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Патент USA US2110917

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March 15, 1938.
J. c_ REAR
Filed May 25, 1935
5 Sheets-Sheet l
13 47 F2 /6 32 F¢
James C gear‘
March 15, 1938.
.1. c. REAR
Filed May 25. 1935
5 Sheets-Sheet 2
James C [gear
March '15, 1938.
' 2,110,9127
Filed May 25. 1935
5 Sheets-Shéet 3
Jame s C Fear
March 15, 1938-.
J, c, REAR
I _
Filed May '25, 1935
//3 ‘
_ - /
/37 AM
5 Sheets-Sheet 4
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l I _____________________ __
1/ !
James C, ,éear
March 15, 1938.
' 2,110,917
Filed May 25, 1935
5 Sheets-Sheet 5
20099 /97 we
g‘\ l
[92 /9/ $9 2'07"
Patented Mar. 15, 1938
James 0. Rear, Berkeley, Calif., assignor to The
Union Ice Company, San Francisco, Calif., a
corporation of California
Application May 25, 1935, Serial N0. 23,435
2 Claims. (Cl. 62-46)
My invention relates to means for enclosing a
predetermined space, but with ready access
thereto, in order to store articles which should
be maintained at lower than normal atmospheric
5 temperatures and at a standard humidity, to
gether with a refrigerant means, such as ice,
for maintaining the desired conditions.
An object of my invention is to provide a re-‘
frigerator of large ice and storage capacity, in
10 which the rapidity of. air circulation will be con
siderably more than customary.
Another object of my invention is to provide a
refrigerator in which the rate of refrigeration is
considerably accelerated over standard practice.
A further object of my invention is ‘to provide
means for insuring adequate air circulation with
in‘ a refrigerator, despite adverse arrangement of.
materials stored therein.
A further object of my invention is to provide
20 a refrigerator which is economical in its use of
the refrigerant, such as ice.
An additional object of my invention is to
provide an air forcing means for a refrigerator,
which, although driven by a prime mover, does
25 not add to the heat within the refrigerator.
The foregoing and other objects are attained
in the embodiments of the invention illustrated
in the drawings in which—
Fig. 1 is a front elevation of. one form of re
30 frigerator in accordance with my invention.
Fig. 2 is a cross-section the planes of which are
indicated by the lines 2-2 of Fig. 1.
Fig. 3 is a cross-section the plane of which is
indicated by the line 3—3 of Fig. 1.
Fig. 4 is a cross-section the plane of which
is indicated ‘by the line 4-'—4 of Fig.v 3.
is divided into. a storage or food compartment
and a refrigerant or ice compartment, in such
a way that there is space for free circulation of
air within the enclosure and between the two
compartments, such circulation of air being aug
mented by mechanical blowing means having a
driver therefor which is thermally insulated from
the cooled enclosure. Preferably, the ice com
partment is ?oored by a grid, not only. affording
a support for the ice but also providing ample 10
air circulation passages communicating indirect
ly and directly with the ice and food compart
In the form of refrigerator of my invention
especially shown in Figs. 1 to 4 inclusive, there 15
is provided a cabinet 6 which issuitably mounted
by casters ‘i, for instance, on the floor 8. The
cabinet is preferably fabricated to include suit
able thermal insulation 9, the exterior surface
of which is preferably provided with an outer
sheathing II and the interior surface of which
is comparably sheathed by an interior lining l2.
The structure so formed provides a pair of side
walls I3 and M, respectively, a top wall 16, and
a floor l1. Likewise,'the cabinet incorporates a
backwall I8 and a front wall 19.
The enclosure so formed is preferably divided
into a food chamber 2| and a refrigerant cham
ber 22, by means of a partition 23. The partition
is preferably fabricated of wooden beams 24 and 30
26 which span the interior .of the cabinet from
the rear wall 18 to the front wall l9 and support
inclined diaphragms 21 and 28 extending from
the beams 24 and 26 to points adjacent the center
of the cabinet, being spaced apart slightly to
leave a passage 29 therebetween. Just above the
_ opening 29, the front and rear walls of the cabi
. Fig. 5 is a cross-section on a vertical, longi
tudinal plane, of a display case refrigerator in net are spanned by a center beam "3|, which, to
gether with the beams 24 and 26, is for the pur
accordance with my invention.
pose of bearing the weight of the ice utilized as a 40
refrigerant. ,
indicated by the line 6-6 of Fig. 5.
Extending between the beams 24 and 3|, for
Fig. '7 is a perspective view of a portion of an
ice-supporting grid, some of. the structure being instance, is a plurality of ice-supporting metal
shown in transverse cross-section. _
Fig, 8 on the left half is a front elevation of a
wall box type of refrigerator in accordance with
my invention, and on the right half is a cross
section of such refrigerator on a vertical, trans
verse plane.
