Патент USA US2111096код для вставки
March 15, 1938. F. A_ FRlTZSCH 2,111,096 GUIDEWAYS FOR CARRIAGES Filed Aug. 16, 1935 2 Sheets-Sheet l March 15, 1938. F_ A, FRWZSCH 2,111,096 GU IDEWAYS FOR CARRIAGES Filed Aug. 16, 1955 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 M «W9/41% 2,111,096 Patented Maf. 1s, 1938 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE ' 2,111,096 GUIDEWAY Fon CARRIAGES Frank A. Fritzsch, Cincinnati, Ohio, assignoi'. to The Lodge & Shipley Machine Tool Company, Cincinnati, Ohio, a corporation of Ohio Application August 16, 1935, Serial No. 36,570 4 Claims. (Cl. 308-3) My invention relates to guideways for carriages, especially in metalworking machinery, and is ex amplified in a lathe. My invention relates par ticularly to means for supporting and guiding 5 carriages on the supports or beds therefor. provided with guides of substantially inverted . V-shaped cross-section for supporting and guiding 10 the carriages slidably on the beds, these guides being usually termed V’s or vees. When subjected to the stresses set up by the high cutting speeds used and heavy cuts taken in present day practice, such V’s have proven inefficient for several y ' The feeding force applied to the carriage by the usual feed screw or rack and pinion feed, and the resistance encountered by the tool when mov ing in feeding direction, form a force couple that 20 tends to twist vthe carriage or cause torsional movement of the carriage in a horizontal plane. This twisting or torsion action causes the car riage to climb more or less in reverse directions at the respective ends of the carriage on the guide ‘ N. v1 ways as usually heretofore constructed, resulting . _in the lateral wearing of the walls of the V grooves in the carriage and of the V ribs on the bed. The wear on the walls of the grooves in the carriage is the more apparent, as it is more localized than the wear of the guides on the bed. The wear on the walls of the grooves in the car riage from the respective sides of the tool to the . respective ends of the carriage, causes the worn walls to become flaring and the respective ends of the grooves to become bell-mouthed. When thus worn, minute chips' of metal, grit, scale, and particles of dirt readily become lodged between the mating surfaces of the guideways of the support and carriage, and cause scoring and increase in the wearing action between the same. The carriage must also resist the horizontal force due to the tool engaging the work and tend ing to move the carriage crosswise of the bed. Since the faces on the V’s which must resist this force are presented'at a slanting angle to the line of the force, there is a tendency for the faces of the guideways on the carriage to slip in a ver tical plane, and to climb upon the guides on the bed, resulting in further unequal wear. V ways are further ill suited to resist the ver tical forces upon the carriage, due to the action of the tool on the work, as they have only slantingly presented faces to resist downward forces, and they are not resistant to forces tending to lift the carriage. ' tained when even 4a slight amount of wear takes Ul place, sincerelative alignment should be obtained Exemplifying lathes, in lathes of usual construc tion, the supports or beds are to a large extent reasons. obvious that both cannot be best suited to resist the respective forces. A further disadvantage in such constructions is the diiñculty with which alignment is main » Furthermore, the forces exerted by the car riage on the bed at _the front guideway are widely different from those at the rear guideway. Since in the usual construction of lathes both front 60 and rear guideways are of duplicate form, it is in both front and rear guideways, and the amount of wear is in practice not equal in both. It is diñicult, further, to make compensation for wear, since it should be made at both front and 10 rear guideways in such a manner as to maintain perfect alignment of both, and it is very easy to nullify the aligning effect of one guideway in ad justing the compensating means for the other guideway. Having in mind the defects of the art, it is the object of the present invention to provide novel and improved forms of guideways for carriages in which these defects are avoided. My invention consists in novel means for over coming the objections to previous constructions noted; further, in novel means for guiding a carriage lengthwise of its support; further, in novel means for resisting the cutting stresses upo?i the carriage; further, in novel means to trans versely localize the lengthwise guiding means; further, in novel means to distribute the resistance to lifting forces due to cutting stresses; further, in novel take-up means for compensating for wear; further, in