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Патент USA US2111232

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March 15, 193s.
f A, WETZÈL
t
2,ì11,232
SOLENOID
Filed Aug. 28, 1957
JWM/'MMA . WLJP/
i@ ME
E
PatentedMan 15, 1938
2,111,232 ï A
.UNITED STATES i
PATENT OFFICE
2,111,232
SOLENOID
. Theodore A. Wetzel, Milwaukee, Wis., assigner 'to
Milwaukee Gas Specialty Company, Milwau
Akec, Wis., a corporation of Wisconsin
Application August 28, 1937, Serial No.. 161,42l.
SClaims.
This invention relates to electromagnets and
refers particularly to the solenoid type of elec
tromagnet designed to operate'valves and kin
dredzapplianees.
'
_
The attainment of quietness in operation has
always been a problem, particularly where the
solenoid is of the single phase alternating cur
,rent type. 'I‘he constructions heretofore pro
posed for this purpose have been objectionable
10 from the standpoint of requiring an excessive
number of parts, and also for the reason that
they did not provide against noise resulting from
lateral motion oí the armature.
It is therefore an object of this invention to
Y 15 provide quiet operation for a solenoid of the
character described with a minimum number of
parts.
-
-
armature taken on the plane of the iine 3-3 of
Figure 2; and
_
Figures 4 and 5 are enlarged sectional views
through the armature and its guide tube illus
trating the manner in which its unbalanced mass 5
on a transverse Vplane causes the magnetic pull A
of the coil to hold the same against one, side of `
the tube.
Referring now particularly to the accompany
ing drawing in which like numerals indicate like 10
parts, the numeral 5 designates a guide tube of
non-magnetic material closedat its upper end
by a plug 6 of magnetic metal and having a
plunger type amature 'l slidable therein. A
magnet coil 8 surrounds the upper end portion 15
of the tube 5, which, upon energization, draws
the armature upwardly toward the plug ,6.
The upward attraction imposed on the arma
ture upon Venergization of the coil is augmented
by a magnetic sleeve 5' which surrounds the
upper end of the tube 5; and to further improve
the eñiciency of the solenoid and reduce the watt
age consumption, an iron shell is attached to the
sleeve 5' and encloses the coil with its lower end
in Contact with an iron washer i0’. Hence, up
guard against chattering.
Another object of this invention is to provide on energization of the coil 8 the ilux flows
a construction whereby the eiîects' of residual through the shell and the washer, which, lying
magnetism in the armature are vitiated to pre- ' close to the amature, provides a short path to
rclude the armature being held against its normal the armature and thus reduces the wattage re
,
30
motion consequent to the deenergization of the quired to lift the armature.
In the present instance where the solenoid is
magnet coil.
Y
'
A further object of this invention is to provide used with a gas valve, the upward motion of the
a solenoid which is particularly applicable for armature lifts a valve 8 ofi its seat, the seat be
Another object of this invention resides in the
provision of means whereby lateral play ybetween
Y” _the armature _and its guideway is positively taken
up to preclude noise arising -irom this cause.
Another object of this invention vis lto provide
means whereby the shading ring on the armature
splits the phase of the magnetic flux to further
25
ç
m
'
, ing located between the inlet and outlet of the
use- with valves, and especially gas valves. '
_
With the above and other objects in- view which valve body l‘l.
‘ Being closed at its upper end, the guide tube
will appear as the descriptionproceeds, this in
5 serves as a sealing tube to preclude leakage
vention resides in the novel construction, combi
naidon and arrangement of parts substantially as from the valve body. It is conveniently fitted
into a cover Ill which closes the open top of the
hereinafter described, and more particularly de
40 lined by the appended claims, it being underf valve body. The cover I0 is held in place by 40
a -clamping ring l2 threaded to the body and en
stood that suchschanges in the precise embodi
ment of the hereindisclosedinvention may be` gaged over a plate I3 fixed to the underside of the
35_
' made as come within
of the claims.
cover.
‘I'he same screws which hold the plate I3
The accompanying drawing illustrates one ~ to the underside of the cover also fasten the
45
45 complete'example of the physical embodiment of magnetic washer I0’ to the cover.
'I’he valve 9 comprises a valve disc having a
the invention constructed according to the best
mode so far devised furthe practical application ' leather face Il loosely secured >to the lower end
of a non~magnetic -stem I5 which is slidably re
of the principles thereof,V and inV which:
Figure l is a longitudinal sectional view ceived in a bore I6 extending longitudinally
50 through a valve equipped with the solenoid of through the center of the armature. The stem 50
this invention illustrating the same in its deen j l5 is longer than _the armature and has a non
erg'lzed condition;
.
