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Патент USA US2111154

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March 15, 1938.
H, „yI N|CHOL5
Filed OCT.. 27, 1934 ~
2 Sheets-Sheet 1
Y *5125 7-52 »1000.00.56-80 j
March 15,-> 193s.
Filed 0st. 27, 1934
- es -
2 Sheets-Sheet 2
Patented Mn. 15, 193s
Harry J. Nichols, Dayton, Ohio, assignor to In
iernational Business Machines Corporation,
New York, N. Y., a corporation of New York
Application October 27, 1934, Serial No. 750,285
`21 Claims. (Cl. 178-4)
Fig. 9 shows in end view details of the mecha
This invention relates to a printing telegraph
system and particularly to a printing telegraph nism by which the typewheel of Fig. 6 is shifted
to change the case of printing.
system for the transmission'of statistical infor
Fig. 10 shows a section of the printed tape
mation and the like.
The invention is described. mainly with refer
5 ence to a system for the telegraphic transmis
sion of the essential information on bank credits,
but it is generally applicable to the transmission
of such data as can be initially transcribed in
the form of marks placed on or holes punched
into cards in predetermined coded similar space
relationship, in general form to the well known
tabulating card.
It is the principal object to provide a system
for the transmission of intelligence of the char
acter of arbitrary indications arranged in prede
indicating the form in which the received in
formation is presented; and
Fig. 11 shows a modification of the arrang
ment of Fig'. 3.
In the several figures, like characters repre
sent like parts.
The present invention provides for the trans 10
mission of intelligence of any desired sort, but
is arranged more particularly for the transmis
sion of statistical data. For example the inven
tion provides a system for the transmission of
any of the types of infomation commonly con 15
termined coded position on a record card or the
tained on tabulating cards and the like. In such
cards the information is arranged in the form of
arbitrary indications coded according to their
It is a further object of the invention to pro
vide a method and apparatus whereby statistical
20 information, comprising for example mainly nu
position on the card. The indications may be
in the form of holes punched into the cards or 20
metal groups with such ilgures and signs as may ` in the form of marks of contrasting color or re
be required to render the numeral groups intel
ligible, may be transmitted and reproduced at a
distance by electrical means with perfect ac
25 curacy and great rapidity.
It is a further object to provide a system adapt
ed to eifect the rapid, economical, and safe ex
change and clearance of bank credits by tele
graphic methods.
Other objects and features will be in part ob
vious and in part hereinafter pointed out in con
nection with the following description, the ac
companying'drawings, and the appended claims.
In the drawings:
Fig. 1 shows a form of record card adapted for
use in connection with the invention.
Fig. 2 shows the record card of Fig. 1 in posi
tion for scanning.
Fig. 3 shows schematically in cross-section the
40 automatic transmitter forming a part of the in
Fig. 4 shows in schematic form the electrical
circuits of the transmitter shown in Fig. 3.
Fig. 5 is a detailed view of the switching mech
45 anism by which proper scanning of the record
card is secured.
Fig. 6 shows in schematic form the general ar
rangement of the mechanism of the reprinter.
Fig. 7 shows in schematic form a diagram of
electrical circuits of the reprinter, the series of
cams of Fig. 6 being shown in exploded view in
order to clarify the diagram.
Fig. 8 is an end view in part section of the
mechanism of Fig. 6, illustrating particularly
55 the printing mechanism.
flection characteristics with respect to the re
mainder of the card.
As a particular application the invention may
be applied to the transfer of credit, as between 25
banks or similar institutions. In accordance
with the existing practice, credit is transferred
largely by way of the mail necessitating a mate
rial time during which the credit is in large part
lunavailable to any party. 'I'his credit in course 30
of transfer is termed the “float”, and involves a
loss of income of quite material proportions. In
accordance with the present invention the "float”
can be materially reduced by a rapid, accurate
and inexpensive written communication trans 35
ferring credit. The invention accordingly is de
- scribed with reference to such a system, for il
lustrative purposes. The system is further de
scribed in detail as using record cards in which
the data is in the form of punched holes in the 40
card but it is evident that it is equally applicable
with slight modification for use with cards where
the data is ln different forms, such as contrast
ing color or the like.
