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Патент USA US2111096

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March 15, 1938.
F. A_ FRlTZSCH
2,111,096
GUIDEWAYS FOR CARRIAGES
Filed Aug. 16, 1935
2 Sheets-Sheet l
March 15, 1938.
F_ A, FRWZSCH
2,111,096
GU IDEWAYS FOR CARRIAGES
Filed Aug. 16, 1955
2 Sheets-Sheet 2
M «W9/41%
2,111,096
Patented Maf. 1s, 1938
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE
'
2,111,096
GUIDEWAY Fon CARRIAGES
Frank A. Fritzsch, Cincinnati, Ohio, assignoi'. to
The Lodge & Shipley Machine Tool Company,
Cincinnati, Ohio, a corporation of Ohio
Application August 16, 1935, Serial No. 36,570
4 Claims. (Cl. 308-3)
My invention relates to guideways for carriages,
especially in metalworking machinery, and is ex
amplified in a lathe. My invention relates par
ticularly to means for supporting and guiding
5 carriages on the supports or beds therefor.
provided with guides of substantially inverted
. V-shaped cross-section for supporting and guiding
10 the carriages slidably on the beds, these guides
being usually termed V’s or vees. When subjected
to the stresses set up by the high cutting speeds
used and heavy cuts taken in present day practice,
such V’s have proven inefficient for several
y
'
The feeding force applied to the carriage by
the usual feed screw or rack and pinion feed, and
the resistance encountered by the tool when mov
ing in feeding direction, form a force couple that
20 tends to twist vthe carriage or cause torsional
movement of the carriage in a horizontal plane.
This twisting or torsion action causes the car
riage to climb more or less in reverse directions at
the respective ends of the carriage on the guide
‘
N. v1
ways as usually heretofore constructed, resulting
. _in the lateral wearing of the walls of the V grooves
in the carriage and of the V ribs on the bed.
The wear on the walls of the grooves in the
carriage is the more apparent, as it is more
localized than the wear of the guides on the bed.
The wear on the walls of the grooves in the car
riage from the respective sides of the tool to the
. respective ends of the carriage, causes the worn
walls to become flaring and the respective ends
of the grooves to become bell-mouthed.
When thus worn, minute chips' of metal, grit,
scale, and particles of dirt readily become lodged
between the mating surfaces of the guideways
of the support and carriage, and cause scoring and
increase in the wearing action between the same.
The carriage must also resist the horizontal
force due to the tool engaging the work and tend
ing to move the carriage crosswise of the bed.
Since the faces on the V’s which must resist this
force are presented'at a slanting angle to the line
of the force, there is a tendency for the faces of
the guideways on the carriage to slip in a ver
tical plane, and to climb upon the guides on the
bed, resulting in further unequal wear.
V ways are further ill suited to resist the ver
tical forces upon the carriage, due to the action of
the tool on the work, as they have only slantingly
presented faces to resist downward forces, and
they are not resistant to forces tending to lift the
carriage.
'
tained when even 4a slight amount of wear takes Ul
place, sincerelative alignment should be obtained
Exemplifying lathes, in lathes of usual construc
tion, the supports or beds are to a large extent
reasons.
obvious that both cannot be best suited to resist
the respective forces.
A further disadvantage in such constructions
is the diiñculty with which alignment is main
»
Furthermore, the forces exerted by the car
riage on the bed at _the front guideway are widely
different from those at the rear guideway. Since
in the usual construction of lathes both front
60 and rear guideways are of duplicate form, it is
in both front and rear guideways, and the amount
of wear is in practice not equal in both.
It is diñicult, further, to make compensation
for wear, since it should be made at both front and 10
rear guideways in such a manner as to maintain
perfect alignment of both, and it is very easy to
nullify the aligning effect of one guideway in ad
justing the compensating means for the other
guideway.
Having in mind the defects of the art, it is the
object of the present invention to provide novel
and improved forms of guideways for carriages
in which these defects are avoided.