providing and relating guiding 30 faces in novel manner; and, further, in rela-ting the take-up means for the guiding faces in novel manner. The invention will be further readily under stood from the following description and claims, and from the drawings, in which latter: Fig. 1 is a cross-sectional view of an exemplify ing lathe having my invention applied thereto, taken on the line l-l of Fig. 4, partly broken away, with the scrapers and front clamp omitted, 40 and with the work shown in dotted lines. Fig. 2 is a horizontal sectional detail view of a laterally acting gib adjusting means, taken on the line 2-2 of Fig. 1, and partly broken away. Fig. 3 is a vertical sectional detail view of a 45 vertically acting gib adjusting means, taken on the line 3--3 of Fig. 1, and partly broken away. Fig. 4 is a plan view of the exemplifying lathe, having my invention applied thereto, partly broken away, and with the work and its fasten 50 ing dog shown in dotted lines. ` ' Fig. 5 is an end view of the exemplifying lathe having my invention applied thereto, and partly broken away,- and having the scrapers and front clamp applied thereto. 55 Fig. 6 is a plan view of a detail of the same; and, ' Fig. '7 is a longitudinal section of the same, taken on the line 1-1 of Fig. 6. , The lathe exempliñed comprises a support or 60 2 2,111,096 bed II, a head stock I2 in which a head spindle I3 is journaled and suitably operated and having a head center I4, a tail stock I5 carrying a tail spindle I6 having a tail center I1, and a carriage I8 mounted on the bed and slidable lengthwise thereon. v The carriage is exemplified as having a front tool support 2| having a front tool 22 secured thereto and a rear tool support 23 having a rear 10 tool 24 secured thereto. The tools are arranged to operate on a piece of work 25, exemplified as located by the centers and suitably secured to the head spindle and rotating in the direction of the arrow a, and shown in dotted lines. 15 The front tool has an upwardly presented cutting edge, and the rear tool has a downwardly presented cutting edge, these cutting edges being located in the horizontal plane in which the axes of the centers are located. Other usual means 20 for supporting and rotating the work may be pro vided. . Either one or both of the tools may operate on the work, the cutting of the work being usually obtained by the front tool. 25 The tool supports or slides are supported and individually or combinedly adjustable and feed able on the carriage toward and from the axes of the centers, by any usual or ordinary means, dependent on the character of work being per 30 formed, and are held to the carriage by any ordinary or usual means. y A usual apron 21 depends from the iront of the carriage and contains the usual control means for the feeding and threading movements 35 of the carriage lengthwise of the bed and of the cross slide or tool supports on the carriage cross wise of the bed either by hand or by power. The parts thus far described may be of ordi nary or usual construction and arrangement, and 40 may include the usual and ordinary adjusting and operating devices customary in machines of this character. The carriage is supported on and slidable lengthwise of the bed for positioning and feeding on the carriage. These are shown as iiat, wide horizontal faces. Front guiding faces 35, 36 respectively on the carriage and on the bed are located at the front edges of the supporting faces 3I, 32, and extend downwardly therefrom. 'I‘hese latter guiding faces are preferably ñat bearing faces of substan tial width, and preferably at right angles to said supporting faces 3|, 32, being shown as vertical guiding faces. 10 Coacting guiding faces 31, 38 are opposed to the guiding faces 35, 36, and act in conjunction therewith and with the supporting faces 3l, 32 for guiding the carriage lengthwise of the bed and holding the carriage down to the bed. The guiding faces 31, 38 are preferably fiat faces extending downwardly from the rear edges oi' the supporting faces 3|, 32, and slant forwardly at an acute- angle thereto for forming a dove tailed rib or tongue 39 and a dovetailed groove 20 40 between the carriage and the bed tapering toward the base of said tongue. The undercut faces of the tongue and groove are presented toward the vertical plane in which the axis of the rotation of the work is located for resisting lifting action on the carriage as hereinafter ex plained. The supporting face 3l, a portion of the guid ing face 3E and the guiding face 38 may be on a separate bar 4I extending lengthwise of the bed 30 and positioned with relation thereto by tongue and groove connection 42 and fastening screws 43 for clamping said bar to the bed and enabling the supporting and guiding faces of said bar