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Патент USA US2111222

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March 15, 1938.
w. F. MOORE
2,111,222
METHOD OF TREATING HYDROCARBON OIL
Filed Nov. «28. 1932
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INVENTOR
W/¿L/AM 511100,75 `
ATTORNEY
Patented Mar. 15, 1938
2,111,222
UNITED STATES PATENT. OFFICE
METHOD 0F TREATING HYDROC‘ARBON OIL
>William F. Moore, Bayside, N. Y., »assigner to
Gasoline Products Company, Inc., Newark, N. J.,
_. acorporation of Delaware
'
Application November 28, 1932, Serial No. 644,608
(Cl. ISG-_48)
1 Claim.
ducing valve I4 into evaporator 9; The pres
This invention relates to methods for convert
ing higher boiling hydrocarbon oils into lower
boiling hydrocarbon oils.
'i
,
It is an object of my invention to‘provide an
5` improved process for ther separation cfa/heavy
hydrocarbon oil charging stock intov a plurality
of fractions and for the-treatment'of these frac
tions in combination in such manner that vin
creased conversion into the desired lower boil
10 ing point product results.
,
'
According to my invention a' charging stock
such as crude oil having a gravity of about
thirty-five degrees A. P. I., or any other compar
able product is heated to a moderate temperature
151 under superatmospheric pressure and is there
after >introduced into an evaporating chamber
wherein Vaporization takes place and an unva
porized residue is formed. Vapors so produced
are thenheated to a relatively high cracking
temperature and combined with the residue subse
quent to the heating of the residue to a moderate
sure in the heating coil may, for example, be
500 lbs. per square inch and the temperature to
which the oil is heated therein may suitably be
from'700°--850° F. preferably in the neighborhood
of 750°~800° F. These conditions permit heat
ing of the oil with substantially no cracking.
The evaporator 9 may be carried under a pres
sure of 300V lbs. per square inch and this reduc
tion ïin pressure ofthe heated oil introduced 10
into the evaporator suffices tofvaporize the lighter .
portions thereof, which may include gasoline,
kerosene and gas oil, leaving a reduced crude
residue of about 20 degrees A. P. I. gravity.
'
'The vapors pass‘overhead through pipe I5 into
a heating coil 4, and thence through injector I6
into `soaking chamber I0. The temperature at
tained by the oil vapors in coil 4 may be from
950 degrees to 1200 degrees F. or even higher,
but ispreferably approximately l050° F., while 20
the pressure on the heated vapors leaving the
cracking temperature. A dehydrogenating agent,`
coil will be relatively lowye. g. 150 pounds per
such as oxygen, air or steam which has‘been
square inch, although a somewhat lower or high
er pressure may prevail. The residue from the
evaporator is forced either by the pressure in the
superheated to dissociation temperature, may be
o mixed with the combined produ-cts to promote
the formation of unsaturates and thecombined
products are thereupon introduced into a soak
ing chamber wherein further conversion and re
evaporator, or by pump I1, through heating coil
5 and injector I6, into the soaking chamber IIJ.
The temperature attained by the residual oil in
combination takes place. . The soaked products - the coil 5 is preferably in the neighborhood of
pass into a separating chamber, held under re
duced pressure, wherein vapors are evolved and
a tar-like residue formed. The vapors are there
advantages of my invention will be made clear in
the following description taken‘inv conjunction
with the accompanying drawing.
In theY drawing reference numeral I indicates
introduction into the soaking chamber. A de
hydrogenating agent such as oxygen, air or su
product, while the condensate is combined with
the vapors first mentioned, prior to the heating
thereof. The residue producedin the separator
is withdrawn from the process.
'I‘he `above mentioned and further objects and
' a furnace having therein heating coils 2, 3, 4,
and 5, which are sub-jected to heat produced‘by
burners B, 1, and 8.. Nine' (9) indicates an evapo
rator, III a soaking chamber, II a` separator and
I2 a fractionator. Fresh charging stock', such
oc." for example as 35 degree A. P. I. M. C. crude, is
forced by pump 30 through heating coil 2 posi
tioned in the convection portion of the furnace,
and then through heating coil 3 located in the
radiant portion of the furnace. The heated oil
55 products thereafter pass through pipe I3 and re
L
ture could be used Nif desired. The function of
the injector I6, which ‘may be ofany well known
type, is to combine and thoroughly mix the two
streams of heated oil prior to their introduction
into the soaking chamber. Other mixing means, " I
such as an ordinary chamber may be used instead
if desired. The pressure on the residual oil
passed through the coil 5 may be made high
enough by the actionof pump Il, so that the
heated residual oil can assist, through the action 40
of the- injector, in raising the pressure of the
after subjected to partial condensation in a frac
tionator, and the uncondensed vapors are re
moved from the fractionator as the final desired
40
850° F., but a slightly higher or lower tempera- ;
highly heated vaporous products prior to their
perheated dissociated steam may be introduced
through pipe I8 into the injector I 6 and mixed
with the oil to promote polymerization and the
formation of unsaturated hydrocarbon com
pounds.
The fractions of the vapors from evaporator 50
9 which lie in the gasoline boiling range may `be
removed in order to prevent the passage thereof
through the heating coil 4, and in this event the
temperature of the products passing through
heating coil 4 may be increased to a value above 55
2
2,111,222
thatI mentioned hereinbefore, for example to
pipe 28, and the desired final distillate is removed
1500° F. Fractionator 39 which is provided to re
through pipe 29.