‘
`
Figure 2 is a :longitudinal sectional view
through the armature per se;
u
Flgure3isacrosssectionalviewthroughthe
Y magnetic head I1 on its upper end to be engaged Y
by the upper end oi the armature with a ham
mer-like blow upon response ofthe armature to
enersimtion of the coil.
`
~.
'
2,111,282
A recess I8 in the undersurface of the magnet
ic plug 6 accommodates the head I1 of the valve
stem and permits the amature to engage the
lower edge of a non-magnetic spacer collar I9
secured in the recess I8.- The spacer projects
down below the bottom of the plug 6 to hold
the armature from actual contact with the plug
and thereby preclude residual magnetism of the
armature from holding the valve open after de
10 energization of the Coil.
As best shown in Figures 4 and 5, the armature
consists substantially of a cylinder of magnetic
metal having a plurality of longitudinal flutes or
grooves 20 cut therein at spaced intervals ex
15 tending partially around the circumference of the
cylinder. vThese ñutes or grooves form the cross
section of the armature into a small diameter
cylinder having a plurality of radial circumfer
of the plunger has a lesser magnetic reluctance
than other portions thereof.
,
2. A solenoid comprising: a coil; guide means
disposed within the coil; a rigid amature mov
able within the coil and snugly but slidably en
gaging said guide means, said armature having
both its ends lying in planes substantially normal
to the central longitudinal axis of the armature
and having its magnetic mass unsymmetrically
distributed with respect to said axis with con l0
siderably greater magnetic mass on one side of
a plane parallel to the line of motion of the
armature and including the axis of the coil than
on the opposite side thereof so that the magnetic
reluctance at one side of the armature is greater
than at other portions thereof; and stationary
magnetic means alongside the armature and co
operating therewith whereby the armature is
held laterally against the guide means upon en
20 throughout the length thereof with a portion 22 f ergization of the coil.
3. A plunger type armature for electromagnets
>of substantial mass disposed at one side of the
comprising: substantially a cylinder of magnetic
axis of the armature.
This unbalanced or eccentric distribution of metal having a plurality of longitudinal flutes to
give the plunger a ribbed cross sectional shape.
the mass in the plunger gives the same a low
said flutes being so circumferentially spaced that
25 magnetic reluctance at its side having the por
tion 22 so that upon energization of the coil the at least one of the ribs is substantially wider
armature not only rises to enter'the enclosure than the rest so that the plunger has greater mass
defined by the magnetic sleeve 5’,>but is also at one side of its axis than at the opposite side
to provide a path of lesser reluctance at said
drawn sìdewise to be held against the inner sur
entially spaced ribs 2I extending longitudinally
30 face of the guide tube 5 and thus preclude the
ñrst side of the plunger.
armature from wandering and rattling in its
guide tube.
Near its upper end the armature is encircled
by a shading ring 23 of copper or other suitable
35 metal. It appears possible that the shading ring,
being positioned as it is, aids the magnet coil in
4. A solenoid construction of the character de
scribed comprising: a tube of non-magnetic met
al; a magnet coil surrounding the tube; a mag
netic sleeve surrounding the tube within one end
portion of the coil; a plunger type armature
maintaining the armature tightly against the
spacer collar I 9.
'
Four factors of the construction as described
40 thus coact to produce an efficient and quiet sole
noid.
They are-the magnetically unbalanced
armature; the shading ring carried by the arma
ture; the magnetic sleeve; and the magnetic plug
at the upper end of the guide tube. The magnet
45 ic sleeve extends down into the coil a substantial
distance so that a considerable part of the ar
mature is telescoped into it, thus giving the mag
s netically unbalanced formation of the amature
maximum effectiveness.
The shading ring, being located where it is,
also serves to split the phase of the magnetic
flux. `T'his follows from the fact that when the
armature is in its raised position, the shading
ring lieswithin the confines of the sleeve 5’.
55 'I‘he ñux flowing from the sleeve 5' to the arma
ture is thus split by the presence of the shading
ring causing 'a part thereof to lag behind the
rest. The advantages of multi-phase current are
50
thus achieved to a degree.
From the foregoing description taken in con
nection with the accompanying drawing, it will
be readily apparent to those skilled in the art
,
v
slidable in the tube, said armature having guide
ribs extending radially therefrom for contact
with the inner wall of the tube and having a
portion of substantial mass and considerably
wider than the guide ribs disposed at one side o!
its axis to provide a path of low magnetic re
luctance so that upon energization of the coil
the magnetic pull exerted through the magnetic
sleeve holds the armature against the inside sur
face of the tube.
