may be rotated, at a desirable
65 speed or speeds, by the actuation of the motor D".
In order to minimize wear of the bearings and
undue strain of the shaft and rotor, I have illus
trated in Figure 5 the bearing members D3 as
being cushioned in rubber sleeves D15 mountedl in
70 split bearing housing D10.
Secured to opposite sides of the rim D10 and
the transverse ribs D13 are the side rings indi
cated as E. These rings may be channeled as at
_ E1 to receive a corresponding projection from the
75 rim D10. Each ring is shown as being formed of
Figures 3 and 6.
There is a cam or Wedge sur
face E11 against which a corresponding face of
the wedge E10 rides and a tightening bolt or stem
E13 is provided which may be drawn inwardly as
byv a nut E13, the pin E13 passing through a boss
E14 integral with the ñange D10. It will be under
stood that tightening up on the bolt E13 will draw
the wedge E10 inwardly along the Wedge surface
E11 and cause the opposite side of the wedge E10
to lock against the lug E0 of the impact plate E".
Not only is the impact plate thus firmly locked,
but it is also easily removable for replacement or
change. For example, the worn plate may be
removed or the angle of the plate may be varied
by putting in refill impact plates of varying angle.
In such case the wedge E10 may also be replaced
by a wedge of somewhat different shape or -con
tour. In order to prevent material from packing
in outside of the side plate or ring members E,
I provide a circular flange E30 extending inwardly
from each side wall C* of the housing. This
structure will be clear for example from Figure 5.
In order to provide ready access to the interior
of the device I may have one or more removable 40
Walls, covers or the like. I illustrate for example,
in Figure 3, the side Wall portion E31 and top wall
portion E33, which are hinged as at E33 for ready
removal as indicated in dotted lines.
It will be understood that as the material is
dropped down the passage B and is engaged by
the impact faces E", it is caused to move gener
ally laterally in the direction of the arrows as
shown in Figure 3. The particles so delivered
are initially crushed at the instant of-. impact 50
and these smaller particles are delivered laterally -
at high velocity. I provide an additional breaker
plate structure, generally indicated as `G'. for
receiving this high velocity delivery of the small
er particles and for imparting to them, by im 55
pact of stoppage, a further crushing or grind
ing effect. In practice if the material is de
livered in suiilcient volume and' suiliciently stead
ily down the passage B, the smaller particles will
be delivered against the breaker plate structure 60
G at such a speed as to build up something of a
mass of material on the forward face of the
breaker plate, and the smaller particles will
tend to strike this mass of material, causing a
very substantial grinding action of particle 65
against particle as well as of impact against the
plate proper. In order to effect this result I pro
vide an arcuate supporting wall structure G1, ì
herein shown as of two angular members, hinged
as at G3 lfor ready removal, cleaning or the like. 70
It is normally held i‘lxed as by the bolts G3 one
end passing through angles G4 on the housing
side wall C4. The structure G includes an upper
angle G1s through which the bolts G3 pass, and
which is in connection with the frame proper G1. 75
2,110,850
The impact plates proper G0, of which two are
shown, are bolted to the angle or frame mem
stoppage and change of direction of each par
ticle, by moving across the stream of falling or
bers G1 for ready removability. It will be noted
that the contour of the plate G0 is generally ar
sion of impact members. The impact member
cuate, the purpose being to insure that there willbe an immediate and complete stoppage of the
material received by the plate and no glancing
or angular blow. The speed of the rotor is such
that all of the material impacted is caught by the
10 impact faces proper E". However, this material,
owing to the speed of rotation, is delivered
through somewhat varying paths and the im
pact plates G6 are curved so that no matter
V15
3
moving material an impact member or a succes
or members are set at such an angle to the fall
ing stream and are moved at such a speed in
relation to the speed of the falling particles as
to effect a practically instantaneous stoppage
and change of direction of each particle.
Referring to Figure 3, the impact members 10
E9 are rotated across the path of falling particles
and direct them against the impact plate G0.
further understood that as one of the impact
Their speed of movement is sufficient to effect a
further reduction or breakage at that point. The
plate G6 is curved because the path of move 15
ment of the impact directed material from the
member E9 varies in angle as the impact mem
ber moves through the falling stream. All the
material engages the impact plate G6 directly,
and with no sliding or angling. This being true 20
of the engagement of the particles against E9 as
plates E’1 passes beyond the ‘line 0f drop of the
well as G0, abrasion or wear of the plate is re
whatangle the material may take in relation to
its previous travel down the passage B, it will
take a path substantially vertical to the opposed
portion of the impact plates. In effect the im
pact plates deñne an arc the center of which is
the face of the rotor impact plate E" when it is
20 aligned vertically with thepassage B. It will be
, material along the passage B another impact
platecrosses the stream before any of the mate
25 rial can drop far enough to engage the ñange
D10. Thus every particle dropped down the pas
sage B is actually caught by one of the impact
duced to a minimum. The rotation of the shaft
D3 is at such a rate that none of the falling parti
cles can fall through the ring defined by the rota 25
tion of the members E9 without being impacted
by one of them. None of the particles can drop
down onto the portion D10 of the rotor. Fur
thermore, the successive increments to particles
delivered against the plate G0 may come so 30
plates E" and is thereby crushed by impact, and
the crushed particles are thereby projected
30 against the ~fixed impact plates G0 for a further
crushing and grinding against the plate G8 and
rapidly as to build up a species of sheet or mat
the mass of material on its surface. In other
words, one charge of material delivered by an
of material. In other words, the particles which
have already been broken by impact against the
impact plate does not have a chance to drop
surface E9 are directed into the mass »of particles
35 away from the face of the plate G6 before the
next charge engages it.
