Патент USA US2111175код для вставки
March 15, 1938. ~ 2,111,175 w. F. cox OIL WELL MECHANISM Filed March 11, 1956 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 7/ 70 2.9 .27 23 Z i1 HI 751A4l, 26 7.5 22 I? 742/ I If ‘ March 15, 1938. w, F_ cox 2,111,175 I OIL WELL MECHANISM Filed March 11, 1936 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 Q0 79 ,7 "Z'ca’. 5. 7 @771, 77.’ 60%, ./7 5:54, 6/ 1M4 W 4 Patented; Marc i5, 1%33: warren prelim earner arrives on WELL maneuvers , William Fred can, lirving, ‘ll'ex. implication March ill, 1936, Serial No. 68,319 9 ‘Elaims. This invention relates to oil well mechanisms (£310 Ethan-219) limiting the bore of the working barrel by the and particularly to mechanisms or devices for facilitating flowing or oil from the well. drain sleeve supporting mall or to the maxi mum bore which can be used in the sleeve ex core is eliminated. , One object of the invention is to provide means _ > pending More speci?cally, the present‘invention con 5 for preventing the accumulation or; sand or other " 5 templates an oil well pump having a substan foreign matter in the well at a point;where it , tially unrestricted bore in'the working barrel, would interfere with the removal of the mecha nism from the well if the removal thereof should which bore is of maximum diameter in combina tion with the sealing 03 means ‘at the lower end be desirable._ ' of the pump and means adjacent the upper endv Another object of the invention is to provide 10 of the pump for substantially closing the space an oil well mechanism in the form of a pump. between the pump exterior and the wellscasing, Said pump carries means for sealing o? the well ' whereby sand and other foreign matter cannot adjacent the pump but said sealing means are so enter the space between the pump and casing.‘ 1 arranged as to permit the working barrel of the With these‘ and other objects in view, the in- _ 15 pump to‘ have a maximum cross sectional dimen vention consists in certain details ‘of construc< _ sion and to be substantially unrestricted whereby the pump will have a maximum capacity in rela tion to the bore of the well. The casing of the well, of course, determines the over-all dimen 20 sions of any mechanisms lowered therein. For instance, the over-all dimension of a‘pump will be determined by the diameter of the well cas ing and, while the pump provided with sealing ' o? means such as disclosed in Patent No. 25 1,698,797, granted to 0.13. Howe, January 15, 1929, has been found to give highly satisfactory results, nevertheless, its capacity is curtailed by reason of the fact that the relatively heavy coni cal, metallic core utilized for expanding the seal '30 ing sleeve requires that the diameter of the bore of the working barrel be substantially the same as the smallest diameter of said conical member.‘ That is, the size or diameter of the bore of the working barrel of the pump, shown in said pat 35 ent, is limited to, or is less than, the maximum bore which can be provided in said conical mem ber, the tapering surface of said .member being necessary for expanding the sealing sleeve. Also, in said patented pump, the upper portion of the 40 working barrel is further restricted by the pres ence of the sucker rod which passes from the upper end of thetraveling valve-to the surface of the well. Another factor in determining the capacity of the pump- barrel in said patented is the size of the so-called shell on which .45 pump, the drain sleeve and packer are supported, be cause said shell extends to the top of the barrel and, of course, the barrel being surrounded by the shell, the diameter of‘ the barrel must be 50 less than that of the shell. In the present pump, this doubling up, so to speak, of these constrict ing factors. is overcome by locating the well seal ing instmmentalities at a point preferably be low the lower limit of the working stroke of 55 the pump plunger, , whereby the necessity of tion and combinations and arrangements oi parts, all. as will hereinafter be more fully de scribed and the novel features thereof particu— 20 larly pointed out in the appended claims. In the accompanying drawings: Figures 1, 1a, constitute a vertical cross-sec tional view through the well casing, and a pump mechanism and anchoring device, illustrating the preferred embodiment of the present inventioru the parts being in the positions they occupy as the pump is lowered into the well; 7 Fig. 2 is a similar view, somewhat enlarged, showing the position of the sealing o? instrumen talities when the space between the pump and 30 casing is sealed o?; _ Fig. 3 is a fragmentary longitudinal sectional view illustrating the so-called sand ring; Fig. 4 is a transverse sectional view on the line d--& of Fig. 1a; and V Fig. 5 is a detail elevational view illustrating one of the elements for interlocking the working barrel