Referring now to Fig. 1, a special form of draft 45
or acceptance adapted to the purposes of the in
vention is shown, although it is to be understood
that the record card used for transmission may
have any form suitable ’w the transaction or data
to be transmitted. In the present instance, for 50
illustrative purposes,- it is assumed that a par
ticular bank whose code number is 56-30 wishes
to transfer credit of one thousand dollars to an
other bank whose code number is '7---82. Bank
56-30 has prepared a record card as shown, duly
filled out on one part, then coded as shown in a
suitable card punching machine on the remain
'ing part, and after verification and recording,
has been signed by the proper official if so de
sired. The essential information, such as iden
tifying number of transferor and transferee, the
amount of the transfer, and the serial number of
the transfer itself if desired, are thus recorded
in punched holes. The completed card is placed
in the transmitter, and by means not shown is
brought to a predetermined position for trans
The coded information is recorded in a part of
the card termed the field, and is arranged in
vertical columns, and in horizontal levels or lines
in the manner of the well known tabulating card.
The position of each punched hole represents a
numeral or its associated sign, with an additional
line in each column in which a shift operation for
20 the selection of signs is recorded, thus providing
twenty characters in all. The blank space at the
top of the card represents-the scanning interval
in which a synchronizing signal is transmitted.
The field may be blank, or may be printed to in«
dicate the interpretation of the coded positions,
thus permitting of visual verification.
Referring now to Fig. 2, the record card I is
shown in position for scanning, such scanning
forming part of the transmission process. The
30 coded field of the card is immediately over scan
ning belt 2 of the transmitter, presently to be
described. The scanning belt is provided with a
:series of scanning holes 2a, one for each column
of the field, arranged in echelon, being separated
along the length of the belt by a distance equal
to the height of the record card, and across the
width of the belt by a distance equal to the me
dian distance between columns on the card.
The belt, which is endless, is provided with a
single registry hole 2b, and along one or both
margins with a continuous series of equally
spaced driving holes 2c. The belt is driven in
uniform continuous motion by a sprocket wheel
in the direction shown. It will be apparent that
45 in one complete revolution of the belt, the scan
ning holes will pass in proper sequence under
each of the vertical columns of. the record card.
Referring to Fig. 3, the scanning mechanism
has for its main elements a light source | I, alight
reactive device or photo cell I2, scanning belt 2,
and the drive means therefor. Light source II
is suitably mounted in a reflector I3 which directs
the light in a parallel beam upon the code field
of record card I and towards photo-cell |2.
Photo~cell I2 is mounted at the focus of para
bolic reflector I4 so as to receive the maximum
of light on its sensitive surface. At the instant
a scanning hole is coincident with a hole in the
card, a beam of light passes from the light source
to the photo-cell, energizing the latter, and by
means later to be described, causing a signal
impulse to be transmitted. Thus by the passage
of the scanning belt beneath the card, timed im
pulses are transmitted in accordance with the
information coded in the punched holes of. the
record card.
Scanning belt 2 is driven at a uniform rate by
a sprocket wheel I5, which in turn is driven by a
motor (not shown). 'I'he scanning belt is held
taut in position by idler pulleys Iib. A trans
parent table |'| is shown as supporting record
card I, but this table is optional, the card being
supported directly by the scanning belt if pre
Sprocket wheel I! is provided with a cam Il
fixed on one end of its shaft, this cam being pro
vided with a single risc or lobe |8a which closes
contacts I9 momentarily once during each revo
lution of sprocket wheel I5. As will be more fully
described hereinafter, the closing of contacts I9
generates the synchronizing signal which is
transmitted over the line to the receiving appa
ratus for synchronizing purposes. The effective
circumference of sprocket wheel is exactly equal
to the height of the record card, hence a syn
chronizing signal is sent out for each traverse of
the card by a scanning hole. The scanning belt
is so placed in the sprocket that the synchroniz
ing signal is sent to the line at a time when the
scanning holes pass the blank margin of the
card. Hence the synchronizing signals do not
interfere with the printing signals, and vice
Since the scanning belt is preferably kept in
continuous motion, means are provided to en~ 20
sure that the card will always be scanned in the
proper order, that each card will be scanned but
once, and that false signals will not be sent to
the line when the card is being moved into or out
of position, or in the absence of a card. The 25
means for accomplishing these various safe
guards comprise a card switch 2 I, shown in Fig. 4,
and an automatic sequence switch 22 shown in
Figs. 4 and 5.
Card switch 2| is connected in a circuit com
prising battery 23, lift magnet 24, and a reading
condenser arrangement comprising capacitor 25
and resistor 26 in parallel.
T'he contacts of card
switch 2| are normally closed, but when a card
is fully inserted and in position for scanning, the
card slips between the contacts of card switch 2|,
breaking the circuit including the winding of lift
magnet 24.