My invention consists in novel means for over
coming the objections to previous constructions
noted; further, in novel means for guiding a
carriage lengthwise of its support; further, in
novel means for resisting the cutting stresses upo?i
the carriage; further, in novel means to trans
versely localize the lengthwise guiding means;
further, in novel means to distribute the resistance
to lifting forces due to cutting stresses; further,
in novel take-up means for compensating for
wear; further, in providing and relating guiding 30
faces in novel manner; and, further, in rela-ting
the take-up means for the guiding faces in novel
manner.
The invention will be further readily under
stood from the following description and claims,
and from the drawings, in which latter:
Fig. 1 is a cross-sectional view of an exemplify
ing lathe having my invention applied thereto,
taken on the line l-l of Fig. 4, partly broken
away, with the scrapers and front clamp omitted, 40
and with the work shown in dotted lines.
Fig. 2 is a horizontal sectional detail view of a
laterally acting gib adjusting means, taken on
the line 2-2 of Fig. 1, and partly broken away.
Fig. 3 is a vertical sectional detail view of a 45
vertically acting gib adjusting means, taken on
the line 3--3 of Fig. 1, and partly broken away.
Fig. 4 is a plan view of the exemplifying lathe,
having my invention applied thereto, partly
broken away, and with the work and its fasten 50
ing dog shown in dotted lines.
`
'
Fig. 5 is an end view of the exemplifying lathe
having my invention applied thereto, and partly
broken away,- and having the scrapers and front
clamp applied thereto.
55
Fig. 6 is a plan view of a detail of the same;
and,
'
Fig. '7 is a longitudinal section of the same,
taken on the line 1-1 of Fig. 6.
,
The lathe exempliñed comprises a support or 60
2
2,111,096
bed II, a head stock I2 in which a head spindle
I3 is journaled and suitably operated and having
a head center I4, a tail stock I5 carrying a tail
spindle I6 having a tail center I1, and a carriage
I8 mounted on the bed and slidable lengthwise
thereon.
v
The carriage is exemplified as having a front
tool support 2| having a front tool 22 secured
thereto and a rear tool support 23 having a rear
10 tool 24 secured thereto. The tools are arranged
to operate on a piece of work 25, exemplified as
located by the centers and suitably secured to the
head spindle and rotating in the direction of the
arrow a, and shown in dotted lines.
15
The front tool has an upwardly presented
cutting edge, and the rear tool has a downwardly
presented cutting edge, these cutting edges being
located in the horizontal plane in which the axes
of the centers are located. Other usual means
20 for supporting and rotating the work may be pro
vided.
.
Either one or both of the tools may operate on
the work, the cutting of the work being usually
obtained by the front tool.
25
The tool supports or slides are supported and
individually or combinedly adjustable and feed
able on the carriage toward and from the axes
of the centers, by any usual or ordinary means,
dependent on the character of work being per
30 formed, and are held to the carriage by any
ordinary or usual means.
y
A usual apron 21 depends from the iront of
the carriage and contains the usual control
means for the feeding and threading movements
35 of the carriage lengthwise of the bed and of the
cross slide or tool supports on the carriage cross
wise of the bed either by hand or by power.
The parts thus far described may be of ordi
nary or usual construction and arrangement, and
40 may include the usual and ordinary adjusting
and operating devices customary in machines of
this character.
The carriage is supported on and slidable
lengthwise of the bed for positioning and feeding
on the carriage.
These are shown as iiat, wide
horizontal faces.
Front guiding faces 35, 36 respectively on the
carriage and on the bed are located at the front
edges of the supporting faces 3I, 32, and extend
downwardly therefrom.
'I‘hese latter guiding
faces are preferably ñat bearing faces of substan
tial width, and preferably at right angles to said
supporting faces 3|, 32, being shown as vertical
guiding faces.
10
Coacting guiding faces 31, 38 are opposed to
the guiding faces 35, 36, and act in conjunction
therewith and with the supporting faces 3l, 32
for guiding the carriage lengthwise of the bed
and holding the carriage down to the bed. The
guiding faces 31, 38 are preferably fiat faces
extending downwardly from the rear edges oi'
the supporting faces 3|, 32, and slant forwardly
at an acute- angle thereto for forming a dove
tailed rib or tongue 39 and a dovetailed groove 20
40 between the carriage and the bed tapering
toward the base of said tongue. The undercut
faces of the tongue and groove are presented
toward the vertical plane in which the axis of
the rotation of the work is located for resisting
lifting action on the carriage as hereinafter ex
plained.
