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Патент USA US2111177

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March 15, 1938.
Driginal Filed Aug. 29, 1935
Patented Mar. Al5, _1938
William Fred Cox, Shreveport, La. ,
Original application August 29, 1935, Serial No.
38,449. Divided and this application October
31, 1936, Serial No. 108,658
4 Claims.
(Cl. 103-221)
This invention relates to improvements in well
)pumping apparatus and, particularly, to oil well
pumps of the type wherein the space between the
pump and well wall or casing is sealed at a point
5 along the exterior surface of the pump structure.
The sealing of this space is accomplished by means
, commonly referred to as a packer, which usually
comprises a radially expandable sleeve carried
by the pump and a tubular mandrel which, under
10 certain conditions, can be moved to a position
within the -sleeve to expand the latter into sealing
engagement with the well casing. In the event
the pump is to, be withdrawn from the well for
repairs, cleaning out the well, or the like, Ait is
15 necessary to disengage the mandrel from the
sleeve, usually by raising the mandrel in the well
hole. However, in casing pumps, i. e., that type
of pump which flows the liquid through the well
casing to the surface of the ground, the liquid
20 above the seal or packer exerts a tremendous
pressure on the packer mandrel and to relieve
this pressure“ preliminary to withdrawing said
mandrel from the packer sleeve, means are pro
vided for by-passing the liquid from above the
25 packer to a point below the packer. Preferably,
one or more by-pass ports >are provided in the
pump cylinder wall and the flow of liquidl through
said ports is controlled by a valve which, in the
present invention, is yieldingly urged toward its
30 port-closing position by a spring. When said
valve is moved toward its open position, said
spring will, of course, be compressed and the pri
mary obiect oi.' the present invention is to provide
means for limiting the compression of said spring,
35 or preventing said spring _going solid whereby
the life thereof is materially prolonged. Briefly,
therefore, .the invention may be said to contem
Fig. 21s a similar view, illustrating the essen
tial elements of the present invention, in the posi
tions they occupyI when the pump is operatively
positioned in the Well.
'I'he present application is a division of appli- 5
cant’s co-pending ,application Serial No. 38,449,
wherein the pump structure proper illustrated in
the present instance is more fully disclosed and
claimed. The present invention can, of course,
be utilized. in various constructions of pumps but l0
in the preferred pump structure illustrated, there
is an upper conical member or hollow mandrel
3|, and a lower cylindricalmember 32 which is,
in effect, an extension of the pump cylinder or
Working barrel 4|, being connected to the work- 15
ing barrel proper by a tubular coupling member
32h. The conical outer surface of mandrel 3|
tapers downwardly toward the cylindrical surface
of member 32 and these surfaces are coaxially
arranged. The bore of cylindrical member 32 20
opens into the interior of the hollow mandrel 3|,
the latter being provided with a number of open
ings 33, through which oil passing upwardly -from
the pump cylinder will flow into the well casing
indicated at 20. Mandrel 3|»is provided with a 25
bore 34 for the accommodation of the lower end
of the sucker rod string 45 which extends from
within the pump cylinder to a point above the
ground surface whereby the pump may be raised
and lowered in the well and the pump piston 43 30
reciprocated in the pump cylinder. Of course,
other means, such as cables, etc., may be utilized
for raising and lowering the pump and actuating
the piston, if desired. Slidable axially on the
working barrel or cylinder of the pump is a cy- 35
lindrical slide 35 to the lower end of which there
is connected what is commonly called the shell
plate the provision of means for by-passing liquid ' of the pump. 'I'he shell l's indicated at 2| and at
` from abovethe well sealing devices, such means
40 comprising a spring seated valve for the by-pass
or drain port and means for preventing excessive
compression of said spring.
With these and other objects in view, the in
v vention consists in certain details of construction
45 and combinations and arrangements of parts, all
as 'will hereinafter be more fully described and
the novel features thereof particularly pointed
out in the appended claims.
In the accompanying drawing- \
Figure 1 is a vertical Lcross-sectional view
through the well-casing and a portion of a pump
' - mechanism illustrating the preferred embodiment
of the present invention, the parts being in the
position they occupy as the pump is lowered into
55 the well; and
the upper end of said slide 35 there is secured an
expansible sleeve 31 of rubber or some similar 40
substance, the lower end of said sleeve being in
teriorly'grooved and receiving an annular ilange
3B on the upper end of the vslide whereby- said
expansible sleeve is firmly secured on the slide.
Downward movement 'of slide 35 on the pump 45
cylinder is limited by a stop 4|a on the pump
barrel, said stop preferably being formed by the
collar by which the cylindrical member 32 is -se
cured to coupling member 32h. Said collar 4|a
is adapted to be engaged by the lower end of the 50
slide 35 to arrest its downward movement rela
tively to the pump cylinder. At the lower end
of the pump cylinder, there is a standing valve
42 which may be of any desired construction, and
the pump piston, which may also be of any well
known type, carries the traveling valve 43a. As
should be placed under excessive compression, it
is ‘well known, reciprocation of the sucker rods
and piston causes oil to first be sucked through
standing valve 42 upon the up stroke of the piston,
which oil, on the downward stroke of the piston
would be practically destroyed. To overcome this
diñiculty, collar Mb on the sucker rod 'which en
gages the cross member |00a of the slide 4valve is ,
so positioned with respect to the upper end of
unseats and passes traveling valve 13e.
sleeve 52 on the sucker rod that the latter will
' Various means, well known in the art, may be
come into contact with the bushing 34B in the
mandrel head before spring 92 can go solid. In
other words, the sleeve 52 which is fast on the
sucker rod forms an enlargement yadapted to
function as a stop for limiting the lcompression
»provided for supporting the pump proper at the
desired pumping elevation in the well hole, but
as these ‘means form no part of the present in
vention, they are not shown or described. Sufiice
.it/to say that the pump lar-supported 'on the
of spring 92 by abutting against bushing ill’l
y ucker rod 45 while it is being lowered into the
before said spring goes solid. In this way, damage
well, but when the shell 2| comes to rest in the
to the spring by excessive pressures,Í particularly
well, the working barrel and the mandrel 3| con
tinue downwardly until the mandrel enters and
expands the sleeve 31 into _sealing engagement
with the well -casing 20.