to be hardened and finished in advance of applica tion thereof to the bed. The bed is provided with a rack 45 extending lengthwise of the bed and located under the front set of guideways just described, a pinion 46 mesh ing therewith, the pinion being suitably operated 40 manually by a suitable hand wheel 41 or by power by means of a suitable feed shaft 48 extending lengthwise of the bed and suitably operated by power mechanism at the head end of the ma 45 the same. The tail stock is slidable lengthwise chine. . of the bed and secured thereto in adjusted posi The carriage is also feedable lengthwise of the tions, dependent on the length of work to be bed by means of a lead screw 49, with which accommodated between the centers. half nuts 50 are arranged to be engaged by a In my improved device I have provided a pair , suitable operating arm 5I for screw-feeding the of spaced apart sets of guideways between the carriage lengthwise of the bed when desired, the carriage and the bed, both of which include sup- . lead screw being suitably rotated by operating porting faces of substantial width. exemplified as means located at the head end of the machine. flat horizontally disposed supporting faces for This lead screw is also located under the front receiving the supporting and depressing operat set of guideways. 55 ing stresses of the carriage on the bed, and one The rack and pinion and the lead screw and of which also includes coacting hold-down faces nut are preferably located in the same vertical resisting separation between said supporting plane in which the front guideways are located lfaces. also exemplified as flat horizontally dis and are in close adjacency to said guideways, posed coacting faces. the rack and pinion by means of which the 60 The other of said sets of guideways also ln heaviest cuts are produced between the tool and the Work being proximate to and immediately cludes coactlng guiding faces resisting lateral dis placement crosswise of the bed between the car riage and the bed, and is exemplified as having some of these guiding faces so formed as to re 85 sist separating stresses between the carriage and the bed. The latter set of guideways is exemplified be tween the front side of the carriage and the front 70 longitudinal portion of the bed, and the other of said sets of guideways is represented between the rear side of the carriage and the rear longitudi nal side of the bed. The front guideways include a supporting face 75 3| on the bed and a coacting supporting face 32 45 50 . 60 under said front guideways, so as to transmit the feeding forces thereof directly in line with said set of front guideways. In this manner the lines of feeding force are parallel with and closely 65 adjacent to said supporting and guiding faces and underneath said supporting and guiding faces to avoid binding forces upon said support ing and guiding faces which might have a tend ency to cause resistance of sliding movement of 70 the carriage. The set of supporting and guiding faces just described preferably provides the sole lateral guiding means to resist twisting or torsion move ments of the carriage, the balance of the carriage 75 a being free to assume lateral positions determined so as to provide a sliding iit between the gib and by said lateral guiding faces. The lateral guid 'the guiding face on the bed, and the screw 15 ing faces are closely adjacent to each other for is then tightened for> definitely positioning the transversely localizing the lateral guiding faces gib lengthwise with relation to the carriage. The hold down face 58 at the rear of the car within narrow compass. The other set of guideways, exemplified as riage, represented by a horizontal guiding face, the rear guides, comprises coacting supporting is located on a similar gib 66’ adjustable in simi faces 54, 55, respectively on the carriage and f lar manner by similar parts designated by similar the bed, extending lengthwise of the bed and reference numerals with the exponent prime. The rearsupporting face 55 may be formed 10 being preferably fiat horizontal guiding faces of substantial width. The hold down guiding faces on a bar 8| extending lengthwise of the bed, and at said rear of the carriage comprise the guiding may be a hardened supporting face preformed faces 56, 51 respectively on the carriage and on thereon, the bar being positioned on the bed by the bed, and resist separating movement between means of a tongue and groove connection 82 extending lengthwise of the bed and secured the last-named supporting faces 54, 55. thereto by fastening screws 83. - hold down the carriage and counteract the/liÍ The guiding and supporting faces of the front ing stresses upon the carriage due to the cut ting forces between the respective tools and the