Referring now to Fig. 5, sequence switch 22 is
mounted on lever 3|, and its contacts are nor
mally open as shown` Lever 3| is pivoted about
axis 32, and carries at its free end star wheel 33
and a double lobed cam 34 fixed to the shaft of
star wheel 33, their common shaft being jour~
nailed in lever 3 I. Sprocket wheel I5 has a cylin 45
drical barrel in which are machined spaced lon
gitudinal grooves or flutes as shown. These
grooves are adapted to catch the points of star
wheel u when the register hole 2b in scanning
belt 2 passes underneath the star wheel. The 50
belt normally prevents the star wheel from being
engaged by the flutes in the barrel of the sprocket
wheel, but once each revolution the aforemen
tioned register hole permits one point of the star
wheel to drop into engagement with the barrel of
the sprocket wheel. The register hole is located
in the scanning belt in such relation to the scan
ning holes that the first scanning hole is just
entering on its traverse of the card when the
register hole passes beneath the star wheel. This 60
relationship of register hole and first scanning
hole is indicated in Fig. 2.
'I'he operation of the sequence switch is as
follows2-Before entry of a card for scanning,
lift magnet 24 is energized and lifts the free end 65
of lever 3| so that star wheel 33 is withheld from
contact with the scanning belt. The contacts of
sequence switch 22 are then open, and no poten
tial is applied to the photo-cell. (See Fig. 4.)
When the card is inserted, the contacts of card 70
switch 2| are forced apart, lift magnet 24 is de
energized, and star wheel 33 is lowered into con
tact with the scanning belt. When the register
hole passes beneath star wheel 33, the leading
point of the star wheel drops through the hole 75
Considering now the sending of printing sig
and is caught by the edge of one of the grooves.
The rotation oi’ the sprocket wheel carries the
point of the star wheel backwards, rotating star
wheel 33 one quarter turn counter-clockwise as
viewed. Cam 34, fixed to the shaft of star wheel
33, is likewise rotated one quarter turn, and
nals, it is to be assumed that a record card is
in position i'or scanning, and that the contacts of
sequence switch 22 are closed. When a scanning
hole moves into coincidence with a punched hole
on the card, a light beam passes from light source
Il to photo-cell I2, energizing same. As is well
known, the eifect of increased light striking a
permits the contacts of sequence switch 22 to
close, thus `applying potential to photo-cell I2.
The scanning of the card then ensues. At the
end of the scanning, which constitutes one revo
photo-cell is to decrease its resistance. Hence the
potential of grid 4Ilb is raised, since the anode 10
lution of the scanning belt, the register hole again
passes beneath the star wheel, the star wheel is
tripped, cam 34 opens the contacts of switch 22,
and potential is removed from the photo-cell.
15 Shortly thereafter, the card is ejected from the
transmitter by means not shown but preferably
platecircuit, and a signal is sent to the line as
previously described. The current impulse is 15
terminated by the cut-oil’ relay as in the previous
I2a of the photo-cell is connected to the positive
side of battery 23. Electronic relay 40 is thus
tripped, a current impulse is generated in its
c'ase, hence the synchronizing signals and print
ing signals are of like duration and amplitude.
It is to be noted, however, that while the syn
chronizing signals are periodic, the printing sig
coordinated with the scanning belt so that the
card is automatically and positively ejected at
the proper point of the scanning cycle, permit
20 ting- the contacts of card switch 2I to close,
energizing lift magnet 24 which lifts star wheel
33 away from the scanning belt. Upon the in
nals are aperiodic, the time of their occurrence
holes in the record card.
sertion of another card, the cycle of operations
just described is repeated. It is thus seen that
25 the cooperation of the card switch and sequence
switch provide the proper safeguards in the scan
ning process.
Referring to Fig. 4, the principal components
Referring now to Fig. 6, in which the mech
anism >of the receiving printer, termed the re 25
printer, is shown. Drive motor 50, of uniform
speed characteristics, drives drive shaft 52
through reduction gear 5I whereby the drive
shaft is caused to rotate at the same speed as
of the sending apparatus of the transmitter con
sprocket wheel I5 at the transmitter.
30 sist of photo-cell I2, electronic-relay 40, cut-out
relay 4I associated therewith, battery 23, line
transformer 43, and line 44.
wheel 53, and other elements of mechanism con
cerned with the printing function move in syn
chronism with the scanning mechanism, that is
glow type, having a plate 40a, grid 40h, and
35 cathode 40o all enclosed in a glass envelope in
to say, it must move at the same rate, and with
a particular phase relationship thereto.
