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Патент USA US2110851

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March 8, 1938.
E. B. SYMONS
2,110,851
IMPACT CRUSHER
Filed Feb. 10, 19:54
3 Sheets-Sheet 1
1322/672502/
2745790r3. ?y/rzwas'
' @ M M
March ‘8, 1938.
- E. B. sYMoNs
_ , 2,110,851
IMPACT CRUSHER
Filed Feb. 10, 1934
Y
3 Sheets-Sheet 3
Infezzfar
I 2,110,351?
Patented are 1938
- PATENT; OFFICE.
‘UNIT-Eli) .STATES2,110,851
mrAc'r causnnaa
Edgar B. Symons, Hollywood, Calif., assignor 'to
~ Nordberg Manufacturing Company, Milwaukee.
‘ Wis., a corporation of Wisconsin
Application February 10, 1934, Serial No. 116,592
_
2 Claims.
(01. 83-46)
conveyingvmeans for‘ elevating the material to
be
dropped and crushed. I illustrate it as an
and has for purpose the provision of a new crush
endless conveyor passing about a lower pulley A4
' ing mechanism, operating on a new .principle and effecting a crushing or breaking down of larger and an upper pulley A?which may if desired be
driven through the drive pulley A6 with its beltv 5
5 .particles to particles of small size with a mini *A'‘ extending to any suitable power source. It
mum use ‘of power and a maximum crushing will be understood that in this form of my de-,‘
‘ My invention relates to crushing machinery
speed and Feffectiveness. Another object is the
. T provision of a novel impact crusher, whereby ma
terial moved along a given course, for example
10 -by gravity, is caused to take‘ a substantially in
stantaneous change of direction by impact. It
vice, material discharged to the conveyor A3 will‘~
move in the direction of the arrows upwardly
along the conveyor A3 inlre'sponse-to the move- 10
ment of the conveyor throughjits closed path.
The side walls A” serve to prevent any side escape >
may thereafter be arrested or caused to‘ take a -of the material adiacentthe ‘point of delivery
second change of direction by‘a further impact,
the" spout A1.
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' giving two stages of reduction at a single opera-_ ;p from
_ As the material passes, upwardly along the 15
15 tion. Other'obiects will appearlfrom timev t5
. time in'the course of the speci?cation and claims.
1 The present application illustrates a structure
: adapted for the practice of the process described
~ and claimed in my coy-pending applicatiori, Ser.
20 vNo. 710,591, ?led February 10, 1934..
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' » I illustrate myinvention more or less diagram
, :natically' in the accompanying drawings, where
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1 is a diagrammatic side elevation of
25 the device;
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Figure 2 is a plan view;
Figure 3' is‘ a vertical sectionithrough the‘ im
. ,pact portion of thedevice;
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, Figure 4 is a‘ horizontal section on the line 4-4
v.
30 of FIsureB;
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ure 3.
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suming that a mass of mixed material is dis
charged down the passage 3, with dust, ?nes 20
and the'like mixed in, it may be advantageous, in .
order to prevent waste or crushing power, to, re
move some of the ?nes. I may e?ect this by any
suitable screening along the path of the conveyor
A3 but ?nd a practical solution to be the pro- 25
vision of air inlet and outlet, apertures in the
passage B,‘ whereby a blast 'of air may be blown
across thepassage, transversely of the path of
drop of the material. This blast of air will carry
o?.’ a substantial proportion of the dust or ?nes. 30
Iillustrate therefore, an inlet passage B1, outlet
passagesZBz and air propelling means B3, where
'by the fine material may be- carried oil. It will
Figure 6 is a section on the line 8-6 0!‘ F18
be understood, of course, that such passages are
as at B" or provided with mesh of such 35
Like parts are indicated by. like . symbolsv screened
size that the particles desired to be crushed can
ure 3;
35
@
Figure'dis a section on the line 5-5 of-"Flgs
conveyor A?‘ it is eventually discharged when
the conveyor passes about the pulley A5, and
drops down the vertical guide passage B. As
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throughout the speci?cation and drawings.v
'not escape. The use of this preliminary air
cleaning in many circumstances is helpful but
the crushing method may be used without it. .
