Патент USA US2111232код для вставки
March 15, 193s. f A, WETZÈL t 2,ì11,232 SOLENOID Filed Aug. 28, 1957 JWM/'MMA . WLJP/ i@ ME E PatentedMan 15, 1938 2,111,232 ï A .UNITED STATES i PATENT OFFICE 2,111,232 SOLENOID . Theodore A. Wetzel, Milwaukee, Wis., assigner 'to Milwaukee Gas Specialty Company, Milwau Akec, Wis., a corporation of Wisconsin Application August 28, 1937, Serial No.. 161,42l. SClaims. This invention relates to electromagnets and refers particularly to the solenoid type of elec tromagnet designed to operate'valves and kin dredzapplianees. ' _ The attainment of quietness in operation has always been a problem, particularly where the solenoid is of the single phase alternating cur ,rent type. 'I‘he constructions heretofore pro posed for this purpose have been objectionable 10 from the standpoint of requiring an excessive number of parts, and also for the reason that they did not provide against noise resulting from lateral motion oí the armature. It is therefore an object of this invention to Y 15 provide quiet operation for a solenoid of the character described with a minimum number of parts. - - armature taken on the plane of the iine 3-3 of Figure 2; and _ Figures 4 and 5 are enlarged sectional views through the armature and its guide tube illus trating the manner in which its unbalanced mass 5 on a transverse Vplane causes the magnetic pull A of the coil to hold the same against one, side of ` the tube. Referring now particularly to the accompany ing drawing in which like numerals indicate like 10 parts, the numeral 5 designates a guide tube of non-magnetic material closedat its upper end by a plug 6 of magnetic metal and having a plunger type amature 'l slidable therein. A magnet coil 8 surrounds the upper end portion 15 of the tube 5, which, upon energization, draws the armature upwardly toward the plug ,6. The upward attraction imposed on the arma ture upon Venergization of the coil is augmented by a magnetic sleeve 5' which surrounds the upper end of the tube 5; and to further improve the eñiciency of the solenoid and reduce the watt age consumption, an iron shell is attached to the sleeve 5' and encloses the coil with its lower end in Contact with an iron washer i0’. Hence, up guard against chattering. Another object of this invention is to provide on energization of the coil 8 the ilux flows a construction whereby the eiîects' of residual through the shell and the washer, which, lying magnetism in the armature are vitiated to pre- ' close to the amature, provides a short path to rclude the armature being held against its normal the armature and thus reduces the wattage re , 30 motion consequent to the deenergization of the quired to lift the armature. In the present instance where the solenoid is magnet coil. Y ' A further object of this invention is to provide used with a gas valve, the upward motion of the a solenoid which is particularly applicable for armature lifts a valve 8 ofi its seat, the seat be Another object of this invention resides in the provision of means whereby lateral play ybetween Y” _the armature _and its guideway is positively taken up to preclude noise arising -irom this cause. Another object of this invention vis lto provide means whereby the shading ring on the armature splits the phase of the magnetic flux to further 25 ç m ' , ing located between the inlet and outlet of the use- with valves, and especially gas valves. ' _ With the above and other objects in- view which valve body l‘l. ‘ Being closed at its upper end, the guide tube will appear as the descriptionproceeds, this in 5 serves as a sealing tube to preclude leakage vention resides in the novel construction, combi naidon and arrangement of parts substantially as from the valve body. It is conveniently fitted into a cover Ill which closes the open top of the hereinafter described, and more particularly de 40 lined by the appended claims, it being underf valve body. The cover I0 is held in place by 40 a -clamping ring l2 threaded to the body and en stood that suchschanges in the precise embodi ment of the hereindisclosedinvention may be` gaged over a plate I3 fixed to the underside of the 35_ ' made as come within of the claims. cover. ‘I'he same screws which hold the plate I3 The accompanying drawing illustrates one ~ to the underside of the cover also fasten the 45 45 complete'example of the physical embodiment of magnetic washer I0’ to the cover. 'I’he valve 9 comprises a valve disc having a the invention constructed according to the best mode so far devised furthe practical application ' leather face Il loosely secured >to the lower end of a non~magnetic -stem I5 which is slidably re of the principles thereof,V and inV which: Figure l is a longitudinal sectional view ceived in a bore I6 extending longitudinally 50 through a valve equipped with the solenoid of through the center of the armature. The stem 50 this invention illustrating the same in its deen j l5 is longer than _the armature and has a non erg'lzed condition; . ‘ ` Figure 2 is a :longitudinal sectional view through the armature per se; u Flgure3isacrosssectionalviewthroughthe Y magnetic head I1 on its upper end to be engaged Y by the upper end oi the armature with a ham mer-like blow upon response ofthe armature to enersimtion of the coil. ` ~. ' 2,111,282 A recess I8 in the undersurface of the magnet ic plug 6 accommodates the head I1 of the valve stem and permits the amature to engage the lower edge of a non-magnetic spacer collar I9 secured in the recess I8.