Photo-cell I2 may be any
suitable type of light reactive device, and is
shown in the conventional manner as consisting
of an anode I2a and cathode I2c. `Battery 23,
40 or other source of direct current, furnishes a
positive potential to the anodes of the electronic
relay and photo-cell. Photo-cell I2 is connected
in the cathode-grid circuit of the electronic relay,
and a trip-circuit consisting of cam switch I9
45 and current limiting resistor 45 are connected in
parallel therewith. The function of cam switch
I9 is to trip electronic relay 40 for an instant
during each revolution of drive sprocket I5. Se
quence switch 22 is connected in series with
60 photo-cell I2, rendering the same ineffective
when its contacts are open. Capacitor 42 has a
stabilizing effect on the electronic relay. The
plate-cathode circuit of electronic relay 40 in
cludes battery 23, the primary of line transformer
43, and the winding’ of cut-oí relay 4I.
The operation of the sending apparatus is as
followsz--Considering ñrst the generation of syn
chronizing signals, when cam I3 closes switch
I3, the potential of grid 40h is raised by reason
'of being momentarily connected to the positive
side of battery 23. As is well known, raising the
grid of a grid-glow tube to a positive potential
“trips” the tube, i. e., causes it to become ionized,
the tube becomes conducting, and a markedly
increased plate current flows. In the present
instance, the increased plate current flows
through the primary of line transformer 43 and
an impulse is sent to the line. As the plate cur
rent approaches its maximum, cut-off relay 4I
is energized, opening its contacts and cutting off
the plate current. 'I'he current flow is inter
In the
system described, it is essential that the type
4I) is preferably of the gaseous discharge or grid
the usual manner.
being established by the position of the punched
wheel 53 and the other synchronous elements are
therefore carried on printer sleeve 54, rotatably
mounted on drive shaft 52. Intermediate drive
shaft 52 and printer sleeve 54 is phase corrector
mechanism 55, including a friction coupling not
shown. Printer sleeve 54 can be stopped while
drive shaft 52 is in rotation by armature 56a of
release magnet 56 engaging stop arm 54a. Also,
while in rotation, printer sleeve 54 can be rotated 45
relative to drive shaft 52 by phase corrector
mechanism 55 which functions to advance or re
tard‘the phase of printer sleeve 54 with respect
to shaft 52 in accordance with the synchronizing
impulses, to thereby maintain the sleeve in syn
chronism with the scanning mechanism. While
any suitable form of phase corrector mechanism
may be used, the preferred form'for use with
the mechanism of the invention is that described
in myy co-pending application Ser. No. 736,383. 55
Printer sleeve 54 carries a series of ñve iîxed
sequence cams, designated by 51a to 51d inclu
sive, worm 5B, paper-feed cam 59, and type wheel
53. Type wheel 53 is splined on printer sleeve
54, i. e. it is slidable axially thereon but is fixed 60
as to rotation by a groove and key, or other pre
ferred construction. Printer sleeve 54 is secured
in frictional driving relation on drive shaft 52
by washer 6I and nut 52, the latter also serving
to adjust the pressure on the friction coupling. 65
The method of synchronizing printer sleeve 54
is as foliowst-In the absence of synchronizing
signals, release magnet 56 is un-energized, and
its armature 55a drops away, intercepting stop
arm 54a and stopping sleeve 54 in a predeter 70
mined position in which cam 51h closes contacts
rupted for a period sufllcient for the electronic ~ 61h, the drive shaft being permitted to continue
relay to de-ionize. Meanwhile, contacts I9 have
opened, restoring grid 40h to its normal poten
75 tial.
in rotation by reason of the friction coupling.
Referring now to Figs. 6 and 7, which latter
shows the electrical circuits of thereprinter and 75
the sequence cams and contacts in exploded po
sition, and assuming that the transmitter sends
synchronizing signals as previously described,
whcn a synchronizing signal is received, elec
tronic relay 15 is tripped, and current flows from
positive battery via windings of magnet 55, con
tacts 61D, plate to cathode of electronic relay 19,
via windings of cut-off relay 1| and return to
negative battery. Release magnet 55 is ener
gized by the current pulse through the circuit
just traced, releasing stop arm 55a, whereupon
printer sleeve 54 is placed in rotation at the speed
of drive shaft 52 by means of the friction coupling.
Co-incidentally, cut-off relay 1| is energized, in
15 terruptingr the flow of current in the plate cir
cuit. Magnet 56 is provided with a storing ca
pacitor 56e of considerable capacity, and energy
stored therein provides holding current for mag
net 55 during the normal interval between syn
20 chronizing impulses. Thus magnet 59 is sus
tained in operated position so long as synchro
nizing signals are regularly received; otherwise
it drops out, stopping arm 54a. 'I'he corrector
mechanism now operates to bring printer sleeve
5I into exact unison with the synchronizing im
pulses, and as will be more fully explained here
after, thereafter corrects as necessary the phase
position of sleeve 54 to maintain unison.