45
5. A solenoid construction of the character de
scribed comprising: a tube of non-magnetic ma
terial; a magnet coil surrounding one end por
tion of the tube; a magnetic sleeve surrounding
the tube within one end portion of the coil: a
plug clomng said end of the tube and formed of
magnetic metal; a plunger type armature slidable
in the tube toward the magnetic plug and into
the magnetic sleeve upon energization of the coil.
said armature having circumferentially spaced
longitudinally extending ribs projecting radially
therefrom, one of said ribs having a substan
tially greater width than the others so as to pro
vide a portion of substantial mass at one side of
the axis of the armature whereby said side of
the armature has lesser magnetic reluctance than
other portions thereof so that the armature is
improved construction, particularly with respect
drawn ñrmly against the inside surface of the
tube by the magnetic pull exerted through the
magnetic sleeve upon energimtion of the coil:
eration.
non-magnetic spacer means for holding the ar
mature out of contact with the magnetic pim:
that this invention provides a solenoid of greatly
65 to those factors which determine quietness of op
What I claim as my invention is:
1. A plunger type armature for electromagnets
comprising: substantially a cylinder of magnetic
70 material having circumferentially spaced longi
tudinal ribs projecting radially therefrom, one of
said ribs having a substantially greater width
than the others so as to provide an unbalanced
75 mass on a transverse plane whereby one side
30
and ashadingringendrclingthearmaturenear
its end which moves into the magnetic sleeve.
6. A solenoid comprising: a magnet coil; a rigid 70
armature; guide means to limit the motion .of
the amature substantially to movement axially
of the coil; a stop against which the amature
is moved upon energization of the coil; a mag
netic sleeve within one end portion of the coll. 15
arranca
said magnetic> sleeve being shorter than the coil
but long enough to receive at least a portion of
the amature `as it engages said stop; said arma
ture having both its ends lying in planes sub
stantially normal to the central longitudinal axis
oi the armature and having its magnetic mass
unsymmetrically distributed with respect to said
axis with considerably greater magnetic mass on
one side of a plane parallel to the line of motion
of the armature and including the central longi
tudinal axis of the magnetic sleeve than on the '
opposite side thereof so that one side of the arma
ture has considerably less magnetic reluctance
than other portions thereof; whereby the arma
ture is attracted laterally toward the magnetic
sleeve to take up all play between the armature
and its guide means.
‘
il. A solenoid comprising: a magnet coil; a rigid
armature; guide means to limit the motion oi
the armature substantially to movement. axially
of the coil; a stop located to be engaged by the
armature upon movement thereof in responseto
energization of the coil; a magnetic sleeve within
one end portion of the coil, said magnetic 'sleeve
being shorter than the coil but long enough to
receive at least a portion of the armature as it
engages the stop, said armature having both its
ends lying in planes substantially normal to the
central longitudinal axis of the armature and
having its magnetic mass unsymmetrically dis
tributed with respect to said axis with consider
a'oly greater magnetic mass on one side of a
plane parallel to the line of motion of the arma
ture and including the central longitudinal axis
35 of the magnetic sleeve than on the opposite side
thereof so that one side of the armature has con.
siderably less magnetic reluctance than other
portions thereof whereby the armature is attract
3
ed laterally toward the magnetic sleeve to take
up all play between the armature and its guide
means; and a shading coil encircling that por
tion ci the amature which moves into the _rnag- _
netic sleeve so as to split the phase of the mag
netic flux ilowing from the sleeve to the armature.
t. .e solenoid comprising: a magnet coil; a
magnetic sleeve disposed within one end of the
coil and spaced `from the opposite end thereof; a
rigid armature responsive to energization of the
coil; a tube in which the armature slides and by
which the armature is constrained to motion aar-_
ially through the coil and into said magnetic
sleeve; a magnetic stop within the magnetic sleeve
lout spaced therefrom ior limiting the motion of
the armature in response to energization of the
coil; non-magnetic means for spacing the arma
ture from said stole, the armature having both
its ends lying in planes substantially normal to
the central longitudinal axis of the armature and 20
having its magnetic mass unsymmetrically dis
tributed
respect to said axis with consider
ably greater magnetic mass on one side of a plane
parallel to the line of motion of the armature
and including the central longitudinal axis of the 25
magnetic sleeve than on the opposite side there
’
oi so that one side oi the armature has considera'oly less magnetic reluctance than other por
tionsv thereof whereby the armature is drawn lat
erally toward the magnetic sleeve' to maintain the 30
same in ñrm engagement with its guide tube; and
a shading coil carried by and encircling the arma
`
ture at a point so spaced from the end of the
armature which enters the magnetic sleeve that
the shading ring lies loetween the ends of the
magnetic sleeve when the armature contacts its
stop.,
TIELEUDORE A. WETZEL.
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