The supporting face 3l, a portion of the guid
ing face 3E and the guiding face 38 may be on a
separate bar 4I extending lengthwise of the bed 30
and positioned with relation thereto by tongue
and groove connection 42 and fastening screws
43 for clamping said bar to the bed and enabling
the supporting and guiding faces of said bar to
be hardened and finished in advance of applica
tion thereof to the bed.
The bed is provided with a rack 45 extending
lengthwise of the bed and located under the front
set of guideways just described, a pinion 46 mesh
ing therewith, the pinion being suitably operated 40
manually by a suitable hand wheel 41 or by power
by means of a suitable feed shaft 48 extending
lengthwise of the bed and suitably operated by
power mechanism at the head end of the ma
45 the same.
The tail stock is slidable lengthwise chine.
.
of the bed and secured thereto in adjusted posi
The carriage is also feedable lengthwise of the
tions, dependent on the length of work to be bed by means of a lead screw 49, with which
accommodated between the centers.
half nuts 50 are arranged to be engaged by a
In my improved device I have provided a pair , suitable operating arm 5I for screw-feeding the
of spaced apart sets of guideways between the carriage lengthwise of the bed when desired, the
carriage and the bed, both of which include sup- . lead screw being suitably rotated by operating
porting faces of substantial width. exemplified as means located at the head end of the machine.
flat horizontally disposed supporting faces for This lead screw is also located under the front
receiving the supporting and depressing operat
set of guideways.
55 ing stresses of the carriage on the bed, and one
The rack and pinion and the lead screw and
of which also includes coacting hold-down faces nut are preferably located in the same vertical
resisting separation between said supporting plane in which the front guideways are located
lfaces. also exemplified as flat horizontally dis
and are in close adjacency to said guideways,
posed coacting faces.
the rack and pinion by means of which the
60
The other of said sets of guideways also ln
heaviest cuts are produced between the tool and
the Work being proximate to and immediately
cludes coactlng guiding faces resisting lateral dis
placement crosswise of the bed between the car
riage and the bed, and is exemplified as having
some of these guiding faces so formed as to re
85 sist separating stresses between the carriage and
the bed.
The latter set of guideways is exemplified be
tween the front side of the carriage and the front
70 longitudinal portion of the bed, and the other of
said sets of guideways is represented between the
rear side of the carriage and the rear longitudi
nal side of the bed.
The front guideways include a supporting face
75 3| on the bed and a coacting supporting face 32
45
50
.
60
under said front guideways, so as to transmit the
feeding forces thereof directly in line with said
set of front guideways. In this manner the lines
of feeding force are parallel with and closely 65
adjacent to said supporting and guiding faces
and underneath said supporting and guiding
faces to avoid binding forces upon said support
ing and guiding faces which might have a tend
ency to cause resistance of sliding movement of 70
the carriage.
The set of supporting and guiding faces just
described preferably provides the sole lateral
guiding means to resist twisting or torsion move
ments of the carriage, the balance of the carriage 75
a
being free to assume lateral positions determined so as to provide a sliding iit between the gib and
by said lateral guiding faces. The lateral guid 'the guiding face on the bed, and the screw 15
ing faces are closely adjacent to each other for is then tightened for> definitely positioning the
transversely localizing the lateral guiding faces gib lengthwise with relation to the carriage.
The hold down face 58 at the rear of the car
within narrow compass.
The other set of guideways, exemplified as riage, represented by a horizontal guiding face,
the rear guides, comprises coacting supporting is located on a similar gib 66’ adjustable in simi
faces 54, 55, respectively on the carriage and f lar manner by similar parts designated by similar
the bed, extending lengthwise of the bed and reference numerals with the exponent prime.
The rearsupporting face 55 may be formed 10
being preferably fiat horizontal guiding faces of
substantial width. The hold down guiding faces on a bar 8| extending lengthwise of the bed, and
at said rear of the carriage comprise the guiding may be a hardened supporting face preformed
faces 56, 51 respectively on the carriage and on thereon, the bar being positioned on the bed by
the bed, and resist separating movement between means of a tongue and groove connection 82
extending lengthwise of the bed and secured
the last-named supporting faces 54, 55.
thereto by fastening screws 83.