guideway may be located on a forwardly outward work. There is preferably a clearance space 58 ly extending ledge 86 on the bed, and the rear Thây/ 20 between the rear edge of the bed and the depend ing portion 59 of the carriage. A block B0 is secured to the lower face of said depending por tion. This block supports the guiding face 56. ' The block is secured to said depending portion 25 by bolts 53. The supporting faces, and the guiding faces and the hold down faces of the respective sets guides may be located on a rearwardly outwardly 20 extending ledge 81 on the bed. The bed may be provided with inwardly ex tending ledges 88, 89 respectively at the front fand rear of the bed to form supporting faces 99, 9|, coacting with vsupporting faces 92, 93 on the 25 tail stock and a guiding face 94 on the bed co acting with a guiding face 96 on the tail stock, a of guideways preferably extend throughout the full length of the carriage, and throughout the 30 Wings 6|, 62, 63, 64, at the respective ends there of, for forming coacting guiding faces between clamping bar 98 extending under said ledges 88, 40 located, and a part on which one of the hold down faces of the rear set of guides is located, as to have additional strength by providing space 40 for a depending portion or portions or cross these adjustable faces being at right angles to bridge |82 of the carriage between the guideways each other and so related that their adjustments for the carriage, and an additional depending bulge |03 of the cross-bridge between said in 89, the respective forward and rear end thereof being clamped to clamping faces 99, |80 by means of clamping bolts I0| for clamping the tail stock in adjusted position to the bed. Other attach ' the carriage and the bed, especially at the respec tive ends of the carriage and throughout the wing ‘ ments requiring alignment with the head spindle may be similarly secured to these inner support portions of the latter. Adjusting means are provided for adjusting ing, guiding and clamping faces on the bed. 35 It will be noted that the supporting and guid the faces on the carriage and on the bed rela tively to each other. These adjusting means ing faces for the tail stock are on a level below the level of the supporting faces between the bed and preferably comprisea. part on which one of the vertical guide faces of the front set of guides is the carriage. enabling the carriage to be made so do not disturb one another. They are so ar 45 ranged that the adjustment of the vertical guide face adjusts not only the lateral guide faces of the front guides, but also the contact relation between the supporting faces of said front guides due to the tapering tongue` and groove formation 50 of said lateral guiding faces contracting toward the base of the tongue thereof. ` Thus the guide face 35 is located on a gib 66, 55 30 45 wardly extending ledges. Referring to Fig. l, the direction of downward pressure resulting from cutting contact between the front tool and the work is represented by the arrow b. and is resisted by thewide fiat horizontal supporting faces 3|, 32 at the front side of the 50 carriage, and also reacts upon the wide iiat hori zontal supporting faces 54, 55 at the rear side of which is shown as a tapered gib seated on a ta the carriage, these supporting faces distributing pered coacting face 61 in a recess 68 extending lengthwise of the front depending portion 69 of the carraige. A screw 18 has threaded connection the reacting force of the cutting over a wide area and distributing the wear incident thereto for long 55 ' 1| with one end of the carriage, and is provided with a fiange 12 adjustable in axial direction in a recess 13 in the end of the carriage, the ñange 60 being received in a’slot 14 in one end of the gib, so that adjustment of the screw in its threaded connection will move the flange axially in or out, and consequently the gib lengthwise along its in clined seat for adjusting its guiding face toward and from the coacting guiding face 36 on the bed. At the opposite end of the carriage there isa life of the supporting faces. The incidence of the line efforce directed upon the carriage caused by the coaction between the front cutting tool and the work is principally at right angles to the flat horizontal supporting faces, producing greatest resistance and least'ìwear. . The back pressure on the front tool due to the cutting action between said tool and the vwork , tends to move the carriage transversely of the bed «away from the work, indicated b_v the direction arrow c, and all movement of the carriage in the opposite end of the carriage. This screw has a flange 11 abutting against the end of the wedge similar direction is resisted by the inclined guide faces 31, 38, these inclined guide