Патент USA US2111278код для вставки
Patented Mar. 15,‘ 1938 ‘ 2,111,278 ’ STATE? George Charlton, Battle Creek, Mich, assignor to Eaton Manufacturing Company, Cleveland, Chic, a corporation oi Ohio ' No lilrawing- Applicatio‘n December 24, Serial No. 181,601 . i. Claim. (CL "iii-125) This invention relates to steel alloys especially ‘and produce improved cylinder liners may he made up with a composition as iollows: adapted for use in lining cylinder sleeves for in ternal combustion engines and similar uses where Per cent it is necessary to have a material that is highly Carbon _________________________ -_ i.00to 3.00 5 resistant to wear and corrosion, both at normal temperatures and at relatively high tempera tures such as 800° F. _ _ - Chromium ______________________ _.. Nickel _... 5 .50 to 10.00 3.00 to 161m Copper ________ r. _______________ __ 3.00 to 0.50 The term “wear resisting" as applied to fer~ Molybdenum____________________ __ .50 to e00 rous alloys may have different meanings. For Silicon _________________________ __ .50 to $.50 10 10 instance, one piece of metal may work in contact Boron __________ __'_ _____________ __ .25 to 3.00 with a piece of another metal and the one will Manganese __________________ __-___ .25 to 0.00 show no wear and the other considerable wear. Sulphur ____________ __not over...,__ .5 on the other hand, twopieces of different metals Phosphorus _________ __not over-..“ .5 ‘can work in contact under the'same conditions as Balance iron ' 1 in the ?rst instance, and neither will show appre~ oiable wear, although the di?erence in hardness lit is important that the chromium and molyhde- l5 num when taken together shall constitute not between the metals may be as great in one in ' stance as in the other. The tendency of a metal ' less than 4% of the alloy. The advantages of an alloy made in accord~ to “pick up” particles from another metal with which it is in working contact is aggravated as ance with this invention, as to wear resistance 20 20 and corrosion are shown by the following results the temperature is increased. 4 Alloys which have good wear resistance at of comparative tests in whichthe materials tested room temperature may wear rapidly when the were rotated against each other inside a furnace operating temperature increases to the neighbor which was heated to a temperature of 800° F‘. _ hood of 800° F. The same is true as to corrosion resistance and an alloy which may exhibit satis were as follows: and in an atmosphere of SO: gas. The results -25 factory corrosion resistance at room tempera ture may corrode rapidly at a temperature in the neighborhood of 800° F. 30 Lossin thodl‘lil-m Corrosion Material #1 ....... .‘._- .0005 Piston ring iron ..... _. .00075 Very slight ram-o s n. Vggnslight corro ‘ In order to improve liners for the cylinders of internal combustion engines used in automobiles‘ and aircraft and the like, it has been necessary to produce an alloy which will have improved properties with respect to wear resistance and corrosion in that part of the cylinder which is subjected to the maximum heat. The wear re_ sistance, which is an object of this invention, is the ability of the alloy to resist‘pick-up" either under hot or cold conditions, and also show a 40 minimum loss of size when subjected to the work 88“ Run togcthe R'm We" pii‘igi’i‘m'?taatiz: :% ‘13331? 332833: therefore, important that the cylinder liner of the motor shall be ‘corrosion resistant. An alloy 60 which will meet the requirements above stated 35 In these tests material #1 was an alloy made in accordance with this invention in which the principal constituents, other than iron, were in the following proportions: 40 ing contact of standard piston ringv material. The products of combustion of an internal com bustion motor are such that when deposited on the walls of a cylinder, which may be dry be 45 cause of the heat conditions, may, when the motor is idle, have a corrosive eilect and it is, 20 Per cent 2.73 Carbon Chromium 7.70 Nickel 13.90 45 Copper Molybdenum Silicon 5.88 2.02 Boron 1.23 _ 1.72 Material #2.is a known commercial alloy of 50 2 2,111,278 recognized outstanding merit as an abrasion re sistor of which the principal constituents, other than iron, are in the following proportions: Carbon____ Per cent 2.32 Manganese ___; _________________________ __ .61 Silicon ________________________________ __ 1.66 Chromium _____________________________ __ 1.93 Molybdenum ___________________________ __ 3.20 10 The piston ring iron used in the above tests was a known commercial material that is ex tensively used in the manufacture of piston rings, the principal constituents of which, other than iron, are in the following proportions: Per cent Total carbon __________________________ _._ 3.70 Silicon ________________________________ __ 2.70 Manganese _____________________________ _. .60 Phosphorus ____________________________ __ .55 Sulphur _______________________________ __ .05 point of steel to insure that the steel tube will still be strong enough to permit the spinning operation. While in the above method of lining a cylinder it is important that the lining alloy have a melting point not in excess of 2300° F., - it is also possible to use the alloy in forming a lining by another method in which the melting point of the alloy is not so'vital. In this latter method the molten alloy is poured into a spinning cylinder which is practically at room tempera ture, and in this case the lining material does not adhere to the cylinder, whereas in the ?rst method the lining material is bonded to the cylinder. . An alloy made in accordance with the above formula bears a resemblance to the alloy known as Ni-Resist, in that the nickel and copper pro portions are substantially the same in both 9.1 loys. However, Ni—Resist is an austenetic cast iron, whereas my improved alloy is not an austen etic cast iron. There is also a difference be tween the two alloys in that the coefficient of In addition to the qualities above stated as expansion of Ni—Resist is de?nitely greater than necessary for an alloy for making cylinder liners that of my improved alloy. it is important that the alloy shall have a rela . Having thus described my invention, I claim: 25 tively low melting point as compared with ordi An alloy steel consisting of 8 to 16% of nickel, nary steel so that it will be possible to line a steel 3 to 6.5% copper, 0.5 to 10% chromium, 0.5 to tube with the alloy by the spinning process in ' 4% molybdenum, the chromium and molybde which the molten alloy is deposited on the in num together being not. less than 4%, 0.25 to 2% manganese, 0.25 to 3% boron, 1 to 3% carbon, 30 30 side of the tube by the rotation of the latter at high speeds. For this reason the alloy should sulphur not over 0.5%, phosphorus not over 0.5%, be in the molten condition at 2300° F. and this silicon 0.5 to 2.5%, and the balance iron. temperature 'is su?iciently below the melting GEORGE CHARLTON.