Assume that the material to be crushed has 40
veyors or the like, for a- free gravital drop. ' It been dropped by- the conveyor or by any other
will be understood, however, that the propulsion 1 suitable means into the top of the passage B, and
of the material into'the impact zone, preferably that it is falling downwardly through said pas
obtained by a freegravital drop, may be ob
sage. It will be understood that the passage 3
Referring to, the drawings, I show a mecha
nism embodying my invention. 1 illustrate gen
erallya device for elevating material,‘ by con
tained by other methods or means. of propul
as
may be' of such length that the material, if 45
on a ?xed surface or anvil, would be
Referring to the drawings in detail,.A_ generally dropped
moving fast enough to be crushed by the im
indicates any suitable bin or source ‘of supply of pact of its gravity accelerated drop. However, I
the material to becrushed. This indication is obtain a more emcient-crushing action by em
sion.
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_ . intended to be diagrammatic, and material from
50 another conveyor, mine car or the like might be‘
ploying a moving impact member provided with 50
one or more impact faces E", the speed of move
ment and the angle of which, in relation to the ,
spout A1, with associated forwardly extending
drop of the particles, along the passage B, is such
as to cause 'an- immediate stoppage and change
of direction of the individual particles. This '55
delivered to the device without the ‘intermediary
‘or a bin. For purpose of illustration, however,
I illustrate thebin A and adischarge chute or
55 side guide walls A’. A3 illustratesvany suitable
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2,110,851
reduces to a minimum friction or abrasion of the rotor. They may be strengthened by intermedi
impact surface, which would otherwise be very
ate ribs D13 which appear in Figures 3 and 6.
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great, and causes a re-direction of the particles
Secured to opposite sides of the rim D1‘? and
as shown in Figure v3, along a new direction of the transverse ribs D12 are the side rings in
travel, at the end of which the particles may dicated as E. These rings may be channeled as
again be arrested by a second crushing impact at E1 to receive a corresponding projection from
against the plates G“. . It will be understood that the rim‘Dm. Each ring is shown as being formed
whereas preferably the speed of the particles as of three separate sections.. These sections are
they move along the passage B is sufficient to secured to the rotor as by bolts E2 and tie plates
10 cause their crushing or separation upon impact,
I may rely only partially or‘ in some circum
The bolts E2 pass through apertures in the
rim D1" or the transverse ribs D13 and smaller ~
‘ E3.
stances little or notat all, upon the actual drop
of the material and, by speeding up the impact
member, may obtain a crushing operation by the
rotation of the impact member through the fall
ing stream of particles. It will'be understood,
bolts E4 pass through the tie plates E3 and the '
adjoining free end of one of the ring sections E,
and are connected at their ‘inner ends with in
terior wear plates E". as shown for example in 15
considered to be of su?lcient‘height to impart to
laterally extending lug E" at each‘side', which
lugs are seated in corresponding slots E“ in the 20
side plates or rings E. ‘In order- to hold the wear
Figure 6. The impact plate or'plates proper, in- _' .
however, that in the form shown in the present » dicated as E", rest on the forward inclined faces
drawings the passage B may illustratively be of the transverse ribs D1". .Each plate has, a
20 the particles a velocity su?iclent to cause their
crushing in response to a stoppage at the end
of their fall. The stoppage and change of direc
tion causes a very substantial crushing or. reduc
tion in size of the particles and the reduced
plates in place I provide wedges Emrwhich slide , - '
between the opposed edgesof the side ring E as‘
shown'for example in Figures 3 and 6. There
25 particles aredirected in a stream against the . is a cam or wedge surface]!u against‘ which a
second impact member (3*, where they receive .. corresponding face of the wedge E1“ rides, and a
a second impact, and thus are subjected to two
. stages of reduction in immediate succession.