faces also resist ing tendency of upward movement of the carriage and insuring intimate supporting contact between gib. the supporting faces betweenthe carriage and screw 15 which has threaded connection 16 with In adjusting the gib, the screw 10.is turned until the guiding face 35 on said gib makes inti mate contact with the guiding face 36 on the carriage. The screw is then slightly retracted the bed. especially at the front of» the carriage. All tendency to raise the rear of the carriage by such pressure is counteracted by the rear hold vdown faces 56, 51. -1 el 4 2,111,096 When employing a rear cutting tool, a lifting line of force, represented by the arrow d, acts up on the carriage, which tends to lift the carriage, and is resisted at the rear side of the carriage by Cl the coacting hold down guiding faces 5B, 51. Such lifting tendency of the carriage is also re sisted at the front side of the carriage by the undercut dovetailed connection of the front to separation between the coacting supporting surfaces, due to the presence of the undercut dovetail tongue and groove. The flat horizontal supporting faces and hold down faces between the rear side of the carriage and the bed permit such adjustments at the front side of the car riage without disturbance of adjustment between guideways, represented by the slanting guiding - faces 31, 38, presented toward the tool, for hold ing the carriage downwardly and resisting up ward movement of the carriage by the'upwardly 'increasing cross-section between the undercut tongue and groove of the front guiding connection between the carriage and the bed. The cutting action between the rear tool and the work also induces a rearward pressure line of force, exempliiied in horizontal plane by the arrow e, which is resisted by the coacting guiding faces 35, 36 at the front of the carriage. The mesne lines of forces or direction of stress between the cutting edges of the tools and the respective guiding and supporting faces are at different angles, determined by the distances of contact between the tool or tools and the work, from the axis of rotation of the work, the re actions upon the supporting surfaces and guiding surfaces remaining, however, as described, but changing merely their angles of presentation. 30 Referring now to the twisting or torsional forces upon the carriage, and referring to Fig. 4, the contact points |05, |06 between the cutting edges of the tools and the'work may be repre sented as the fulcrums of a lever, whose function 35 is assumed by the carriage, and the point " of application of feed to the carriage by the rack and pinion or the lead screw and its nut, may be represented as the force applied to the lever, for causing a twisting or torque movement of the 40 carriage along the arcs, one of which is repre sented by the- arrow f, assuming that the front tool only is employed in the present exempli flcation. If the rear tool is employed, the fulcrum will 45 be represented by the contact point between the rear tool and the work. If both tools are em ployed, the fulcrums will have a similar effect upon the carriage. ~ \ . The forces crosswise of the bed, due to the cut 50 ting actions between the front and re'ar tools and vthe work, are in lines respectively represented by the arrows c and e. The line of force of the feedin’g is in the direction of the arrow g, and the line of resistance between the tool and the 55 work lengthwise of the carriage is in the direc tion of the arrows h. These lines of forces result in the- twisting or torque -tendency of the car 60 riage represented by the arrow f. The resistances to all of these linesA of force are relegated to the closely associated lateral guiding faces at the front side of the carriage located within a small compass laterally of the carriage and extending preferably throughout the entire length of the carriage, including the wings 65 at the ends thereof, for impounding all resist ances to said stresses within a comparatively said faces at'the rear side of 'the carriage. The adjustment of the rear gib adjusts the capacity for separation between the supporting 10 faces between the carriage and bed at the rear side of the bed, the forms of the front supporting and guiding faces permitting such adjustments without disturbance thereof. - The adjustment of the front guide adjusts the 15 same in a horizontal plane, and the adjustment `of the rear guide adjusts the same in a vertical plane. A clamp |08 may be provided for clamping the carriage to the bed during operations re 20 quiring cross feeding only of the tool, as in facing operations. This clamp may comprise a short block |09 (Fig. 5), provided with a heel III! which forms a fulcrum upon the lower face of the de pending front portion 69 of the carriage. It