All of the material separated drops down across
the inclined surfaces C6 or C7 and thus passes
from the crusher. Under many circumstances I
40 find it desirable to employ this crusher in closed
resting against or falling across the surface of
the plate G0. The result is not merely an im
pact breakage against the plate G0, but also a
grinding of particle against particle which
circuit, to screen out the finer material produced
by the crushing operation and to return the over
size for a further crushing. This may be done
by a variety of suitable mechanisms and for pur
45 pose of illustration, I illustrate but one.
I may
employ the endless conveyor H passing about the
lower pulley H1 and the upper pulley H2. It may
be driven for example from the motor H3 through
the belt H4 and the drive pulley H5, pinion H0
50 and the gear H". ’I'he material delivered from
the crusher, in the form of the device shown in
Figures 1 and 2, is picked up by the belt H and
carried to a distribution member HB whence by
chutes H0, H10 it may be delivered to screens H11,
55 H12. The oversize from these screens is delivered
by discharge chutes H13, H14 to the up-conveyor
A3. The screened material may be delivered to a
different conveyor H15 and thus escape fram/t e
crushing circuit.
60
f ^ï
It will be realized that whereas I have shown
a practical and operative device for carrying out
my method, nevertheless, I wish the description
and drawings herein to be taken as in a real and
broad sense illustrative and diagrammatic rather
than as limiting me to the speciñc mechanism
causes a maximum separation important for
fine crushing.
,
40
Whereas my method may very efiiciently be
employed in connection with a freely falling
column of material, it will be understood that it
may be practiced by other mechanisms. For
example, the material might be allowed to` slide 45
down an/ inclined plate into the impact zone, or it
might be moved or thrown into the impact zone by
other means. The particular details of the
mechanism are therefore given not to limit the
method but to indicate some one mechanism 50
which can be practically used in practicing the
method.
I claim:
1. The method of limiting abrasion in impact
crushing which includes delivering ythe particles 55
to be crushed in an unconsolidated stream along
a predetermined and laterally limited path and
at a predetermined rate of speed, rotating a plu
rality of impact members having faces rearward
lly inclined to the direction of movement of the 60
particles so fed, and lying in planes parallel with
their axis of rotation, through a predetermined
path intersecting the path of feed of the parti
cles, at speed sufficient to crush the particles,
and which speed is effective, in connection with 65
the- angle of said impact members and the speed
herein shown or to the speci/fic sequence of steps
described. My method may be practiced with a
variety of mechanisms without departing from - of feed of the particles when struck, to cause
an instantaneous change of direction of the
the spirit of my invention.
70 , The use and operation of my invention are as particles, without slippage of the particles across
the surfaces of the impact members, and thereby
follows:
,
Most broadly stated, my method is directed projecting the particles entirely out of the path
to advancing or moving a stream of material, of movement of the impact members along a
by gravity or otherwise into an impact zone, and path generally at right angles to the faces of
there causing the substantially instantaneous
said impact members, and thereafter removing
4
' 2,1 lasso
said particles along a path remote from said
and thereafter removing said particles alongl a
path remote from said impact members.
3. The method of limiting abrasion in impact
crushing which includes- delivering- the particles 4crushing which includes delivering the particles
vto be crushed in an unconsolidated stream along to be crushed in an unconsolidated stream along
a predetermined and laterally limited path and a predetermined and laterally limited path and
impact members.
'
l*
.
2. The method of limiting-abrasion in impact
at a predetermined rate of speed, rotating a plu
at a predetermined rate of speed, rotating a plu
rality of impact members `having faces rear
rality of impact -members having substantially
wardly inclined to the direction of movement of
iiat faces rearwardly inclined to the direction of
movement of the particles so fed, through a pre
determined path intersecting the path of feed of
the particles, at speed sumcient to crush the
particles, and which speed is effective, in con
nection with the angle of said impact members
with respect to the direction and the speed of 15
10 the particles'l so fed, and’lying in planes parallel
with their axis of rotation, through a predeter
mined path intersecting the path of feed of the
particles, at speed sufllcient to crush the parti
cles, and which speed is effective, in connection
15 with the angle of said’impact members and the
speed of feed of the particles when struck, to
cause an instantaneous change of direction of the
particles, without slippage of the particles across
the surfaces of the impact members, and thereby
20 projecting the particles entirely out of the path
of movement of the impact members along .a
l path generally at right angles to the faces of said
impact members. and terminating' said projec
tion by a secondary impact delivered by a fixed
25 member the surface of which is normal to the
path of movement of said impacted particles,
feed of the particles when struck, to cause an in
stantaneous change of direction of the particles,
without slippage of .the particles across the sur
faces of the impact members, and thereby pro
jecting the particles entirely out of the path of 20
lmovement of the impact members along a path
generally at right angles to the faces of the im
pact members, and thereafter removing said
particles along a path remote from said impact
members.
25
»
EDGAR B. SYMONS.
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