Referring now to Fig. 8, printing is accom
30 plished whenever printer magnet 90 is ener
gized, printer hammer 8| being driven towards
the type wheel by the pull-in of armature 80a.
The length of printer hammer 8| and the travel
of armature 8|a are so regulated that printer
hammer Il is carried through to the end of its
stroke only by the inertia stored therein by its
preceding motion. The current through magnet
8| is comparatively strong, and its inductance
is low in order that armature Bla may have a
quick stroke. Thus printer hammer 5| drives
the tape l2 against the type wheel 53 with a
sharp blow, the rebound throwing the printer
hammer back quickly so as to avoid smudging
the impression. A flexible extension IIb on ar
mature Ila also lifts the fork 83 of the auto
matic paper feed mechanism.
In order to Iobtain characters additional to
numerals without increasing the number of
printing arcs, a second series of characters are
provided on the type wheel parallel to and twin
ning with the numerals. Since the printing po
sition is fixed, the type wheel must be moved the
correct amount in an axial direction in order to
print the additional characters, which for exam
ple will be referred to as signs. Since a large
proportion of the printing is in numbers, one
of the features of the invention is the means by
which the type wheel is shifted to print signs, and
automatically returned to print numerals. Thus
only one line signal is required to effect shifting,
while unshiftìng is effected without signal, econ
omlzing on line time.
When a sign, as for ex
ample _the $ sign, is to be recorded, the per
forating machine operator depresses the shift
key which automatically punches a hole at the
head of a column, and then the number key hav
ing the $ subscript, whereupon a second hole is
punched in the column at the proper numeral
position. On transmission, a shift signal is trans
70 mitted by the hole at the head of the column,
and a printing signal at the numeral position as
usual. At the reprinter, the shift signal is re
ceived when cam 51d has closed contacts 51d,
which causes shift magnet 51 to be energized by
electronic relay 19. Magnet 51 pulls in pivoted
amature 91a on the free end of which is a roller
lib which moves into a position of engagement
with a side cam 53a on type wheel 53. (See Figs.
6 and 9.)
Cam 53a immediately strikes roller
I‘Ib, and type wheel 53 is shifted axially to the çi
right as viewed in Fig. 6 and remains in this po- `
sition until near the end of a revolution. While
so shifted, the printing signal is received at the
proper instant, the printing hammer 8| is actu
ated in the manner already described, and $ is
printed. Near the end of the revolution, side cam
53h on the other edge of type wheel 53 engages
stationary roller B5 and the type wheel is cammed
back to its normal position.
The tape feed mechanism (see Figs. 6, 7 and 8)
comprises a rachet wheel 90, idler rollers 9|, pawl
lever 92, feed cam 59 (carried on printer sleeve
5I), pawl holding magnet 93, control switch 94,
and operating means for the control switch pres
ently to be described. Tractile spring 95 nor 20
mally holds pawl lever 92 in engagement with
cam 59, and pawl 92a successively engages the
teeth of rachet wheel 90, advancing the tape one
step for each revolution of feed cam 59. The
advance of the tape occurs in a non-printing
interval, that is between the scanning of one col
umn and the next. 'I'he tape is drawn along by
a light friction, so that the tape can slip a trifle
during the instant of printing thus avoiding
blurring on the type wheel.
Furthermore, the 30
tape can be pulled out and torn off at will.
The control of the tape feed is as follows:--Printer sleeve 5I carries worm 58 which is in con
tinuous rotation. Control arm 96, pivoted on
support 91, is movable sideways and upwards, but
is drawn to the left and downwards by tractile
spring 9|. A pin 95a at the free end of arm 96
engages worm 5l, thereby moving the control arm
to the right against the action of the tractile
spring. When arm 96 is moved to the extreme 40
right, a knob 96h closes contacts 94. Normally,
however, printer magnet 50 is energized before
arm 9S reaches the point of closing contacts 94,
and arm 95 is raised by fork 53 and returned to
the left by the tractile spring. Thus arm 96 is
continually returned to the left position during
the printing interval, contacts 94 remain open,
and cam 59 once each revolution advances the
ratchet wheel one tooth, feeding the tape the
proper amount for printing. If a column on the 50
record card has no punched hole, the tape is
advanced one notch, leaving a blank. Therefore,
no paper feed or space signal is required.
