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Патент USA US2111175

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March 15, 1938. ~
2,111,175
w. F. cox
OIL WELL MECHANISM
Filed March 11, 1956
2 Sheets-Sheet 1
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March 15, 1938.
w, F_ cox
2,111,175 I
OIL WELL MECHANISM
Filed March 11, 1936
2 Sheets-Sheet 2
Q0
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Patented; Marc i5, 1%33:
warren prelim earner arrives
on WELL maneuvers
,
William Fred can, lirving, ‘ll'ex.
implication March ill, 1936, Serial No. 68,319
9 ‘Elaims.
This invention relates to oil well mechanisms
(£310 Ethan-219)
limiting the bore of the working barrel by the
and particularly to mechanisms or devices for
facilitating flowing or oil from the well.
drain sleeve supporting mall or to the maxi
mum bore which can be used in the sleeve ex
core is eliminated.
,
One object of the invention is to provide means _ > pending
More speci?cally, the present‘invention con 5
for
preventing
the
accumulation
or;
sand
or
other
"
5
templates an oil well pump having a substan
foreign matter in the well at a point;where it , tially unrestricted bore in'the working barrel,
would interfere with the removal of the mecha
nism from the well if the removal thereof should
which bore is of maximum diameter in combina
tion with the sealing 03 means ‘at the lower end
be desirable._
'
of the pump and means adjacent the upper endv
Another
object
of
the
invention
is
to
provide
10
of the pump for substantially closing the space
an oil well mechanism in the form of a pump.
between the pump exterior and the wellscasing,
Said pump carries means for sealing o? the well ' whereby sand and other foreign matter cannot
adjacent the pump but said sealing means are so enter the space between the pump and casing.‘ 1
arranged as to permit the working barrel of the
With these‘ and other objects in view, the in- _
15 pump to‘ have a maximum cross sectional dimen
vention consists in certain details ‘of construc< _
sion and to be substantially unrestricted whereby
the pump will have a maximum capacity in rela
tion to the bore of the well. The casing of the
well, of course, determines the over-all dimen
20 sions of any mechanisms lowered therein. For
instance, the over-all dimension of a‘pump will
be determined by the diameter of the well cas
ing and, while the pump provided with sealing '
o? means such as disclosed in Patent No.
25
1,698,797, granted to 0.13. Howe, January 15,
1929, has been found to give highly satisfactory
results, nevertheless, its capacity is curtailed by
reason of the fact that the relatively heavy coni
cal, metallic core utilized for expanding the seal
'30 ing sleeve requires that the diameter of the bore
of the working barrel be substantially the same
as the smallest diameter of said conical member.‘
That is, the size or diameter of the bore of the
working barrel of the pump, shown in said pat
35 ent, is limited to, or is less than, the maximum
bore which can be provided in said conical mem
ber, the tapering surface of said .member being
necessary for expanding the sealing sleeve. Also,
in said patented pump, the upper portion of the
40 working barrel is further restricted by the pres
ence of the sucker rod which passes from the
upper end of thetraveling valve-to the surface of
the well. Another factor in determining the
capacity of the pump- barrel in said patented
is the size of the so-called shell on which
.45 pump,
the drain sleeve and packer are supported, be
cause said shell extends to the top of the barrel
and, of course, the barrel being surrounded by
the shell, the diameter of‘ the barrel must be
50 less than that of the shell. In the present pump,
this doubling up, so to speak, of these constrict
ing factors. is overcome by locating the well seal
ing instmmentalities at a point preferably be
low the lower limit of the working stroke of
55 the pump plunger, , whereby the necessity of
tion and combinations and arrangements oi
parts, all. as will hereinafter be more fully de
scribed and the novel features thereof particu—
20
larly pointed out in the appended claims.
In the accompanying drawings:
Figures 1, 1a, constitute a vertical cross-sec
tional view through the well casing, and a pump
mechanism and anchoring device, illustrating the
preferred embodiment of the present inventioru
the parts being in the positions they occupy as
the pump is lowered into the well;
7
Fig. 2 is a similar view, somewhat enlarged,
showing the position of the sealing o? instrumen
talities when the space between the pump and 30
casing is sealed o?;
_
Fig. 3 is a fragmentary longitudinal sectional
view illustrating the so-called sand ring;
Fig. 4 is a transverse sectional view on the
line d--& of Fig. 1a; and
V
Fig. 5 is a detail elevational view illustrating
one of the elements for interlocking the working
barrel or 'cylinder of the pump with the pump
seal.