or 'cylinder of the pump with the pump seal. In the present instance the pump comprises 40' a head it provided with a bore for the polish rod H which extends to the earth surface as is / well understood, said rod extending through the head into the working barrel l3 for reciprocating the traveling valve 52 of the pump. The lower, stationary valve of the pump is indicated at 26. The preferred form of, sealing off device, is like that disclosedin the 'Howe patent, above men tioned, and comprises a radially expansible sleeve it and a comparatively heavy metallic member 50 55 referred to as a core, the lower end of said core being tapered or of conical formation where by it may readily enterisaid sleeve l4 and expand the latter into sealing engagement with the well casing l6 whereby the\space between the pump 55 ‘I ' 2 2,111,176 _ mechanism and said well casing is sealed 011’. As described in said Howe patent, the core l5 enters the sleeve M by the lower portion of the pump the well gave more than 100% increase in the oil content thereof. A further advantage in a pump construction such as that disclosed herein is that the pump shell, which extends from the drain sleeve down 5 to the anchoring device, may be made consider ably shorter than the pump construction such as disclosed in the Howe patent, above mentioned, thereby eifecting economy in the cost of ma terials. Also, as before stated, there is no elon- 10 ' structure carrying the sleeve being brought to rest in the well while the upper portion thereof, including the core I5, continues to descend. In the apparatus shown, the pump is anchored in the well by radially expansible members I ‘I. These radially expansible members ll are actu~ 10 ated by the conical surface of a mandrel I8. Member “18 is normally held out of engagement with the member I‘! during the descent of the gated drain sleeve supporting shell surrounding the barrel, to impose a limitation on the diameter pump into the well, as shown in Figs. 1, 1a, by thev springv legs 14 attached to mandrel l8 resting of the barrel. tubing 50. To displace the lower ends of legs ‘I4 rotary motion may be imparted to the pump barrel .and tubing 22 from the sucker rod by means of. the interlocking lug 23 carried by the will accumulate in and gradually ?ll up the space“ '* 20 sucker rod and a recess 24 in the pump head between the pump barrel and well casing when 20 said space is closed at its lower extremity by said sealing 01f devices. Such foreign materials ac-~ whereby, through interlocking lugs and recesses l9, 2|, on the tubing 22 and drain sleeve 20, rotary ‘motion will be transmitted to the tube 50, and cumulating in this narrow annular space are very cam surfaces 80 on the latter will move pins ‘I8 25 radially outward to displace the legs 14 from the di?icult to remove. In fact, it is almost impos sible to, remove them‘ by agitation of the liquid 25 shoulders 16. As the springs 66 normally retard in the well or even'by washing out the well cas the movement of sleeve 56, the mandrel i 8 will then advance, so to speak, and enter and expand the anchoring devices l1. Of course, other means .30 may be utilized for determining the position of the pump vertically of the well. ing through the tubing, as has at times been done with other pumps, with the result that ma- 7 terial accumulating‘in. this space ?rmly wedges ' By locating the core .15 at the lower end of - the working barrel I 3 of the pump or at least below the lower limit of movement of the travel 35 ing valve l2, it is apparent that the bore through the tapered portion of the core does not consti tute a limit determining the maximum interior diameter of the working barrel. Likewise there is no drain sleeve supporting shell surrounding 40 the barrel which, if present,“ would serve to re strict or reduce the diameter of the barrel. In other words; the working barrel being above the core 15, the bore of the barrel is limited only by the-exterior diameter‘of the barrel, less the 45 thickness of the barrel material, and the outer diameter of the barrel, of course, is limited only by the bore of the well. In this way, the capacity of the pump is greatly increased a factor which is very important where there is a large quan .50 tity of salt water in the well which must be raised with the oil. In wells of this type, i. e., where large quantities of salt water are present, it frequently occurs that considerably more oil can be obtained if the salt water is kept pumped 65 o? and, therefore, it is desirable to have pumping equipment with very large liquid capacity. Again, I Where the sealing off devices l4, l5, are posi tioned at the lower end of the working barrel, or 15 adjacent said end, as disclosed herein, it is ap parent that sand, debris or other foreign material settling in the column of fluid above the pump in recesses or shoulders 