the printing signals cease for an interval longer
than that required for 5 or 6 revolutions of worm
59, arm 95 reaches its extreme right position, con
tacts 94 are closed, and holding magnet 93 is ener
gized. When cam 59 next oscillates pawl lever 92,
this lever is retained by holding magnet 93, and
the pawl is not permitted to gather in the next 60
tooth of the rachet. Magnet 93 is provided with
a storing capacitor 93a so that pawl lever 92 will
not be released by a momentary opening of con
tacts 94 due to the irregular nature of the worm
thread end. Feeding of the tape thus ceases five
or six spaces after the printing of the last char
acter, and is not resumed until a printing signal
is received to release arm 99. The several spaces
at the end of the printing provide a lengthened
space between messages, and provide room for 70
tearing oil' the tape.
It will be clear that the feature just described
has the multiple advantages of not requiring a
spacing signal, of obtaining the energy for the
tape feed from the motor, thus avoiding the need
Other forms of receiving apparatus may be used,
5 .
for a powerful paper feed magnet, provides a
lengthened space between messages, and con
serves tape when printing signals are not being
Fig. l0 shows a sample of the tape with an illus
trative message.
Referring again to Fig. 7, the sequence of oper
ations of the printer cams is as followsz-Con
sidering the operations as they occur in order
10 from the initiation of a scanning cycle, cam 51a
closes contacts 61a momentarily Just before the
synchronizing signal is due. If the reprinter is
running slow, the synchronizing impulse will in
part be applied through the circuit from positiveA
15 battery through winding of magnet MI v'ia con
tacts 81a, electronic relay 10, through winding of
cut-off relay 1I, and return to negative battery.
MI .will thus be energized, actuating the phase
corrector mechanism which during the succeed
20 ing revolution of printer sleeve 54 will advance its
phase a predetermined amount, thus restoring
perfect unison.
Cam' 51h closes contacts B‘Ib just as contacts
61a open, hence part of the synchronizing im
25 pulse will pass through the circuit including re
lease magnet 5.6, whose storing capacitor 56a will
be recharged, sustaining magnet 56 in the oper
ated condition.
Cam 51e closes contacts 61e just as contacts llb
30 open, hence if the printer sleeve were running
slightly fast, corrector magnet M2 would be ener
gized, causing the phase corrector mechanism to
retard the phase of the printer sleeve a predeter
mined amount, thus restoring unison. Normally,
35 when the reprinter is in unison with the trans
mitter, the entire synchronizing impulse goes to
restore the charge on capacitor 56a.
Shortly after contacts 6'Ic open, cam 51d closes
the contacts 61d. Should a shift signal be re
40 ceived at this moment, shift magnet 81 would be
energized, and the typewheel 53 shifted as previ
ously described. Should there be no shift signal,
electronic relay 10 is not tripped, hence shift
magnet 81 would not be energized.
After being closed for a brief interval, contacts
61d open and contacts 61e, which up until this
time have been open, are closed by cam 51e, to
remain closed during the remainder of the print
ing cycle. Should a printing signal be received,
50 printer magnet 80 is momentarily energized be
fore cut-01T relay 1I interrupts the circuit, and a
character is printed as previously described.
Since the proper unison, as- provided for, type
wheel 53 rotates in step with the scanning of the
record card, the character printed will corre
spond with that punched inthe record card.
It is to be noted that the operating impulses at
the printer are controlled in duration by the
cut-off relay 1I, which is provided with suitable
timing arrangements. Thus the duration of the
as for example, a reperi'orator may be employed
as the receiving instrument, the received record
taking the form of a punched tabulating card
similar to the transmitting record card.
In case the data on the record card is indi
cated by marks or dots, rather than punched
holes, the scanning elements of Fig. 3 are pref- v '
erably rearranged so that the photo-cell is actu
ated by reilected rather than direct light. For 10
example, in Fig. l1 which illustrates an embodi
ment adapted to scanning by reflection, the rec
ord card I is stationed on inclined table I1 below
scanning belt 2 in such relation to photo-cell I2
that light passing from light source II through 16
scanning hole 2a and falling upon record card I
will be reflected to the sensitive surface of photo
cell I2, as indicated. Thus as scanning belt 2
moves through a scanning cycle, a moving spot
of light passes sequentially over the field of the 20
record card, and the light link from light source
II to photo-cell I2 is varied in accordance with
the reflected light. In the event the field of the
record is light in color, as for example white,
and the record marks dark, as for example black, 25
the photo-cell I2 will normally receive maxi
mum light when the scanning spot is passing be
tween record marks, and reduced light when
passing over a record mark.