In the present instance the pump comprises 40'
a head it provided with a bore for the polish
rod H which extends to the earth surface as is
/
well understood, said rod extending through the
head into the working barrel l3 for reciprocating
the traveling valve 52 of the pump. The lower,
stationary valve of the pump is indicated at 26.
The preferred form of, sealing off device, is like
that disclosedin the 'Howe patent, above men
tioned, and comprises a radially expansible sleeve
it and a comparatively heavy metallic member 50
55 referred to as a core, the lower end of said
core being tapered or of conical formation where
by it may readily enterisaid sleeve l4 and expand
the latter into sealing engagement with the well
casing l6 whereby the\space between the pump
55 ‘I
' 2
2,111,176 _
mechanism and said well casing is sealed 011’. As
described in said Howe patent, the core l5 enters
the sleeve M by the lower portion of the pump
the well gave more than 100% increase in the
oil content thereof.
A further advantage in a pump construction
such as that disclosed herein is that the pump
shell, which extends from the drain sleeve down 5
to the anchoring device, may be made consider
ably shorter than the pump construction such
as disclosed in the Howe patent, above mentioned,
thereby eifecting economy in the cost of ma
terials. Also, as before stated, there is no elon- 10
' structure carrying the sleeve being brought to
rest in the well while the upper portion thereof,
including the core I5, continues to descend. In
the apparatus shown, the pump is anchored in
the well by radially expansible members I ‘I.
These radially expansible members ll are actu~
10 ated by the conical surface of a mandrel I8.
Member “18 is normally held out of engagement
with the member I‘! during the descent of the
gated drain sleeve supporting shell surrounding
the barrel, to impose a limitation on the diameter
pump into the well, as shown in Figs. 1, 1a, by
thev springv legs 14 attached to mandrel l8 resting
of the barrel.
tubing 50. To displace the lower ends of legs
‘I4 rotary motion may be imparted to the pump
barrel .and tubing 22 from the sucker rod by
means of. the interlocking lug 23 carried by the
will accumulate in and gradually ?ll up the space“ '*
20 sucker rod and a recess 24 in the pump head
between the pump barrel and well casing when 20
said space is closed at its lower extremity by said
sealing 01f devices. Such foreign materials ac-~
whereby, through interlocking lugs and recesses
l9, 2|, on the tubing 22 and drain sleeve 20, rotary
‘motion will be transmitted to the tube 50, and
cumulating in this narrow annular space are very
cam surfaces 80 on the latter will move pins ‘I8
25 radially outward to displace the legs 14 from the
di?icult to remove. In fact, it is almost impos
sible to, remove them‘ by agitation of the liquid 25
shoulders 16. As the springs 66 normally retard
in the well or even'by washing out the well cas
the movement of sleeve 56, the mandrel i 8 will
then advance, so to speak, and enter and expand
the anchoring devices l1. Of course, other means
.30 may be utilized for determining the position of
the pump vertically of the well.
ing through the tubing, as has at times been
done with other pumps, with the result that ma- 7
terial accumulating‘in. this space ?rmly wedges
' By locating the core .15 at the lower end of -
the working barrel I 3 of the pump or at least
below the lower limit of movement of the travel
35 ing valve l2, it is apparent that the bore through
the tapered portion of the core does not consti
tute a limit determining the maximum interior
diameter of the working barrel. Likewise there
is no drain sleeve supporting shell surrounding
40 the barrel which, if present,“ would serve to re
strict or reduce the diameter of the barrel. In
other words; the working barrel being above the
core 15, the bore of the barrel is limited only
by the-exterior diameter‘of the barrel, less the
45 thickness of the barrel material, and the outer
diameter of the barrel, of course, is limited only
by the bore of the well. In this way, the capacity
of the pump is greatly increased a factor which
is very important where there is a large quan
.50 tity of salt water in the well which must be
raised with the oil. In wells of this type, i. e.,
where large quantities of salt water are present,
it frequently occurs that considerably more oil
can be obtained if the salt water is kept pumped
65 o? and, therefore, it is desirable to have pumping
equipment with very large liquid capacity. Again,
I
Where the sealing off devices l4, l5, are posi
tioned at the lower end of the working barrel, or 15
adjacent said end, as disclosed herein, it is ap
parent that sand, debris or other foreign material
settling in the column of fluid above the pump
in recesses or shoulders 16 on a sleeve 56 on the
the pump barrel into the well casing so that it is 30
impossible to remove the pump. It is also entirely
possible that the pump becoming wedged in the
well might cause the loss of the well itself. For
these reasons, the present pump is provided with
means for preventing the entryof foreign ma- 35
terial into this annular space from a point above
the pump. Such means, here termed a “sand
ring” for convenience, preferably consist of one
or more annular projections 25 adjacent the up
per end of the pump. In the present instance, 40
only one ring is shown,.the same being carried by
the pump head "I, but it will be appreciated that
additional rings may be provided on said head, or
at some other convenient location adjacent the
upper end of the pump barrel. A ring of ?exible 45
material is considered» preferable because there
will be less likelihood of injury thereto while '
being lowered into or removed from the well, but
a rigid material could be used if desired. A ?ex
ible ring has the additional advantage in that it 50
can be made to fit more closely into the well
casing without danger of sticking or “freezing".