- hold down the carriage and counteract the/liÍ The guiding and supporting faces of the front
ing stresses upon the carriage due to the cut
ting forces between the respective tools and the guideway may be located on a forwardly outward
work. There is preferably a clearance space 58 ly extending ledge 86 on the bed, and the rear
Thây/
20 between the rear edge of the bed and the depend
ing portion 59 of the carriage. A block B0 is
secured to the lower face of said depending por
tion. This block supports the guiding face 56.
' The block is secured to said depending portion
25 by bolts 53.
The supporting faces, and the guiding faces
and the hold down faces of the respective sets
guides may be located on a rearwardly outwardly 20
extending ledge 81 on the bed.
The bed may be provided with inwardly ex
tending ledges 88, 89 respectively at the front
fand rear of the bed to form supporting faces 99,
9|, coacting with vsupporting faces 92, 93 on the 25
tail stock and a guiding face 94 on the bed co
acting with a guiding face 96 on the tail stock, a
of guideways preferably extend throughout the
full length of the carriage, and throughout the
30 Wings 6|, 62, 63, 64, at the respective ends there
of, for forming coacting guiding faces between
clamping bar 98 extending under said ledges 88,
40 located, and a part on which one of the hold
down faces of the rear set of guides is located,
as to have additional strength by providing space 40
for a depending portion or portions or cross
these adjustable faces being at right angles to
bridge |82 of the carriage between the guideways
each other and so related that their adjustments
for the carriage, and an additional depending
bulge |03 of the cross-bridge between said in
89, the respective forward and rear end thereof
being clamped to clamping faces 99, |80 by means
of clamping bolts I0| for clamping the tail stock
in adjusted position to the bed. Other attach
' the carriage and the bed, especially at the respec
tive ends of the carriage and throughout the wing ‘ ments requiring alignment with the head spindle
may be similarly secured to these inner support
portions of the latter.
Adjusting means are provided for adjusting ing, guiding and clamping faces on the bed.
35
It will be noted that the supporting and guid
the faces on the carriage and on the bed rela
tively to each other. These adjusting means ing faces for the tail stock are on a level below the
level of the supporting faces between the bed and
preferably comprisea. part on which one of the
vertical guide faces of the front set of guides is the carriage. enabling the carriage to be made so
do not disturb one another.
They are so ar
45 ranged that the adjustment of the vertical guide
face adjusts not only the lateral guide faces of
the front guides, but also the contact relation
between the supporting faces of said front guides
due to the tapering tongue` and groove formation
50 of said lateral guiding faces contracting toward
the base of the tongue thereof.
`
Thus the guide face 35 is located on a gib 66,
55
30
45
wardly extending ledges.
Referring to Fig. l, the direction of downward
pressure resulting from cutting contact between
the front tool and the work is represented by the
arrow b. and is resisted by thewide fiat horizontal
supporting faces 3|, 32 at the front side of the 50
carriage, and also reacts upon the wide iiat hori
zontal supporting faces 54, 55 at the rear side of
which is shown as a tapered gib seated on a ta
the carriage, these supporting faces distributing
pered coacting face 61 in a recess 68 extending
lengthwise of the front depending portion 69 of
the carraige. A screw 18 has threaded connection
the reacting force of the cutting over a wide area
and distributing the wear incident thereto for long 55
' 1| with one end of the carriage, and is provided
with a fiange 12 adjustable in axial direction in
a recess 13 in the end of the carriage, the ñange
60 being received in a’slot 14 in one end of the gib,
so that adjustment of the screw in its threaded
connection will move the flange axially in or out,
and consequently the gib lengthwise along its in
clined seat for adjusting its guiding face toward
and from the coacting guiding face 36 on the
bed.
At the opposite end of the carriage there isa
life of the supporting faces.
The incidence of the line efforce directed upon
the carriage caused by the coaction between the
front cutting tool and the work is principally at
right angles to the flat horizontal supporting faces,
producing greatest resistance and least'ìwear. .