25'
tightening bolt or stem E1" is provided which
may be drawn inwardly as by a nut E1", the pin
E". passing through a boss E14 integral with the
In the use of my device, thehigh gravity spout
l'or chute B is an important factor, as it‘imparts . ?anged)". It will be understood that tighten '30
to the falling particles a gravital .speed or ac
ing up on the- bolt E13 will draw the wedge E1°
celeration su?icient to carry substantially all of
the falling particles into‘ the path‘ of the impact
inwardlyalong the wedge surface E11 and cause
the opposite side of the wedge E“ to lock against
the lug ll:3 of the impact plate E". Not only is
members E". The height of the chute B is so
related to the peripheral spacing of the members the impact plate thus ?rmly locked, but it is also
E" and to the speed of rotation of the rotor, that easily removable for replacement or change. For
all or substantially all of the particles “are con
example, the worn plate may be removed or the
tacted by a full face impact, which prevents, or - angle of the plate may be varied by putting in ‘
reduces to a minimum, the‘ glancing j blows re?ll impact plates of varying angle. Insuch‘
against the upper edge of the impact membersv case the wedge E1° may also be replaced by a 40
E", which would otherwise prevent the substan wedge of somewhat di?erent shape or contour‘.
tially instantaneous and complete change of di ' In order to prevent material from packing in
rectlon described elsewhere herein and diagram-' outside of the side plate or ring members E, I
matlcally illustrated by the arrows and the stream ' provide a circular ?ange E=° extending inwardly
45 of particles shown in Figure 3.
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‘ from each side wall 0* of the housing. This struc 45
Referring to the speci?c structure for obtain; turn will be clear for example from Figure 5.
ing this result, I provide a housing generally In order to provide ready access to the interior
indicated as C, which includes the lb!) portion of the device I may have one or more‘ removable
01, the rear wall 0", the forward wall 0?, and '
50 side walls 0*. C‘ indicates any suitablelower walls, covers or the like. I illustrate for example, 50
in Figure 3, the side wall portion E11 and top
discharge chute which has an inclined wall‘Cc
and if desired an intermediate‘ inclined-wall C".
wall portion E”, which is hinged as at E” for,
ready removal as indicated in dotted lines.
The housing C may be ?xed upon any'suitable ‘
.It will be understood that as the material is
foundation D, as shown in Figure 5,‘ and adja
dropped down the‘v passage 13 and is engaged by
cent the housing are bases or supports D1 for the impact faces E", it is caused to move generally
any suitable bearing systems D2 in which rotate laterally in the direction of the arrows as shown
55,
.the ends D4 of the shaft D‘. v D‘ is a drive pulley ' 4 in Figure 3.- . The particles so delivered are ini
for the shaft D3 which may be in communica- , tially crushed at the instant-oi impact and these
tion with any suitable power source. ‘I- illus-' smaller particles are delivered laterally at high I
80 trate, for example, in Figure 2,‘ the‘ belt D‘ and velocity. I provide an additional breaker plate
the motor D" with its drive pulley
It will ‘structure, generally indicated asG, for receiving
be understood that the shaft D" may be rotated, this high velocity delivery of the smaller particles ' '
at a desirable speed or speeds, by the actuation and for imparting to them; by impact of stoppage,
of the motor D". In order to minimize wear of
65 the bearings and undue strain of the shaft and
rotor. I have illustrated in Figure 5 the bearing
members D' as being cushioned in rubber sleeves
D15 mounted in split bearing housings D". Ro
a-Hfurther crushing or grinding eil'ect. In prac
tiee if the material is delivered in sumcient vol» -.
nine and sumciently steadily‘ down the passage 3,
the smaller particles will be delivered against the
breaker plate structure G at such a speed as to
tating with and keyed upon the shaft D3 is ‘the build up something of a mass of material on the
70 rotorhub D". Extending around it ish circular ,fdrward face of the breaker plate, and the smaller 70
?ange D1° connected to it by the web D11. Out
particles will tend to strike this mass of material,
wardly extending from the rim_D1° are a plu ‘ causing a very substantial grinding action of par
rality of ribs or projections D12 which are in- , ticle against particle as well as of impact against
clined backwardly from the radius of the. motor, . :the plate proper. In order to effect this result I
in relation to the direction of rotation of the provide an arcuate supporting wall structure G1
1,5.