fur 25 ther has a recess ||| between said heel and the clamping face ||2. A screw II'I clamps said block toward the car riage and adjusts the clamping face on said block upon the coacting face |I8 on the bed. 30 In my improved device the forms and relations of the guideways are such that those resisting lateral displacements are cross-sectionally located at opposing coacting guiding faces, which are closely adjacent to each other at the respective 35 sides of a comparatively narrow flange or rib; that said guiding faces include an undercut dove tail connection resisting upward lift of the car riage; that adjustments of said guiding faces may be made without disturbance of adjustment of 40 the coasting faces between the other side of the carriage and bed; that adjustments of said faces may be made in a horizontal plane; and that adjustments at the other side of the carriage may be made in a vertical plane for adjusting 45 the separating capacity between the supporting faces between said other side of the carriage and bed, without disturbance of the adjustments of said first-named coacting guiding faces. If desired, the respective ends of the support 50 ing faces on the carriage may be provided with Wipers, as exemplified, for instance, in Figs.A 5, 6, and '7, in which |2I represents a wiper composed preferably of a strip of resilient metal, such as bronze, and having a beveled wiping edge |22, 55 preferably forming a knife edgejurged toward the face which it is wiping, by the toe |23 of a. securing plate |24, between which and the end of the carriage the wiping plate is secured by means of screws |25 for forming a tapering scraping edge. If it is desired to arrange lsaid scraping edge on a slant, as shown at |26,- a correspond Aingly tapered shim |21 may be inserted between the body of the scraper and the end of the car The scraping face extends across the face 65 with which it coacts for shearing foreign or un desirable matter from said face to prevent .the vriage. narrow margin extending lengthwise of the car riage, and confining the adjustments of said faces > same from lodging between the coacting support within narrow limits closely associated to said ing or guiding faces. _ faces, leaving the balance of the carriage free to The location of the rack and pinion and the 70 be guided solely by said faces within such narrow feed screw and nut with relation to the exempli compass. ñed supporting and guiding faces between the The adjustment of the front gib adjusts co1 front of the carriage and front of the bed, in lectively the lateral positioning of the entire car sures a direct linear feeding force upon the car 75 riage with relation to the bed and the resistance riage in close relation to said guides to avoid 2,111,09@ A drag and resistance between said supporting and guiding faces. In cases in which there is no feeding action lengthwise of the bed, the forces represented by VI the arrows h and g are not present, but merely _a feeding action crosswise of the bed, as when cutting with a forming tool in which there are equal resistances lengthwise of the bed at the respective sides of the tool. Having thus fully described my invention, what I claim as new and desire to secure by Letters Patent, is: ' 1. The combination with a tool carriage, and a support therefor, with the tool of said carriage coacting with rotating work above said carriage to turn said work, of a guide between said car riage and said support comprising coacting fiat substantially horizontal contacting suPDOrting faces and coacting lateral closely adjacent guid 20 ing faces at the respective edges of said support ing faces including coacting guiding faces slant ing into vertical planes in which said horizontal supporting faces are located and at an acute angle to said supporting faces to form an acute . guiding angle projected toward said rotating work to resist the cutting thrusts therefrom, and ad justing means adjusting the distance between said coacting lateral guiding faces and by reason of said acute angular arrangement of said coacting 30 guiding faces' also adjusting the coaction be tween said supporting faces. , 2. The combination with rotating and center ing means for the work, a bed thereunder, a tool carriage slidable lengthwise on said bed, and 35 means for supporting cutting tools on said car riage at the respective sides of the vertical plane in which the axes of said rotating and centering means are located, of guides between said bed and said carriage extending lengthwise of said axes 40 and located at the respective sides of said verti cal plane, said guide at one side of said vertical plane comprising a pair of cooperative substan tially horizontal fiat supporting faces, a pair of cooperative substantially vertical flat