- The spacer projects down below the bottom of the plug 6 to hold the armature from actual contact with the plug and thereby preclude residual magnetism of the armature from holding the valve open after de 10 energization of the Coil. As best shown in Figures 4 and 5, the armature consists substantially of a cylinder of magnetic metal having a plurality of longitudinal flutes or grooves 20 cut therein at spaced intervals ex 15 tending partially around the circumference of the cylinder. vThese ñutes or grooves form the cross section of the armature into a small diameter cylinder having a plurality of radial circumfer of the plunger has a lesser magnetic reluctance than other portions thereof. , 2. A solenoid comprising: a coil; guide means disposed within the coil; a rigid amature mov able within the coil and snugly but slidably en gaging said guide means, said armature having both its ends lying in planes substantially normal to the central longitudinal axis of the armature and having its magnetic mass unsymmetrically distributed with respect to said axis with con l0 siderably greater magnetic mass on one side of a plane parallel to the line of motion of the armature and including the axis of the coil than on the opposite side thereof so that the magnetic reluctance at one side of the armature is greater than at other portions thereof; and stationary magnetic means alongside the armature and co operating therewith whereby the armature is held laterally against the guide means upon en 20 throughout the length thereof with a portion 22 f ergization of the coil. 3. A plunger type armature for electromagnets >of substantial mass disposed at one side of the comprising: substantially a cylinder of magnetic axis of the armature. This unbalanced or eccentric distribution of metal having a plurality of longitudinal flutes to give the plunger a ribbed cross sectional shape. the mass in the plunger gives the same a low said flutes being so circumferentially spaced that 25 magnetic reluctance at its side having the por tion 22 so that upon energization of the coil the at least one of the ribs is substantially wider armature not only rises to enter'the enclosure than the rest so that the plunger has greater mass defined by the magnetic sleeve 5’,>but is also at one side of its axis than at the opposite side to provide a path of lesser reluctance at said drawn sìdewise to be held against the inner sur entially spaced ribs 2I extending longitudinally 30 face of the guide tube 5 and thus preclude the ñrst side of the plunger. armature from wandering and rattling in its guide tube. Near its upper end the armature is encircled by a shading ring 23 of copper or other suitable 35 metal. It appears possible that the shading ring, being positioned as it is, aids the magnet coil in 4. A solenoid construction of the character de scribed comprising: a tube of non-magnetic met al; a magnet coil surrounding the tube; a mag netic sleeve surrounding the tube within one end portion of the coil; a plunger type armature maintaining the armature tightly against the spacer collar I 9. ' Four factors of the construction as described 40 thus coact to produce an efficient and quiet sole noid. They are-the magnetically unbalanced armature; the shading ring carried by the arma ture; the magnetic sleeve; and the magnetic plug at the upper end of the guide tube. The magnet 45 ic sleeve extends down into the coil a substantial distance so that a considerable part of the ar mature is telescoped into it, thus giving the mag s netically unbalanced formation of the amature maximum effectiveness. The shading ring, being located where it is, also serves to split the phase of the magnetic flux. `T'his follows from the fact that when the armature is in its raised position, the shading ring lieswithin the confines of the sleeve 5’. 55 'I‘he ñux flowing from the sleeve 5' to the arma ture is thus split by the presence of the shading ring causing 'a part thereof to lag behind the rest. The advantages of multi-phase current are 50 thus achieved to a degree. From the foregoing description taken in con nection with the accompanying drawing, it will be readily apparent to those skilled in the art , v slidable in the tube, said armature having guide ribs extending radially therefrom for contact with the inner wall of the tube and having a portion of substantial mass and considerably wider than the guide ribs disposed at one side o! its axis to provide a path of low magnetic re luctance so that upon energization of the coil the magnetic pull exerted through the magnetic sleeve holds the armature against the inside sur face of the tube. 45 5. A solenoid construction of the character de scribed comprising: a tube of non-magnetic ma terial; a magnet coil surrounding one end por tion of the tube; a magnetic sleeve surrounding the tube within one end portion of the coil: a plug clomng said end of the tube and formed of magnetic