- 2,110,851
herein shown as of two angular members G1
hinged as at G3 for ready removal, cleaning or
the like. It is normally held ?xed as by the bolts
Gra one end passing through angles G4 on the
housing side wall 0“. Thestructure G includes
‘an upper angle C‘:5 through which the bolts Ci3
pass, and which is‘ in connection ,with the frame
proper G1. The impact plates ‘proper (36, of
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my invention. For example, the particular'con
veying or elevating mechanism herein shown may
be widely varied,- or where the‘device is not used
in closed circuit may even be dispensed‘with en
tirely. The air cleaning‘ mechanism whereby
fines are drawn or blown from the stream of
falling particles ‘maybe valuable but is not essen
iia-l. Also a wide variety ‘of separating means may
be employed ‘for separating ?nes or undersize par- _
which two are shown, are bolted to the angle or ticles from the material to be crushed. Whereas 10
frame members G1 for ready removability. It, I have illustrated an ‘impact member‘ of great
will be noted that the contour of the plate (36 is e?iciency, I do not wish to be‘ limited to this pre
generally arcuate, the purpose being to insure
that there will be an immediate and complete
stoppage of the material received by the plate
15 and no glancing or angular blow.
The speed of
the rotor is such that all of the material impacted
‘ I is caught by the impact faces proper EL How
ever, this material, owing to the speed of rota;
cise impact member and. it will be understood
that great changes may-be made in size, shape
and‘also in speed of the impact member.
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‘ The use and operation ofv my invention are as
follows:
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Most broadly stated my apparatus has forpur
pose to break by impact,_ particles which are di
rected or fall into the impact zone, thereby caus 20
and
the
impact
plates
G6
are'
curved
so
that
no
ing the substantially instantaneous stoppage and
20
matter what angle the material may take in rela ' change of direction of each' particle. In the em—'
_ tion to its previous travel down the passageB, it bodiment of my invention‘ herein'shown, I move
will take a path susbtantially vertical to" the op
across the stream of falling or moving particles
posed portion of the impact plates. In effect the the successive vanes of a rotary impactmember.
25 impact plates de?ne an arc the center of‘ which The impact surfaces of these vanes are set at
is ‘the face of the rotor impact plate E7 when it such an angle to the falling stream and are
is aligned verticallywith the passage B. It will moved at such a speed in relation to, the speed of
be further understood that as one of .the impact the falling particles as to effect a practically in
plates E" passes beyond the line of drop of the stantaneous stoppage or change of direction of 30
tion, is delivered through somewhat varying paths
material along the passage B another impact.
plate crosses the stream before any of the mate-_
rial can drop far enough to engage the?ange D1".
' Thus every particle dropped’ down the passage B. ,
is actually caught by one of the impact'plates
E’! and is thereby crushed by impact, and‘ the
crushed particles are thereby projected against
the ?xed impact plates Gr6 for a further crushing
and grinding against the plate G13 and the mass of
material on its surface. In other words, one
charge of material delivered by an impact plate
each particle.
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Referring to Figure 3, the impact‘ members iii9
are rotated across the path of falling particles
and direct them against~ the impact plate G”.
Their speed of movement is su?icient to effect‘ a 35
further reduction or breakage at that point. '
The plate (3':6 is curved because they path of move
ment of’ the impact directed material from the
member E9 varies in angle as the impact member
moves through the falling ‘stream. All-the mate
rial engages the impact plate Ga directly, and
40
does not have a chance to drop away from the with no sliding or ‘angling. This being‘true of the
face of‘ the plate (3” before the next charge en engagement of the particles against E9 ‘as well
as G“, abras. Jn or wear of the plate is reduced to
All of the material separated drops down across ‘ .a minimum.- The rotation of the shaft D3 is at 45
45 the inclined surfaces C6 or C'’ and thus passes such a rate that none of the falling, articles
from the crusher. Under many circumstances I can fall through the ring defined. by the‘ otation
gages it.