Fig. 9 is a plan of a walk-in refrigerator con
structed in accordance with my invention. '
Fig. 10 is a cross-section the plane-of which is
indicated by the line Ill-l0 of Fig. 9.
In its preferred form the refrigerator of my
55 invention includes an insulated enclosure which
tubes 32, spaced apart to provide air passages
33 therebetween, and at their ends joined and
maintained in appropriate relationship by straps
34 and 36 conveniently welded thereto. To each
of the tubes 32 is fastened‘ a pair of metal ?ns 31
and 38, each of which is of generally trapezoidal
shape and is secured to its tube to depend there 50
from in the general direction of, but spaced from,
the diaphragm 21. The ?ns are somewhat shorte
er than the space between the beams 24 and 3|,
to allow ample air passage therebetween, and
serve as good conductors of heat between air ?ow 55
ing in the passages 33 and ice blocks 39 carried
upon the tubes 32.
Spanning the beam 26 and the beam 3| is a
doors 86.
On the front wall of the cabinet ad
jacent the doors 86 is an electric switch 81 and an
indicating light 88, for controlling and showing
similar ice-supporting ‘means 40 for likewise up
holding blocks of ice 4|. The ice blocks are
the operation of the motor 58.
preferably con?ned in a receptacle de?ned by
arranged within the food chambers of the refrig
erator, the blower is effective, when driven, to
upstanding lateral walls 42 and 43 which are
spaced from the inner lining I2 of the side walls
I3 and I4 in order to provide air passages 44 and
10 46 therebetween. The upstanding members 42
and 43 preferably are metal and are fastened to
the beams 24 and 26 respectively. Included with
such members in the receptacle are the inner
surfaces of the beams 24 and 26, as well as of the
15 diaphragms 21 and 28, which are covered with
metal sheaths 41 and 48, so that water melting
‘from the ice blocks 39 and 4I-falls gravitally over
'the tubes 32 and the ?ns 31 and 38 of both of the
ice-supporting means, and ?nally drops gravitally
onto the metal linings 41 and 48. These are
spaced from the lower termini of the ?ns to afford
ample air passageways transversely thereof. The
melted ice then flows through the aperture 29
into a drip trough 50 which is inclined down
25 Wardly toward the rear of the cabinet and con
nects with a drain 5| piercing the rear wall I0
and connected to Waste.
In order that there may be a forced air ?ow
over the blocks of ice in the ice chamber 22, I
30 preferably provide, adjacent the end of beam 3|
and in registration with a passage 52 de?ned by
the ends of the ?ns 31 and 38, an inlet aperture
53 piercing the front wall 54 of a duct generally
designated 56, de?ning suitable air passages.
Axially aligned with the aperture 53 is a blower 51,
preferably of the squirrel cage type, which dis
charges tangentially into the duct 56. The blower
is mounted on a shaft with and is driven by a
suitable electric motor 58 mounted on a shelf 59 in
40 the rear wall I8.
An insulating plate 6| extends
between the motor 58 and the blower 51, so that
heat given out by the motor during operation of
the fan will not be transferred to the interior of
the storage cabinet. The motor 58 is likewise
45 exposed for cooling by passing external air cur
A forced circulation is therefore effected of air
drawn over the outer surfaces of the ice blocks
and induced to ?ow therebetween and down
50 through the passages and between the ice-sup
porting tubes 32. Such air continues down
wardly along the partition 23 to the central aper
ture 53, through which it flows for discharge pe
ripherallyv by the blower 51 into the duct 56. The
55 air advances along a continuation 63 of the duct
and discharges at the bottom thereof through an
aperture 64 adjacent the front, and through aperr
tures 66 and 61 adjacent either side of the duct.
Air so entering the food chamber 2| is evenly dis
60 tributed therein by vertically extending ba?les 68
and 69, which extend almost to the underside of
the partition 23 but terminate short thereof to
provide circulation openings 1| and 12. The baf
?es 68 and 69 are preferably provided on their
65 facing sides with angular supports, as at 13 and
14, to uphold shelves 16 for receiving material
to be refrigerated, whereas on their external sur
faces they are provided with brackets 11 and 18
which mate with comparable brackets 19 and BI,
70 respectively, on the interior surfaces of the side
Walls I3 and I4, also for the reception of shelves
tohold material to be stored. Access to the
various subdivisions of the food chamber is had
, through entrance doors 83 and 84, while access to
75: the refrigerant chamber 22 is provided through
No matter how compactly materials may be
compel the described ?ow of cool air from the
aperture 53 down through the duct 56 and 63,
out through the openings 64, 66, and 61, and into
the food chamber, wherein the air currents are
distributed uniformly by the baffles 68 and 69.