16 on a sleeve 56 on the the pump barrel into the well casing so that it is 30 impossible to remove the pump. It is also entirely possible that the pump becoming wedged in the well might cause the loss of the well itself. For these reasons, the present pump is provided with means for preventing the entryof foreign ma- 35 terial into this annular space from a point above the pump. Such means, here termed a “sand ring” for convenience, preferably consist of one or more annular projections 25 adjacent the up per end of the pump. In the present instance, 40 only one ring is shown,.the same being carried by the pump head "I, but it will be appreciated that additional rings may be provided on said head, or at some other convenient location adjacent the upper end of the pump barrel. A ring of ?exible 45 material is considered» preferable because there will be less likelihood of injury thereto while ' being lowered into or removed from the well, but a rigid material could be used if desired. A ?ex ible ring has the additional advantage in that it 50 can be made to fit more closely into the well casing without danger of sticking or “freezing". In actual practice, a synthetic rubber substitute, known in; the market as “Duprene”, a synthetic rubber substitute manufactured by Du Pont de 55 Nemours & Company, of Wilmington, Delaware, in some wells of this type, if the total ?uid out has been used for these sand rings, as this ma put is increased, the quantity of oil will frequently terial is impervious to the chemical action of be increased in a larger proportion than the salt petroleum. The action of this sand ring is ob 60 water. There is, therefore, a double gain in in~, vious. It substantially ?lls the upper end of the 00 creasing the capacity of the pump. For instance, space between the outer surface of the pump shell in one well, the production was 22 barrels of oil and the inside of the well casing and prevents and 980 barrels of salt water per day, or 2.2% sand or other, foreign particles from settling in oil and 97.8% salt water, but upon installation the annular space closed o?' between the pump 65 _ of a pump of greater capacity, which gave a total output of 1607 barrels of ?uid, the percent age of oil was 2.8% (47 barréls) and salt water 97.2% (1560 barrels) from which it is apparent 70 that increasing the capacity of the pumping equipment resulted in a cumulative gain in oil production, since both the total volume of liquid ‘and the percentage of oil present are increased. In the speci?c case above mentioned, a 60% in 75 crease in. the total volume of liquid ?owed from and casing by the sealing elements I4, l5. It will 65 )be appreciated that this so-c'alled sand ring is very important in combination with the sealing 011‘ members when. the latter are located ad jacent the lower end of the working barrel, but the use of such sand rings need not necessarily 70 be limited to this particular combination of ele ments, as ‘there are other types of well mecha nisms with which said sand rings could be used to prevent said mechanisms becoming perma nently lodged or wedged in a well. 75 3 ' 2,111,175 Brie?y stated, the pump, after being anchored and sealed off in the well, functions by the travel ing valve drawing fluid through the Standing rocating said plunger, and packing means for sealing the space between said barrel and casing, valve 26 at the lower end of the pump barrel on the up-stroke . and discharging the ?uid from the pump on the down-stroke of said traveling valve, the head of the pump being provided with passages 21 through which the ?uid ?ows into the well casing which serves as an eduction tube in the present instance, all as is well understood in the art. ‘ To’ withdraw the pump from the well, the sucker rod l l is raised until the enlarged por tion on which lugs 23 are formed engages against yr the inner surface of head In whereupon further pull on the sucker rod will raise the pump bar rel and withdraw mandrel l5 from the packer sleeve l4. said packing means comprising a tubular coni-' cal member on said barrel at a point below the lower limit of the working stroke of said plung 01 er, and‘ a radially expandable member secured to said barrel and expandable by said conical mem ber to seal the space between the barrel and well casing, and means below said packing means for 10 anchoring said pump in the well. 6. In an oil well pump, the combination of a working barrel adapted to be lowered in a well casing. a plunger in said barrel, means for re ciprocating said plunger, and packing means for Liquid can ' len drain through the drain sleeve 20. The pump can then be raised to the surface because the gripping action of slips or members I1 resists only downward move ment of the pump. What I claim is: 1. In an oil well mechanism, the combination 51 of a cylindrical housing for the said mechanism