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find it desirable to employ this crusher in closed , of the members E9 without being/impacted by
circuit, to screen out the ?ner material produced
' by the crushing operation and to return the over
for a further crushing. This may be done by
to ' asize
variety of suitable mechanisms and for purpose
of illustration, I illustrate but one. I may em
ploy the endless conveyor H passing about the
lower pulley H1 and the upper pulley H2. It may
55 be driven for example from the motor H3 through
the belt H4 and the drive pulley H5, pinion H6 and
the gear H". The material delivered from the
crusher, in the form of the device shown in Fig
ures 1 and 2, is picked up by the belt H and car
60 lied to a distribution member 1-!8 whence by
chutes H9 H1° it may be delivered to screens H11,
H". The oversize from these screens is delivered
by discharge chutes H13 H14 to the up-conveyor
A‘. The screened material may be delivered to a
different conveyor H15 and thus escape from the
one of them. None or the particles can drop
down onto the portion D“ of the rotor. Further
more, the successive~ increments to particles de
livered against the plate (16 may come so rapidly
as to build up a species of sheet or ‘mat of mate
rial. In other -words, the particles which have
already been broken by impact against the sur 55
face' ‘E9 are directed into ‘the mass ‘of particles ,
resting against or falling across the surface of the
plate G6.
The result is . not merely an impact
breakage against the plate G", but also a grinding‘
of particle against particle which causes a max- .
imum separation important for ?ne crushing.
, Whereas my invention may very e?iciently be .
employed in connection with a freely falling col-_
umn of material, it will be understood that other
means of propulsion of the material are possible. 65
For example, the material to be crushed may be
allowed to slide down an inclined plate for de
livery
into the impact zone. Or it may be moved
and shown a practical and operative device em;
crushing circuit.
It will be realized that whereas I have described
bodying my new crushing mechanism, neverthe-. - or thrown into the impact zone by other means.
less I wish the descriptionand drawings herein to ' The particular details of the mechanism are 70
be taken as in a real sense illustrative and dia; therefore not to be treated aslimitations, except
grammatic, rather than as limiting me to the spe-_
ci?c mechanism herein shown. ,Many changes
may be made in size, shape, number, and disposi
tion of parts without departing from the spirit of
75
to the extent that limitations are actually written
in terms into the claims. '
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I claim:
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1. In an impact crusher a housing, a rotor 75
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2,110,851
mounted in said housing‘ for rotation about a
generally horizontal axis, said rotor including a
ity, along a de?ned path into the path of move
ment of said impact members, adjacent '~,the
highest point of their movement, means for ro
means for feeding an unconsolidated stream of tatin'g said rotor at a speed su?icient to break
particles to be crushed downwardly by gravity,‘ the impacted particles, the impact faces of said
plurality of peripherally spaced impact members,
i along a de?ned path into the path of movement
of said impact members, adjacent the highest
point of their movement, means for rotating said
rotor at 'a speed suf?cient to break the impacted
particles, the impact races of said impact mem
bers lying in planes parallel with the axis of ro
tation of the rotor, and being rearwardly so in
clined‘in relation to the; direction of‘ feed and
impact members lying in planes parallel with
the axis of rotation of the rotor, and being rear
wardly so inclined in relation to the direction of
feed and speed of feed of the‘ particles, and to
the speed of movement of the impact members, 10
as to change the direction of movement of the
particles substantially instantaneously when they
are impacted and without slippage of the par
_ I speed of feed of the particles, and to the speed
ticles acrossthe faces of the impact members,
15 of movement of the impact members, as to and to propel the impacted particles along paths 15
change the direction or movement of the par
substantially perpendicular to the faces of the
ticles substantially instantaneously when they impact members, and entirely out of the path of
are impacted and without slippa'ge'ot the par
said impact members, and means for imparting
‘ticles across the'taces of the impact members, secondary impacts to the particles so impacted,
and to propel'the impacted particles along paths including a ?xed stationary crusher plate later 20
substantially perpendicular to the faces of the ally removed from the rotor and out of vertical
impact-members‘, and entirely out of the path or alignment with any portion thereof, the e?‘ective
saidimpactmembers.
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surface of said stationary plate being normal to
2. In an impact crusher a housing,’ a rotor the direction oi! delivery of the impacted par-’
mounted in said-housing for rotation about a ticles, and -means for. carrying off the particles 25
generally horizontal axis, said rotor including a. reduced by said secondary impacts along a path
plurality of peripherally spaced impact mem remote from the rotor.
bers, means fori’eedingan unconsolidatedstream
EDGAR B; SYMONS.
of particles to be crushed downwardlyby grav- '
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