In actual practice, a synthetic rubber substitute,
known in; the market as “Duprene”, a synthetic
rubber substitute manufactured by Du Pont de 55
Nemours & Company, of Wilmington, Delaware,
in some wells of this type, if the total ?uid out
has been used for these sand rings, as this ma
put is increased, the quantity of oil will frequently terial is impervious to the chemical action of
be increased in a larger proportion than the salt petroleum. The action of this sand ring is ob
60 water. There is, therefore, a double gain in in~,
vious. It substantially ?lls the upper end of the 00
creasing the capacity of the pump. For instance, space between the outer surface of the pump shell
in one well, the production was 22 barrels of oil and the inside of the well casing and prevents
and 980 barrels of salt water per day, or 2.2% sand or other, foreign particles from settling in
oil and 97.8% salt water, but upon installation the annular space closed o?' between the pump
65
_ of a pump of greater capacity, which gave a
total output of 1607 barrels of ?uid, the percent
age of oil was 2.8% (47 barréls) and salt water
97.2% (1560 barrels) from which it is apparent
70 that increasing the capacity of the pumping
equipment resulted in a cumulative gain in oil
production, since both the total volume of liquid
‘and the percentage of oil present are increased.
In the speci?c case above mentioned, a 60% in
75 crease in. the total volume of liquid ?owed from
and casing by the sealing elements I4, l5. It will 65
)be appreciated that this so-c'alled sand ring is
very important in combination with the sealing
011‘ members when. the latter are located ad
jacent the lower end of the working barrel, but
the use of such sand rings need not necessarily 70
be limited to this particular combination of ele
ments, as ‘there are other types of well mecha
nisms with which said sand rings could be used
to prevent said mechanisms becoming perma
nently lodged or wedged in a well.
75
3
' 2,111,175
Brie?y stated, the pump, after being anchored
and sealed off in the well, functions by the travel
ing valve drawing fluid through the Standing
rocating said plunger, and packing means for
sealing the space between said barrel and casing,
valve 26 at the lower end of the pump barrel on
the up-stroke . and discharging the ?uid from
the pump on the down-stroke of said traveling
valve, the head of the pump being provided with
passages 21 through which the ?uid ?ows into the
well casing which serves as an eduction tube in
the present instance, all as is well understood in
the art.
‘ To’ withdraw the pump from the well, the
sucker rod l l is raised until the enlarged por
tion on which lugs 23 are formed engages against
yr the inner surface of head In whereupon further
pull on the sucker rod will raise the pump bar
rel and withdraw mandrel l5 from the packer
sleeve l4.
said packing means comprising a tubular coni-'
cal member on said barrel at a point below the
lower limit of the working stroke of said plung 01
er, and‘ a radially expandable member secured to
said barrel and expandable by said conical mem
ber to seal the space between the barrel and well
casing, and means below said packing means for
10
anchoring said pump in the well.
6. In an oil well pump, the combination of a
working barrel adapted to be lowered in a well
casing. a plunger in said barrel, means for re
ciprocating said plunger, and packing means for
Liquid can ' len drain through the
drain sleeve 20.