Thus, with the pump barrel iìxed and sealed in
the well, by continuing the downward movement
of the sucker rod, the piston will move to its
during-the lowering and raising of the pump, is
absolutely precluded.
What I claim is:
1. In an oil well pump, a pump cylinder, means
for sealing oiî the well ata point along the cylin
der wall, said cylinde? having a port therein for 20
by-passing liquid from above said seal to a point
' working position with the pump barrel and, as will
below theseal, a slide valve for said port, a sucker
rod, an enlargement on said rod engageable with
a member carried by said cylinder for raising said
cylinder, a coil spring on said rod for moving said
slide valve to port-closing position, one end of said
spring engaging said member, and means on said
be later described, the by-pass will be sealed oil,
so that the pump is ready for operation. Should
it be desirable to removethe pump, or to adjust
its position in the Well, it is only necessary to open
the by-pass,_ as will be later described, in order to
relieve the pressures above the mandrel 3|, after
sucker rod for moving said valve from its port
closing position against the pressure of said
spring, the spring, the spacing of said last-men
tioned means and said enlargement axially of the
rod being such that said enlargement will con
which the sucker rod is raised to remove mandrel
_ 3| from the packing member 31.
As before mentioned, it is quite advantageous
to by-pass oil from above the mandrel 3| when
lt is desired to raise the pump, because the pres
sures imposed upon the mandrel, particularly in
the deep wells of today, are such that it is quite
difñcult to break out the sealing or packing ele
tact said member in advance of said coil spring
`going solid.
2. In an oil well pump, a pump cylinder, means
for sealing oñ the well at a point along the cylin'
ment so long as those pressures exist and the
der wall, said cylinder having a port therein for
force required may be great enough to cause
by-passing liquid from above said seal to a point
below the seal, a slide valve for said port, a sucker
breakingof the sucker rod string. The particular
arrangements for by-passing the oil above the
mandrel are shownand described in detail in my
,copendlng application, Serial N_o. 38,449.
scribed brieñy, these means consist of ports 90
_in the cylindrical extension 32 of the pump bar
45 rel and ports 9| in member 35 and a sliding tubu
lar valve |00 carried on the sucker rod 35 for con
trolling the ñow of oil from within the pump to
rod, an enlargement on said rod engageable with a 40
member carried by said cylinder for raising said
cylinder, a coil spring on said rod for moving said
slide valve to port-closing position, and means for
moving said valve from its port-closing position
against the pressure of said spring, the spacing 45
of said last-mentioned means and said enlarge
ment axially of -the rod being such that said en
the exterior thereof. As shown in Fig. 2, when
the pump is in pumping position, a -coil spring 92
surrounding the sucker'rod and-interposed be
said coil spring going solid.
tween the upper end‘of the mandrel 3| and slid
ing valve | 00 holds said valve depressed so that
the cups |0| at -the upper end of the valve and.
for sealing oiî the well at a‘point along the cylin-~
der wall, said cylinder having a port therein for
by-passing liquid from above said seal to a point
the cups |02 at the lower end of the valve prevent ‘
oil in the pump cylinder or in the interior of the
below the seal, a sucker rod, an abutment on said
rod engageable against a portion of the pump 55
structure for supporting the pump in the well, a
mandrel gaining access to the ports 90, 9|'. In
largement Will contact said member in advance of ì
‘ .3. In an oil well pump, a pump cylinder, means 50
other words, _oil drawn into the pump barrel will
slide valve for controlling flow of liquid through
said port, a'spring urging said valve toward its
sleeve |00 and into the interior ofthe mandrel- port-closing position, and means operable by
- and then through openings 33 into casing 20. movement of said rod longitudinally of the pump 60
However, if it is desired to pull the pump, the- cylinderifor moving said valve toward its port
sucker rod is raised until collar Mb engages valve . opening position against the pressure of said
spring, the compression of said spring being
|00-and elevatés it to a point where the cups |0|
65 will be moved out of the cylinder 32, under which limited by the engagement of said abutment with
be forced upward through the tubular valve or
conditions, ,oil above the packing elements will
said pump structure.
dif-ainx baclnldòwn through'theärl?ëmular space be
4. In an oil well pump, a pump cylinder having
a drain port in the wall thereof, a valve control
l tween the 'tubular sleeve wlä'iîd cylinder 32 and
through ports 90, 9|, into the space between the
pump shell 2| and well casing 20. Although not
essential, itis highly desirable to provide a spring
`92 for the purpose of depressing, or seating, the
tubular valve |00. However, when the -pump is
being lowered or raised, the entire weight thereof '
, is carried on the sucker rod and if the spring 92
ling the flow of liquid through said port, a spring
for urging said valve toward its port-closing posi
tion, means for opening said vvalve against the 70
pressure of said spring, and means for limiting
compression of said spring when said valve is
moved toward its open position.
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