Exhausted and warmed air flows from the food
compartments through the openings 1| and 12,
and then through the passages 44 and 46, back
into the ice compartment, wherein such air, fur
ther coming into contact with the ice blocks 39
and 4|, is cooled, properly humidi?ed, and circu
lated over the ice-supporting and heat trans
ferring means back into the aperture 53.
As shown especially in Figs. 5, 6, and '7, I have
incorporated the refrigerator of my invention
in a show-case especially for display purposes.
This structure includes a cabinet IIlI having a
floor I02, a top wall I03, side walls I04 and I06,
a front wall I01, and a rear wall I08. These
walls are all preferably fabricated of a central
core I09 of thermal insulation which is exteriorly
sheathed by a covering IIO of metal or compa—
rable material and an interior sheath I I I of simi
lar construction. Preferably, the front wall I01
is provided with an inclined portion I|2 incor
porating a pair of spaced panes of glass H3 and
II4 which as so arranged are good thermal insu
lators but nevertheless permit a view of the in
terior of the enclosure. An electric light H6,
within a mounting shield II1, enhances this fea
ture. Access to the interior of the cabinet is
preferably attained by a pair of lower doors H8
and H9 and a pair of upper doors I2I and I22,
all cut in the rear wall ‘I08.
Within, the cabinet is divided by a metal par
tition I23, extending from a point in abutment
with the rear wall I08 to a point spaced from the
front wall I01 to provide an air passage I24
therebetween, and extending laterally only so
fares to afford openings I26 and I21 for the
passage of air between the ends of the partition
and the side walls I04 and I06 respectively. The
space I28 above the partition I23 is designated as
a food storage compartment, whereas the space
I29 therebelow is for the reception of a refrig
erant, such as blocks of ice I3I and I32. The
food compartment I28 is provided with food-sup
porting racks I33 and I34, each of which is pref- 1
erably of an open grid construction to facilitate
the passage of air, and each of which is prefer~
ably carried on supports I36 and I31, spaced
from the side walls I04 and I06 in order to pro
vide air passages therebetween.
The ice compartment I29 includes means for
supporting the ice. Spanning the interior of the
cabinet between the front wall I01 and the rear
wall I08 are beams MI and‘ I42 which are dis
posed symmetrically on each side of the center 65
of the cabinet, to provide support for inclined
metallic‘ drip trays I43, of which there are two,
one located on each side of the center line. Su
perimposed on each of the drip pans I43 are
identical grids I44. Each grid includes a plu
rality of inverted V-shaped metallic channels
I 46, which are retained in suitable spaced rela
tionship by means of terminal straps I41 secured
_to the channels by welding, and at opposite ends
turned over to provide footings I 48. The chan
nels I46, being spaced, provide air passages I49
_ therebetween, and, being short, provide at their
outer extremities for the passage of air. Thus,
air not only can circulate over the blocks of ice
I3I and I32, but also can pass between and un
derneath the channels I46 and through the air
a'drip pan I92 which in turn rests upon a beam
I93 at one end and upon the ?oor of the cabinet ’
at the other end. Drip from the melting block
of ice I88 ?ows over the grid I89 into the drip
pan I92 and thence to an outlet drain I94 con
nected to waste, in the customary fashion.
In order to ‘accelerate the ?ow of air through’
passages I49, whereas melted ice can ?ow over
such channels and down the drip pans I43 to ‘the cabinet between the ice compartment I83
a central \channel I5I formed by the lining of
10 the floor I02 and the beams I42.
A ?oat valve
I52, disposed in a sump I53 connected to a drain
I54, controls the out?ow of excess melted ice to
a suitable waste, not shown.
In accordance with my invention I preferably
provide means for enforcing a circulation of air
throughout the interior of the display cabinet
refrigerator, even though the arrangement of
materials on the shelves I33 and I34 may be ad
verse, in order that an acceleration of air ?ow
20 over natural circulation and standard practice
will be obtained, to utilize the refrigerant to the
and the food compartment I82, I preferably
build in the top wall I96 a. transversely extend 10
ing duct ‘I91 which at its inlet is provided with
an aperture - I98 coaxial with a blower fan I99.
An electric motor 20I situated on top of the
cabinet drives the. blower by a shaft 202 which
passes through suitable insulation 203 so that 15
heat from the motor is not transferred to the
interior of the ‘cabinet.