By well known
means, the photo-cell may be caused to trip the 30
electronic relay on a reduction, rather than an
increase of received light, as required in the
instant case.
While the methods herein described and the
forms of apparatus for carrying these methods 35
into effect, constitute preferred embodiments of
the invention, it is to be understood that the in
vention is not limited to these precise methods
and forms of apparatus, and that changes may be
made in either without departing from the scope 40
of the invention which is defined in the appended
What is claimed is:
1. In a communication system of the character 45
described, a record card containing intelligence
in the form of arbitrary indications arranged in
predetermined coded position thereon, a trans
mitter, means i'or causing operation of said trans
mitter to effect transmission of impulses timed 50
in accordance with the position of said indica
tions, and a receiving printer, and means con
trolled by said timed impulses for eilfecting pre
determined operation of said receiving printer to
record said intelligence in printed form corre 55,
sponding with the original record card.
2. In a communication system of the character
described, in combination, a record card contain
ing intelligence in the form of arbitrary indica
tions arranged in predetermined coded position, 60
there being a separate indication for each char
operating impulses is'independent of the received - acter to be transmitted arranged distinctively as
signals to a considerable extent, and the printing
impulses can be timed so as to provide a margin
of operation, termed the synchronizing margin.
65 It is further to be noted that the cam operated
contact arrangement is the equivalent of the ro
tary distributor commonly used in synchronous
printing telegraph systems. A rotary distributor
could in fact be substituted for the cam operated
contact arrangement without changing the mode
of operation of the system as described, the ar
rangement shown being preferred because of its
simplicity and small size.
In the foregoing description, the reprinter has
been described as a typewheel, tape printer.
to position on said card transmission means con.-
trolled by said card including a moving scanning
belt, a light source, and light reactive means con
trolled in response to cooperative positions 'of
saidl scanning belt and said indications on said
3. In automatic telegraph transmitters, in
combination, a record card containing intelli
gence in the form of arbitrary indications ar
ranged in predetermined coded position, scann?ig
means adapted to scan said card containing a
plurality of said indications, light reactive means
controlled by the cooperation of said scanning 7.5
means and said indications on said card, and
signal transmission means including means for
transmitting a reference signal and means in
cluding said light reactive means for transmitting
a signal in predetermined timed relation with
said reference signal and indicative of an indi
cation in predetermined position upon said card.
4. lIn automatic telegraph transmitters, a rec
ord card containing intelligence in the form of
10 arbitrarily arranged indications, there being a
separate indication for each character to be
transmitted arranged distinctively as to position
on said card, scanning means for said card, and
means controlled by said scanning means for
15 transmitting said intelligence in the form oi’ a
timed impulse corresponding to each of' said
5. In automatic telegraph transmitters, in
combination, a card containing intelligence in
the form of arbitrary indications arranged in
predetermined coded position thereon, scanning
means for said card, light actuated means re
sponsive to the cooperation of said card and
said scanning means, signal transmission means
controlled by said light actuated means and in
cluding means to initiate discrete and timed im
l0. In automatic transmitters, the combina
tion of claim 9 and independent means adapted
to ionize the electronic relay of claim 9.
11. In apparatus oi.' the character described,
in combination, a record card containing intel
ligence in the form of arbitrary indications ar
ranged in predetermined coded position, a scan
ning means for said card, light reactive means re
sponsive to the cooperation oi' said indications
and said scanning means, and control means
for said light reactive means adapted to render
said light reactive means eifective only during a
predetermined sequence of scanning the record
l2. In a synchronous transcribing system, a
record card containing data in the form of holes
punched in predetermined positions, scanning
means for said record card, means for generating 25
aperiodic signal impulses responsively to the co
operation of said scanning means and said record
and means for assuring a predetermined order
card, means for generating periodic synchroniz
ing signal impulses related in time to said scan
ning means, transmission means for said periodic 30
of scanning of said card.
6. In automatic telegraph transmitters, in
combination, a card containing intelligence in
indications scanned and additional means for
generating periodic synchronizing signals.
7. In automatic telegraph transmitters, in
combination, a card containing intelligence in
the form of arbitrary indications arranged in
predetermined coded position, scanning means
adapted to scan said card containing a plurality
of said indications, said scanning means includ
ing a scanning belt provided with a series of
scanning apertures in echelon arrangement,
50 drive means for said scanning belt, a light source,
light reactive means actuated in response to the
cooperation oi' said scanning apertures and said
indications, means for transmitting reference
signals, and means for transmitting signals hav
55 ing predetermined relation to said reference sig
nals upon actuation oi' said light reactive means.