metal; a plunger type armature slidable in the tube toward the magnetic plug and into the magnetic sleeve upon energization of the coil. said armature having circumferentially spaced longitudinally extending ribs projecting radially therefrom, one of said ribs having a substan tially greater width than the others so as to pro vide a portion of substantial mass at one side of the axis of the armature whereby said side of the armature has lesser magnetic reluctance than other portions thereof so that the armature is improved construction, particularly with respect drawn ñrmly against the inside surface of the tube by the magnetic pull exerted through the magnetic sleeve upon energimtion of the coil: eration. non-magnetic spacer means for holding the ar mature out of contact with the magnetic pim: that this invention provides a solenoid of greatly 65 to those factors which determine quietness of op What I claim as my invention is: 1. A plunger type armature for electromagnets comprising: substantially a cylinder of magnetic 70 material having circumferentially spaced longi tudinal ribs projecting radially therefrom, one of said ribs having a substantially greater width than the others so as to provide an unbalanced 75 mass on a transverse plane whereby one side 30 and ashadingringendrclingthearmaturenear its end which moves into the magnetic sleeve. 6. A solenoid comprising: a magnet coil; a rigid 70 armature; guide means to limit the motion .of the amature substantially to movement axially of the coil; a stop against which the amature is moved upon energization of the coil; a mag netic sleeve within one end portion of the coll. 15 arranca said magnetic> sleeve being shorter than the coil but long enough to receive at least a portion of the amature `as it engages said stop; said arma ture having both its ends lying in planes sub stantially normal to the central longitudinal axis oi the armature and having its magnetic mass unsymmetrically distributed with respect to said axis with considerably greater magnetic mass on one side of a plane parallel to the line of motion of the armature and including the central longi tudinal axis of the magnetic sleeve than on the ' opposite side thereof so that one side of the arma ture has considerably less magnetic reluctance than other portions thereof; whereby the arma ture is attracted laterally toward the magnetic sleeve to take up all play between the armature and its guide means. ‘ il. A solenoid comprising: a magnet coil; a rigid armature; guide means to limit the motion oi the armature substantially to movement. axially of the coil; a stop located to be engaged by the armature upon movement thereof in responseto energization of the coil; a magnetic sleeve within one end portion of the coil, said magnetic 'sleeve being shorter than the coil but long enough to receive at least a portion of the armature as it engages the stop, said armature having both its ends lying in planes substantially normal to the central longitudinal axis of the armature and having its magnetic mass unsymmetrically dis tributed with respect to said axis with consider a'oly greater magnetic mass on one side of a plane parallel to the line of motion of the arma ture and including the central longitudinal axis 35 of the magnetic sleeve than on the opposite side thereof so that one side of the armature has con. siderably less magnetic reluctance than other portions thereof whereby the armature is attract 3 ed laterally toward the magnetic sleeve to take up all play between the armature and its guide means; and a shading coil encircling that por tion ci the amature which moves into the _rnag- _ netic sleeve so as to split the phase of the mag netic flux ilowing from the sleeve to the armature. t. .e solenoid comprising: a magnet coil; a magnetic sleeve disposed within one end of the coil and spaced `from the opposite end thereof; a rigid armature responsive to energization of the coil; a tube in which the armature slides and by which the armature is constrained to motion aar-_ ially through the coil and into said magnetic sleeve; a magnetic stop within the magnetic sleeve lout spaced therefrom ior limiting the motion of the armature in response to energization of the coil; non-magnetic means for spacing the arma ture from said stole, the armature having both its ends lying in planes substantially normal to the central longitudinal axis of the armature and 20 having its magnetic mass unsymmetrically dis tributed respect to said axis with consider ably greater magnetic mass on one side of a plane parallel to the line of motion of the armature and including the central longitudinal axis of the 25 magnetic sleeve than on the opposite side there ’ oi so that one side oi the armature has considera'oly less magnetic reluctance than other por tionsv thereof whereby the armature is drawn lat erally toward the magnetic sleeve' to maintain the 30 same in ñrm engagement with its guide tube; and a shading coil carried by and encircling the arma ` ture at a point so spaced from the end of the armature which enters the magnetic sleeve that the shading ring lies loetween the ends of the magnetic sleeve when the armature contacts its stop., TIELEUDORE A. WETZEL.