resistant 45 faces extending downwardly at the outer margins of said substantially horizontal supporting'faces and a ,pair of cooperative angular fiat resistant faces extending downwardly at the inner margins of said substantially horizontal supporting faces 50 at an acute angle to and under said substantially horizontal supporting faces, and adjusting means for adjusting the approach between the resist ant faces of one of said, pairs of resistant faces whereby to adjust the approach between all of 55 said pairs of faces, and said guide at the other side of said vertical plane comprising a pair of coactive substantially horizontal fiat supporting faces and a pair of coactive substantially hori zontal fiat hold-down faces respectively counter acting downward and upward thrusts between said tools and the rotating work, said guide at said one side of said vertical plane counteracting cutting thrusts between said cutting tools and the rotating work in all transverse directions and said guide at said other side of said vertical plane counteracting thrusts in vertical directions be tween said tools and said rotating work and yield ing in horizontal directions to adjustments- in said mst-named guide by said adjusting means. 3. In a lathe. the combination with rotating 70 and centering means for the work, a bed there under extending lengthwise of the axes thereof. a tool carriage slidable lengthwise on said bed, i I and means for supporting tools on said carriage at the respective sides of the vertical plane in which said -axes are located, of guides between said carriage and said bed extending lengthwise of said axes and located at the respective sides of said vertical plane, said guides at one of said sides comprising cooperative substantially hori zontal fiat supporting faces, a pair of cooperative substantially' vertical resistant faces extending downwardly at the outer margin to said substan tially horizontal faces and a pair of cooperative angular ñat resistant faces extending downwardly at the inner margins of said substantially hori zontal faces at an acute angle to and under said substantially horizontal faces so as to direct the acute angle between said substantially horizon tal faces and said angular resistant faces in a couple toward said axes and constructed to di rect thrusts between the tool and the work at the said one of said sides of said vertical plane toward the corner of said angle whereby said thrusts are directed against both said substan tially horizontal supporting faces and said angu lar resistant faces, and adjusting means to ad just said faces toward and fromv said vertical plane, said guides at the other of said sides of said vertical plane comprising pairs of coactive substantially horizontal faces counteracting both upward and downward thrusts between the tools and the work and yielding in substantially hori 30 zontal lines to adjustments in` said first-named guide, and adjusting means for adjusting the co action between said last-named pairs of coactive faces. 4. In a lathe, the combination with the bed, the tool carriage and the work supporting and rotating means to rotate the work above the car riage for coactionl between the cutting means on the tool carriage and the work for cutting the work, of a pair of guides respectively at the front 40 of the carriage and at the rear of the carriage between the bed and the carriage and extending lengthwise of the bed, said guide at the front of the carriage formed by providing said bed and said carriage with coacting iiat vsubstantially horizontal contacting supporting faces, coacting ñat substantially vertical contacting guiding faces at the front edge of said supporting faces and coacting _fiat contacting guiding faces at the rear edge of said supporting faces extending slantingly 50 forward under said supporting faces to form an acute angular guiding structure presented toward the field of cutting action between the cutting y means and the work to resist the cutting stresses therefrom, and said guide at the rear of said 55 carriage formed by providing said bed and said carriage with ‘coacting flat substantially hori zontal contacting supporting f-aces and coacting fiat substantially horizontal contacting guiding faces with said carriage shiftable substantially 60 horizontally between said last-named supporting faces and said last-named guiding faces. and said last-named supporting faces and said last-named guiding faces and said acute angular guiding structure resisting upward and downward cutting stresses due to cutting action between the cut ting means and the work, and adjusting means for adjusting the pressure between said flat sub stantially vertical contacting guiding faces where by the contact relations between all said faces are adjusted. .