adapted to be lowered into a well casing, ra dially expansible means carried by said cylindri cal housing at the lower end thereof and ex pandable into contact with the well casing to seal the space between said housing and easing, means carried by said housing for expanding said expan sible means, and means surrounding the upper end of said cylindrical housing for preventing entry of sand and other foreign matter from above said housing into said space. ' 2. In an oil well pump, the combination of a cylindrical working barrel adapted to be lowered in a well casing, an expansible sleeve carried on said barrel, a conical member on said barrel adapted-to expand said sleeve into' sealing en gagement with the casing, said conical member being located adjacent the lower end of said bar rel and said barrel having a substantially unre stricted bore, a plunger in said barrel bore, and means for reciprocating said plunger. 3. In an oil well pump, the combination of a working barrel adapted to be lowered in a well casing, a plunger in said barrel, means for recip rocating said plunger, and packing means for sealing the space between said barrel and casing, said packing means comprising a tubular conical member on said barrel at a point below the lower limit of the working stroke of said plunger, and vmeans supported from the barrel expandable ra-~ dially by said conical member'into sealing en gagement with the well casing. 4. In an oil well pump, the combination of a working barrel adapted to be lowered in a well casing, a plunger in said barrel, means for re 60 ciprocating said plunger, and packing means for sealing the space between saidbarrel and cas ing, said packing means comprising a tubular conical member on said barrel at a point below‘ the lower limit'of the working stroke of said 65 plunger, means supported by the, barrel and ex pandable radially by said conical member into sealing engagement with the well casing, and means for excluding foreign'matter from the up per end of the space between said barrel and 70 casing. _ ' ' 5. In an‘. oil wellpump, the combination of a working barrel adapted to be lowered in a well casing, a plunger in said barrel, means tor reclpq sealing the space between said barrel and cas ing, said packing means comprising a tubular conical member on said barrel at a point below the lower limit of the working stroke of said plunger, and a radially expandable member se- ' ‘ cured to said barrel and expandable by said 20 conical member to seal the space between the barrel and well casing, means suspended from the barrel below said packing means for anchoring the pump in the well, and means at the upper end of said barrel for excluding foreign matter 25 above the barrel from the space between the bar rel and casing. ‘ '7. In an oil well pump, the combination of a working barrel adapted to ,be lowered into a well casing, a plunger in said barrel, means for 30 reciprocating said plunger in the barrel, packer means comprising an expansible member se cured to said barrel and a conical member on the 'barrel for expanding said expansible member for sealing the space between the barrel and well ‘ casing, said conical member being located below the lower limit of travel of said plunger, and an , _ annular shoulder on said barrel adjacent the upper end thereof substantially closing said space between the barrel and casing to exclude‘ from said space foreign matter such as sand in the well casing above'the pump. . 8. In an oil well pump, the combination of a working barrel adapted to be lowered in a well casing, said barrel having a substantially unre stricted bore, a plunger in said bore, means for reciprocating said plunger, and~ packer means carried by the pump at the lower end of the work ing barrel for‘ sealing the space between the bar rel and .well casing, said packer means compris- r ing an expansible sleeve member and a tubular member engageable in said sleeve for expanding the same, the bore of the working barrel not being restricted by the bore of said tubl?ar mem 55 ber. 9.- In an oil well pump, the combination of a working barrel adapted to be lowered in a well casing, said barrel having a substantially unre stricted bore, a plunger in said bore, means for reciprocating said plunger, packing means car ried by the barrel for sealing the space between to the barrel and well casing, said packing means comprising an expansible sleeve and a tubular member for expanding said sleeve, said tubular 65 member being located below the lower limit of the working stroke of said plunger, whereby said tubular member imposes no limitation on the cross-sectional size of the bore of said barrel, and aresillent annular shoulder adjacent the up per extremity of said working barrel substan 70 tially closing the upper end of the space between said barrel and easing. ' " WILLIAM FRED COX.