The back pressure on the front tool due to the
cutting action between said tool and the vwork ,
tends to move the carriage transversely of the bed
«away from the work, indicated b_v the direction
arrow c, and all movement of the carriage in
the opposite end of the carriage. This screw has
a flange 11 abutting against the end of the wedge
similar direction is resisted by the inclined guide
faces 31, 38, these inclined guide faces also resist
ing tendency of upward movement of the carriage
and insuring intimate supporting contact between
gib.
the supporting faces betweenthe carriage and
screw 15 which has threaded connection 16 with
In adjusting the gib, the screw 10.is turned
until the guiding face 35 on said gib makes inti
mate contact with the guiding face 36 on the
carriage. The screw is then slightly retracted
the bed. especially at the front of» the carriage.
All tendency to raise the rear of the carriage by
such pressure is counteracted by the rear hold
vdown faces 56, 51.
-1 el
4
2,111,096
When employing a rear cutting tool, a lifting
line of force, represented by the arrow d, acts up
on the carriage, which tends to lift the carriage,
and is resisted at the rear side of the carriage by
Cl the coacting hold down guiding faces 5B, 51.
Such lifting tendency of the carriage is also re
sisted at the front side of the carriage by the
undercut dovetailed connection of the front
to separation between the coacting supporting
surfaces, due to the presence of the undercut
dovetail tongue and groove. The flat horizontal
supporting faces and hold down faces between
the rear side of the carriage and the bed permit
such adjustments at the front side of the car
riage without disturbance of adjustment between
guideways, represented by the slanting guiding -
faces 31, 38, presented toward the tool, for hold
ing the carriage downwardly and resisting up
ward movement of the carriage by the'upwardly
'increasing cross-section between the undercut
tongue and groove of the front guiding connection
between the carriage and the bed.
The cutting action between the rear tool and
the work also induces a rearward pressure line
of force, exempliiied in horizontal plane by the
arrow e, which is resisted by the coacting guiding
faces 35, 36 at the front of the carriage.
The mesne lines of forces or direction of stress
between the cutting edges of the tools and the
respective guiding and supporting faces are at
different angles, determined by the distances of
contact between the tool or tools and the work,
from the axis of rotation of the work, the re
actions upon the supporting surfaces and guiding
surfaces remaining, however, as described, but
changing merely their angles of presentation.
30
Referring now to the twisting or torsional
forces upon the carriage, and referring to Fig. 4,
the contact points |05, |06 between the cutting
edges of the tools and the'work may be repre
sented as the fulcrums of a lever, whose function
35 is assumed by the carriage, and the point " of
application of feed to the carriage by the rack
and pinion or the lead screw and its nut, may be
represented as the force applied to the lever, for
causing a twisting or torque movement of the
40 carriage along the arcs, one of which is repre
sented by the- arrow f, assuming that the front
tool only is employed in the present exempli
flcation.
If the rear tool is employed, the fulcrum will
45 be represented by the contact point between the
rear tool and the work.
If both tools are em
ployed, the fulcrums will have a similar effect
upon the carriage.
~
\
. The forces crosswise of the bed, due to the cut
50 ting actions between the front and re'ar tools and
vthe work, are in lines respectively represented by
the arrows c and e. The line of force of the
feedin’g is in the direction of the arrow g, and
the line of resistance between the tool and the
55 work lengthwise of the carriage is in the direc
tion of the arrows h. These lines of forces result
in the- twisting or torque -tendency of the car
60
riage represented by the arrow f.
The resistances to all of these linesA of force
are relegated to the closely associated lateral
guiding faces at the front side of the carriage
located within a small compass laterally of the
carriage and extending preferably throughout the
entire length of the carriage, including the wings
65 at the ends thereof, for impounding all resist
ances to said stresses within a comparatively
said faces at'the rear side of 'the carriage.
The adjustment of the rear gib adjusts the
capacity for separation between the supporting 10
faces between the carriage and bed at the rear
side of the bed, the forms of the front supporting
and guiding faces permitting such adjustments
without disturbance thereof.
-
The adjustment of the front guide adjusts the 15
same in a horizontal plane, and the adjustment
`of the rear guide adjusts the same in a vertical
plane.