8. In automatic transmitters, in combination,
a light source, a perforated record card contain
ing intelligence in the form of holes arranged in
predetermined coded position, scanning means
arranged to scan the surface of said card con
taining a plurality of said holes, and light reac
tive means actuated in response to the establish
ment of a light link from said light source to said
light reactive means, and means controlling the
energization of said light reactive means for as
suring scanning of said card in predetermined
and aperiodic signal impulses and synchronous
receiving means adapted to translate said signal
impulses into record form.
13. The method of transmitting statistical data
which comprises placing the data in the form of
arbitrary indications arranged in predetermined
coded position on a record card, scanning said
card, generating aperiodic signal impulses re
sponsively to the scanning of said record card and
the position of said indications thereon, trans 40
mitting said impulses, and translating said
aperiodic signal impulses into record form.
14. In telegraph printers, in combination, a.
synchronous element, constant speed drive means
therefor, a plurality of circuit closing means 45
carried by said synchronous element, synchroniz
ing means including said circuit closing means
for controlling the driving of said synchronous
element from said driving means, a typewheel
carried by said synchronous element, a. tape for 50
recording purposes, printing means, tape feed
means adapted to feed and space the tape as re
quired during printing intervals, and means for
terminating the tape feeding operation a pre
determined time after the ceasing of printing 55
15. In telegraph printers having a printer
sleeve, the combination of a cam carried by said
printer sleeve, step by step tape feed means ac
tuated by said cam, and control means for said
tape feed means for operating said tape feed
means during printing intervals, and for con
tinuing the operation of said tape feeding means
for only a predetermined limited time following a
printing operation.
16. In telegraph printers, a synchronous
printer element, a type wheel carried thereby
9. In automatic transmitters, a record card
and slidable axially between a normal and an
containing intelligence in the form of arbitrary
type wheel adapted to shift said type wheel to 70
said alternative position at the beginning of the
cycle of operation of said printer element, said
type wheel remaining in said alternative position
during said cycle of operation independently of
said shift means, and means operable at the end 75
indications arranged in predetermined coded po
sition, o. light source, scanning means, light re
active means cooperating with said scanning
of said light reactive means, and means for in
terrupting the ilow of current from said source
of energy through said electronic relay means
after ionization by said light reactive means.
pulses corresponding to the indications scanned,
the form of arbitrary indications arranged in
predetermined coded position, scanning means
for said card, iight actuated means responsive
35 to the cooperation of said card and said scanning
means for generating aperiodic printing signals,
and means controlled by the light responsive
means to initiate discrete and timed impulses
representing the signals corresponding to the
electronic relay means adapted to be ionized in
response to actuation oi' said light reactive means
and to thereafter remain ionized independently
means and actuated in response to the scanning
of said indications, a source of electrical energy,
alternative position, and shift means for said
oi said cycle ot operation for returning said type
wheel to its normal position.
17. In telegraph printers, an electronic relay
including a plate. and cathode and ionizable in
response to received signals, a plurality of branch
circuits in the plate-cathode circuit of said elec
tronic relay, each branch circuit including the
operating winding of a magnet, a synchronous
printer element carrying a type wheel, and a
said card to initiate operation of said control
means when said record card is in proper position
for scanning.
20. A system for transmitting statistical data
comprising a card having said data arranged 5
thereon in the form of arbitrarily positioned in
dications, an electronic relay ionizable in re
sponse to received signals, a plurality of branch
circuits controlled by said electronic relay. a
plurality of circuit closing means carried by said l synchronous printer element adapted to print de 10
synchronous printer element and adapted to sired intelligence corresponding to said indica
tions, means for closing said branch circuits in
close said branch circuits in predetermined se
predetermined sequence. and means other than
18. 'I‘he combination of claim 17, and means said circuit closing means for terminating the
current through said electronic relay upon ioniza 15
independent of the circuit closing means for ter
minating the current in‘ the plate-cathode circuit l tion after a predetermined interval.
21. In telegraph printers, a typewheel adapted
o! said. electronic relay upon ionization after a
predetermined interval.
19. In automatic transmitters, in combination,
20 a card containing intelligence in the form of
to be moved into two alternative printing posi
tions, and shift means for said typewheel for
shifting said wheel into one printing position 20
arbitrary indications arranged in predetermined
in response to a received shift signal. and means
coded position, scanning means for said card,
control means for assuring a predetermined order
of scanning oi said card, and means actuated by
forreturning said typewheel to the other print
ing position independently of received signals.
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