The pump can then be raised
to the surface because the gripping action of
slips or members I1 resists only downward move
ment of the pump.
What I claim is:
1. In an oil well mechanism, the combination
51 of a cylindrical housing for the said mechanism
adapted to be lowered into a well casing, ra
dially expansible means carried by said cylindri
cal housing at the lower end thereof and ex
pandable into contact with the well casing to seal
the space between said housing and easing, means
carried by said housing for expanding said expan
sible means, and means surrounding the upper
end of said cylindrical housing for preventing
entry of sand and other foreign matter from
above said housing into said space.
'
2. In an oil well pump, the combination of a
cylindrical working barrel adapted to be lowered
in a well casing, an expansible sleeve carried on
said barrel, a conical member on said barrel
adapted-to expand said sleeve into' sealing en
gagement with the casing, said conical member
being located adjacent the lower end of said bar
rel and said barrel having a substantially unre
stricted bore, a plunger in said barrel bore, and
means for reciprocating said plunger.
3. In an oil well pump, the combination of a
working barrel adapted to be lowered in a well
casing, a plunger in said barrel, means for recip
rocating said plunger, and packing means for
sealing the space between said barrel and casing,
said packing means comprising a tubular conical
member on said barrel at a point below the lower
limit of the working stroke of said plunger, and
vmeans supported from the barrel expandable ra-~
dially by said conical member'into sealing en
gagement with the well casing.
4. In an oil well pump, the combination of a
working barrel adapted to be lowered in a well
casing, a plunger in said barrel, means for re
60 ciprocating said plunger, and packing means for
sealing the space between saidbarrel and cas
ing, said packing means comprising a tubular
conical member on said barrel at a point below‘
the lower limit'of the working stroke of said
65 plunger, means supported by the, barrel and ex
pandable radially by said conical member into
sealing engagement with the well casing, and
means for excluding foreign'matter from the up
per end of the space between said barrel and
70
casing.
_
'
'
5. In an‘. oil wellpump, the combination of a
working barrel adapted to be lowered in a well
casing, a plunger in said barrel, means tor reclpq
sealing the space between said barrel and cas
ing, said packing means comprising a tubular
conical member on said barrel at a point below
the lower limit of the working stroke of said
plunger, and a radially expandable member se- ' ‘
cured to said barrel and expandable by said 20
conical member to seal the space between the
barrel and well casing, means suspended from the
barrel below said packing means for anchoring
the pump in the well, and means at the upper
end of said barrel for excluding foreign matter 25
above the barrel from the space between the bar
rel and casing.
‘
'7. In an oil well pump, the combination of a
working barrel adapted to ,be lowered into a
well casing, a plunger in said barrel, means for 30
reciprocating said plunger in the barrel, packer
means comprising an expansible member se
cured to said barrel and a conical member on the
'barrel for expanding said expansible member for
sealing the space between the barrel and well ‘
casing, said conical member being located below
the lower limit of travel of said plunger, and an , _
annular shoulder on said barrel adjacent the
upper end thereof substantially closing said
space between the barrel and casing to exclude‘
from said space foreign matter such as sand in
the well casing above'the pump.
.
8. In an oil well pump, the combination of
a working barrel adapted to be lowered in a well
casing, said barrel having a substantially unre
stricted bore, a plunger in said bore, means for
reciprocating said plunger, and~ packer means
carried by the pump at the lower end of the work
ing barrel for‘ sealing the space between the bar
rel and .well casing, said packer means compris- r
ing an expansible sleeve member and a tubular
member engageable in said sleeve for expanding
the same, the bore of the working barrel not
being restricted by the bore of said tubl?ar mem 55
ber.
9.- In an oil well pump, the combination of a
working barrel adapted to be lowered in a well
casing, said barrel having a substantially unre
stricted bore, a plunger in said bore, means for
reciprocating said plunger, packing means car
ried by the barrel for sealing the space between
to
the barrel and well casing, said packing means
comprising an expansible sleeve and a tubular
member for expanding said sleeve, said tubular 65
member being located below the lower limit of the
working stroke of said plunger, whereby said
tubular member imposes no limitation on the
cross-sectional size of the bore of said barrel, and
aresillent annular shoulder adjacent the up
per extremity of said working barrel substan 70
tially closing the upper end of the space between
said barrel and easing. '
" WILLIAM FRED COX.
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