Air ?owing upwardly in the food compart
ment I82 passes through the aperture. I 98 into
the blower I99 and is discharged peripherally 20
thereby into the duct I91. This duct gives onto
a vertical duct 204 built into the side wall of
best advantage. For this reason the rear wall
cabinet and adjacent the bottom thereof
I08 is cut away to receive an inset metallic duct transferring into an outlet duct 206. At its low
- I56 which adjacent its upper end is pierced by an er end the duct 206 is turned horizontally to 25
25 inlet aperture I51 leading to a squirrel cage type
blower fan I58. The fan rotor is mounted on a
shaft I59 of an electric motor I6I secured to a
provide an outlet aperture 201 in substantial
alignment with the grid I89, so that air dis
charged from the outlet 201 is induced to ?ow
supplementary insulating plate I62 on the rear underneath the block of icev I88 in the spaces
wall I08. The effect of this arrangement is to between and underneath the members of the 30
30 preclude motor heat from entering the cooled in
grid. The cooled and properly humidi?ed air
terior of the cabinet,_ although insuring a'direct ' ?ows upwardly over the block of ice I88 to the
connection to the fan for enforcing a current of compartment I82, through a passage 208 at one
side of the partition I84 and through a passage
Air discharged from the fan I58 flows down
at. the other side thereof, thus completing
35 through the duct I56 and from thence into a‘ pairv the cycle at the entrance to the blower fan I99.
of nested ducts I63 and I64 extending to elon
In relatively large installations it is preferable
gated outlet apertures I65 and I66 respectively. that an operator be permitted ingress thereinto,
Air from the apertures discharges laterally and and for such purpose I disclose in Figs. 9 and 10
in opposite directions to flow forcibly into and a so-called walk-in box. This box includes a 40
40 between the lower ends of the inclined grid mem
heavily insulated room 22I bounded by a ?oor
bers I44. The ducts I63 and I64 not only assist 222, side walls 223 and 224, a rear wall 226, a
in supporting the partition I23 but likewise serve front wall 221, and a top 228. All of these walls
as'a baiiie or separator for the major portion of preferably are fabricated to include relatively
the ice compartment I29.
heavy thermal insulating material. Within the
In the operation of this arrangement, warm room 22I, to which access'is had through an in
vitiated air is withdrawn from the food compart
sulated door 229, are supports 23I for the re
_ ment I28 by the suction of the blower, into the
ception of material to be maintained cool, such
aperture I 51, and is forced by the blower to ?ow as the food products 232.
through the duct I56 and thence into the ducts
A pluralityof superposed racks 233 is secured
50 I63 and I64. The air begins to be cooled at this to the front wall 221 and is likewise supported
point and discharges through the apertures I65 by a nearly complete closure 234 which stops
and I66 in opposite directions to ?ow slightly up
short of the ?oor 222 to provide an air dis
wardly along the grids I44 and under and around charge aperture 236. The racks 233 are each
the cakes of ice I3I and I32 resting thereon. The charged with a block of ice 231, and air is forced
55 cooled and properly humidi?ed air is then dis
to circulate over them by means of a blower 238
_ charged through the passages I24, I26, and I21, situated within the enclosure 234 and receiving
being at least partially baffled by the partition air from within the room 22I through an aper
I23. Such properly reconditioned airthen rises ture 239. The blower is driven by a‘shaft 24I
over the racks I34 and through and over the extending through the insulation of the front
60 racks I33, ?nally returning to the inlet aperture wall 221 and connected to an electric motor 242
I51 of the blower, thus completing its circuit.
mounted on a bracket 243. Heat from the motor,
In a further! modi?cation of my invention ex
therefore, is not communicated to the interior of
empli?ed by the wall box shown especially in Fig. the room 22I. Air is induced to ?ow into the
8, an insulated cabinet I8I is provided with an blower 238, is discharged therefrom into the
upper food storage compartment I82 and a lower space de?ned by the closure 234, and passes over
ice storage, compartment I83. These compart
the blocks of ice 231 on the racks 233. The
ments are partially separated by a partition I84, cooled air discharges through the opening 236
and access to them is had by doors I86 and I81 into the room 221, and ?nally returns to the
respectively. The ice compartment is for the re
70 ception of a block of ice I88 resting upon a grid
I89 of the previously described type. That is to
say, the grid is made up of a plurality of inverted
metal channels I9I, so arranged and‘ supported
aperture 239, thereby completing its cycle.
I claim: k
l. A refrigerator comprising a cabinet having
an ice chamber therein, means forming a bot
tom boundary wall of said ice chamber, a plu
as to provide a plurality of air passages therebe
. rality of spaced, inverted metallic channels form
75 tween and thereunder. This grid is supported on.
ing an ice-contacting supporting grid, means
for affording air communication between one
end of said grid and said ice chamber, and means
for forcing air to ?ow into the other end of said
grid and thence in contact with said grid and
said boundary wall.
2. A refrigerator comprising a cabinet having
an ice chamber therein, means forming a bot
tom boundary wall of said ice chamber, an ice
10 supporting grid including a number of spaced,
ice-contacting metal walls disposed at an angle
to and close to said bottom boundary wall to
form a number of lateral air passages extending
for substantially the full length of said ice
chamber but stopping short of the ends thereof
for a?ording communication with said ice cham
ber, and means for forcing a circulation of air
through said air passages and said chamber.
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