A clamp |08 may be provided for clamping
the carriage to the bed during operations re 20
quiring cross feeding only of the tool, as in facing
operations. This clamp may comprise a short
block |09 (Fig. 5), provided with a heel III! which
forms a fulcrum upon the lower face of the de
pending front portion 69 of the carriage. It fur 25
ther has a recess ||| between said heel and the
clamping face ||2.
A screw II'I clamps said block toward the car
riage and adjusts the clamping face on said
block upon the coacting face |I8 on the bed.
30
In my improved device the forms and relations
of the guideways are such that those resisting
lateral displacements are cross-sectionally located
at opposing coacting guiding faces, which are
closely adjacent to each other at the respective 35
sides of a comparatively narrow flange or rib;
that said guiding faces include an undercut dove
tail connection resisting upward lift of the car
riage; that adjustments of said guiding faces may
be made without disturbance of adjustment of 40
the coasting faces between the other side of the
carriage and bed; that adjustments of said faces
may be made in a horizontal plane; and that
adjustments at the other side of the carriage
may be made in a vertical plane for adjusting 45
the separating capacity between the supporting
faces between said other side of the carriage and
bed, without disturbance of the adjustments of
said first-named coacting guiding faces.
If desired, the respective ends of the support 50
ing faces on the carriage may be provided with
Wipers, as exemplified, for instance, in Figs.A 5, 6,
and '7, in which |2I represents a wiper composed
preferably of a strip of resilient metal, such as
bronze, and having a beveled wiping edge |22, 55
preferably forming a knife edgejurged toward
the face which it is wiping, by the toe |23 of a.
securing plate |24, between which and the end of
the carriage the wiping plate is secured by means
of screws |25 for forming a tapering scraping
edge. If it is desired to arrange lsaid scraping
edge on a slant, as shown at |26,- a correspond
Aingly tapered shim |21 may be inserted between
the body of the scraper and the end of the car
The scraping face extends across the face 65
with which it coacts for shearing foreign or un
desirable matter from said face to prevent .the
vriage.
narrow margin extending lengthwise of the car
riage, and confining the adjustments of said faces > same from lodging between the coacting support
within narrow limits closely associated to said ing or guiding faces.
_
faces, leaving the balance of the carriage free to
The location of the rack and pinion and the 70
be guided solely by said faces within such narrow feed screw and nut with relation to the exempli
compass.
ñed supporting and guiding faces between the
The adjustment of the front gib adjusts co1
front of the carriage and front of the bed, in
lectively the lateral positioning of the entire car
sures a direct linear feeding force upon the car
75 riage with relation to the bed and the resistance riage in close relation to said guides to avoid
2,111,09@
A drag and resistance between said supporting and
guiding faces.
In cases in which there is no feeding action
lengthwise of the bed, the forces represented by
VI the arrows h and g are not present, but merely
_a feeding action crosswise of the bed, as when
cutting with a forming tool in which there are
equal resistances lengthwise of the bed at the
respective sides of the tool.
Having thus fully described my invention, what
I claim as new and desire to secure by Letters
Patent, is:
'
1. The combination with a tool carriage, and
a support therefor, with the tool of said carriage
coacting with rotating work above said carriage
to turn said work, of a guide between said car
riage and said support comprising coacting fiat
substantially horizontal contacting suPDOrting
faces and coacting lateral closely adjacent guid
20 ing faces at the respective edges of said support
ing faces including coacting guiding faces slant
ing into vertical planes in which said horizontal
supporting faces are located and at an acute
angle to said supporting faces to form an acute
. guiding angle projected toward said rotating work
to resist the cutting thrusts therefrom, and ad
justing means adjusting the distance between said
coacting lateral guiding faces and by reason of
said acute angular arrangement of said coacting
30 guiding faces' also adjusting the coaction be
tween said supporting faces.