The pressures used in the process described
hereinbefore may be increased if desired, the
move the gasoline boiling range fraction may be
rendered active by proper manipulation of valves
C21 40, 4|, 42 and 43. When valve 40 is closed and
valves 4I, 42, and 43 are open the products enter
the fractionator through pipe 44 and are frac
tionated therein, the lightest products passing off
through line 45 which connects with the pipe I5
leading toy the cracking coils. The heavy con
densate is removed from the bottom of the frac
tionator through line 46 and introduced into pipe
I5, while an intermediate cut of products in the
gasoline boiling range is removed as a side stream
through pipe 41 and is introduced into storage
drum 48. Pipe line 49 having valve 50 is pro
vided for by-passing the reflux condensate from
pipe 23 around the fractionator 39, when the lat
ter is in use and valve 5| serves to prevent the
reñux condensate from combining with the‘va
pors from the evaporator when the by-pass line
is in use.
proper ratio of pressures being maintained. For
example a pressure of Several thousand pounds
per square inch may be placed on the fresh charg
ing stock, and in this case the evaporator and
soaking chamber should be held at proportion
ately lower pressures. The pressures on the
separator and fractionator may be raised also but
generally pressures of from 50-400 pounds per
square inch will be found preferable for the sepa
rating and fractionating steps.
By separating the crude petroleum charging
stock into two portions and treating them as de
scribed hereinbefore several desirable results are
attained. Among these are the reformation of
any gasoline content of the crude petroleum
charging Ystock and the contacting of the re
sulting hot ñXed gases and light products with the
residue for further conversion and recombination,
The temperature of the combined products
entering the soaking chamber will be intermediate
including polymerization. A further advantage
is thatmore extensive cracking of the heavy oil
that of the heated residual products and that of
the heated vapors, the highly heated vapors serv
would be possible in an externally heated coil
ing to raise the temperature of the residual prod
ucts above that which they attain in the furnace.
After being soaked in chamber I0 in which com
30 bination of the relatively light vapors and vfixed
gases, with the heavy residual products occurs as
a result of their unsaturated condition the prod
ucts_are transferred to separator II through a
pipe I9 having a reducing valve 20 therein. The
07 Ul kpressure in the separator H is lower than that of
the soaking chamber I0, for example the pressure
in the separator may be 50 pounds per square
inch. Lighter products in vapor form pass from
the separator through conduit 2| into fraction
¿l0v ator I2, While a liquid residue is withdrawn
. through valve line 22. In the fractionator the
vapors are dephlegmated, a reflux condensate be
ing formed which is removed from the bottom of
the fractionator through pipe 23 having pump 24
and ls combined with the’vapors in pipe I5 for
heating in the coil 4. A cooling coil 38 is posi
tioned in the top of the fractionator to supply the
necessary reiluxing action. The fresh charge
may be passed through the coil if desired, in the
usual manner. A connection 3I having a valve
32 therein is furnished for permitting a quantity
of the reflux condensate from line 23 to be directed
into evaporator 9 to control the conditions therein
and regulate the proportion of vapors to residue
produced by the vaporizing process, as Well as the
quality of the residue.
By regulating the valve 32,
a greater or lesser amount of reflux condensate
may be admitted. A pipe line 33 having valve 34
and cooler 35 serves to conduct any desired quan
(il) tity of cool reflux condensate into the separator
to regulate the amount of vapors evolved therein.
A Valved by-pass 36 is included for passing hot
condensate around the cooler, thereby affording
additional flexibility of control.
Valved drawoff
line 31 aiîords a means for diverting from the
process certain amounts o_f reilux condensate if
desired.
Vapors of the desired end point leave the frac
tionator through conduit 25 and travel through
70 condenser 26 into gas separator 21 wherein fixed
gas is drawn off in the usual manner through
can bel obtained without coke difficulties than `
alone. The tworportions of the charging stock
may also be subjected to individually controlled
conditions which are especially Well adapted for
theirtreatment.
30
While I have described a particular embodiment
of my invention for the purpose of illustration it
vshould be understood that various modifications
and adaptations thereof may be made Within the
spirit of the invention as set forth in the appended
claim.
I claim:
In a process for the treatment of hydrocarbon
oil wherein the oil is subjected to a topping opera
tion for the separation of a low-boiling fraction, 40
containing materials within the boiling range of
gasoline, from higher boiling residual compo
nents, said low-boiling fraction subjected to con
version conditions of elevated temperature and
superatmospheric pressure in a heating coil and 45
communicating reaction chamber for the pur
pose of materially improving its motor fuel char
acteristics, particularly in respect to anti-knock
Value, Without excessively alœring the boiling
range of gasoline constitutents thereof, the vapor
ous and residual conversion products separated,
the vapors subjected to fractionation for the re
moval of their insufficiently converted high boil
ing fractions which are condensed as reflux con
densate, fractionated vapors of the desired end
boiling point subjected to condensation and the
resulting distillate and gas collected, the improve
ment which comprises commingling said reflux
condensate and said high-boiling residual com
ponents and subjecting them to fractionation to
gether for the separation of lighter constituents
in vaporous form, and commingling the heavier
constituents unvaporized in said fractionation
With the heated oil from the heating coil, prior
to the separation of vaporous and residual con
Version products, whereby said heavier constitu
ents are subjected to somewhat milder conversion
conditions than those employed in the heating
coil.
Y
WILLIAM F. MOORE.
65
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