,
2. The combination with rotating and center
ing means for the work, a bed thereunder, a tool
carriage slidable lengthwise on said bed, and
35 means for supporting cutting tools on said car
riage at the respective sides of the vertical plane
in which the axes of said rotating and centering
means are located, of guides between said bed and
said carriage extending lengthwise of said axes
40 and located at the respective sides of said verti
cal plane, said guide at one side of said vertical
plane comprising a pair of cooperative substan
tially horizontal fiat supporting faces, a pair of
cooperative substantially vertical flat resistant
45 faces extending downwardly at the outer margins
of said substantially horizontal supporting'faces
and a ,pair of cooperative angular fiat resistant
faces extending downwardly at the inner margins
of said substantially horizontal supporting faces
50 at an acute angle to and under said substantially
horizontal supporting faces, and adjusting means
for adjusting the approach between the resist
ant faces of one of said, pairs of resistant faces
whereby to adjust the approach between all of
55 said pairs of faces, and said guide at the other
side of said vertical plane comprising a pair of
coactive substantially horizontal fiat supporting
faces and a pair of coactive substantially hori
zontal fiat hold-down faces respectively counter
acting downward and upward thrusts between
said tools and the rotating work, said guide at
said one side of said vertical plane counteracting
cutting thrusts between said cutting tools and
the rotating work in all transverse directions and
said guide at said other side of said vertical plane
counteracting thrusts in vertical directions be
tween said tools and said rotating work and yield
ing in horizontal directions to adjustments- in
said mst-named guide by said adjusting means.
3. In a lathe. the combination with rotating
70
and centering means for the work, a bed there
under extending lengthwise of the axes thereof.
a tool carriage slidable lengthwise on said bed,
i
I
and means for supporting tools on said carriage
at the respective sides of the vertical plane in
which said -axes are located, of guides between
said carriage and said bed extending lengthwise
of said axes and located at the respective sides
of said vertical plane, said guides at one of said
sides comprising cooperative substantially hori
zontal fiat supporting faces, a pair of cooperative
substantially' vertical resistant faces extending
downwardly at the outer margin to said substan
tially horizontal faces and a pair of cooperative
angular ñat resistant faces extending downwardly
at the inner margins of said substantially hori
zontal faces at an acute angle to and under said
substantially horizontal faces so as to direct the
acute angle between said substantially horizon
tal faces and said angular resistant faces in a
couple toward said axes and constructed to di
rect thrusts between the tool and the work at
the said one of said sides of said vertical plane
toward the corner of said angle whereby said
thrusts are directed against both said substan
tially horizontal supporting faces and said angu
lar resistant faces, and adjusting means to ad
just said faces toward and fromv said vertical
plane, said guides at the other of said sides of
said vertical plane comprising pairs of coactive
substantially horizontal faces counteracting both
upward and downward thrusts between the tools
and the work and yielding in substantially hori 30
zontal lines to adjustments in` said first-named
guide, and adjusting means for adjusting the co
action between said last-named pairs of coactive
faces.
4. In a lathe, the combination with the bed,
the tool carriage and the work supporting and
rotating means to rotate the work above the car
riage for coactionl between the cutting means on
the tool carriage and the work for cutting the
work, of a pair of guides respectively at the front 40
of the carriage and at the rear of the carriage
between the bed and the carriage and extending
lengthwise of the bed, said guide at the front of
the carriage formed by providing said bed and
said carriage with coacting iiat vsubstantially
horizontal contacting supporting faces, coacting
ñat substantially vertical contacting guiding faces
at the front edge of said supporting faces and
coacting _fiat contacting guiding faces at the rear
edge of said supporting faces extending slantingly 50
forward under said supporting faces to form an
acute angular guiding structure presented toward
the field of cutting action between the cutting y
means and the work to resist the cutting stresses
therefrom, and said guide at the rear of said 55
carriage formed by providing said bed and said
carriage with ‘coacting flat substantially hori
zontal contacting supporting f-aces and coacting
fiat substantially horizontal contacting guiding
faces with said carriage shiftable substantially 60
horizontally between said last-named supporting
faces and said last-named guiding faces. and said
last-named supporting faces and said last-named
guiding faces and said acute angular guiding
structure resisting upward and downward cutting
stresses due to cutting action between the cut
ting means and the work, and adjusting means
for adjusting the pressure between said flat sub
stantially vertical contacting guiding faces where
by the contact relations between all said faces
are adjusted.
.
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