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Патент USA US2111278

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Patented Mar. 15,‘ 1938
‘ 2,111,278
George Charlton, Battle Creek, Mich, assignor to
Eaton Manufacturing Company, Cleveland,
Chic, a corporation oi Ohio
No lilrawing- Applicatio‘n December 24,
Serial No. 181,601
i. Claim. (CL "iii-125)
This invention relates to steel alloys especially ‘and produce improved cylinder liners may he
made up with a composition as iollows:
adapted for use in lining cylinder sleeves for in
ternal combustion engines and similar uses where
Per cent
it is necessary to have a material that is highly Carbon _________________________ -_ i.00to 3.00
5 resistant to wear and corrosion, both at normal
temperatures and at relatively high tempera
tures such as 800° F.
Chromium ______________________ _..
.50 to 10.00
3.00 to 161m
Copper ________ r. _______________ __ 3.00 to
The term “wear resisting" as applied to fer~ Molybdenum____________________ __ .50 to e00
rous alloys may have different meanings. For Silicon _________________________ __ .50 to $.50 10
10 instance, one piece of metal may work in contact
Boron __________ __'_ _____________ __
.25 to 3.00
with a piece of another metal and the one will Manganese __________________ __-___ .25 to 0.00
show no wear and the other considerable wear. Sulphur ____________ __not over...,__ .5
on the other hand, twopieces of different metals Phosphorus _________ __not over-..“ .5
‘can work in contact under the'same conditions as Balance iron '
1 in the ?rst instance, and neither will show appre~
oiable wear, although the di?erence in hardness lit is important that the chromium and molyhde- l5
num when taken together shall constitute not
between the metals may be as great in one in
stance as in the other. The tendency of a metal ' less than 4% of the alloy.
The advantages of an alloy made in accord~
to “pick up” particles from another metal with
which it is in working contact is aggravated as ance with this invention, as to wear resistance 20
and corrosion are shown by the following results
the temperature is increased.
Alloys which have good wear resistance at
of comparative tests in whichthe materials tested
room temperature may wear rapidly when the
were rotated against each other inside a furnace
operating temperature increases to the neighbor
which was heated to a temperature of 800° F‘. _
hood of 800° F. The same is true as to corrosion
resistance and an alloy which may exhibit satis
were as follows:
and in an atmosphere of SO: gas. The results -25
factory corrosion resistance at room tempera
ture may corrode rapidly at a temperature in the
neighborhood of 800° F.
Material #1 ....... .‘._-
Piston ring iron ..... _.
Very slight ram-o
s n.
Vggnslight corro
In order to improve liners for the cylinders of
internal combustion engines used in automobiles‘
and aircraft and the like, it has been necessary
to produce an alloy which will have improved
properties with respect to wear resistance and
corrosion in that part of the cylinder which is
subjected to the maximum heat. The wear re_
sistance, which is an object of this invention, is
the ability of the alloy to resist‘pick-up" either
under hot or cold conditions, and also show a
40 minimum loss of size when subjected to the work
Run togcthe
R'm We" pii‘igi’i‘m'?taatiz: :% ‘13331? 332833:
therefore, important that the cylinder liner of
the motor shall be ‘corrosion resistant. An alloy
60 which will meet the requirements above stated
In these tests material #1 was an alloy made
in accordance with this invention in which the
principal constituents, other than iron, were in
the following proportions:
ing contact of standard piston ringv material.
The products of combustion of an internal com
bustion motor are such that when deposited on
the walls of a cylinder, which may be dry be
cause of the heat conditions, may, when the
motor is idle, have a corrosive eilect and it is,
Per cent
13.90 45
Material a known commercial alloy of 50
recognized outstanding merit as an abrasion re
sistor of which the principal constituents, other
than iron, are in the following proportions:
Per cent
Manganese ___; _________________________ __
Silicon ________________________________ __
Chromium _____________________________ __
Molybdenum ___________________________ __ 3.20
The piston ring iron used in the above tests
was a known commercial material that is ex
tensively used in the manufacture of piston rings,
the principal constituents of which, other than
iron, are in the following proportions:
Per cent
Total carbon __________________________ _._ 3.70
Silicon ________________________________ __ 2.70
Manganese _____________________________ _.
Phosphorus ____________________________ __
Sulphur _______________________________ __
point of steel to insure that the steel tube will
still be strong enough to permit the spinning
operation. While in the above method of lining
a cylinder it is important that the lining alloy
have a melting point not in excess of 2300° F., -
it is also possible to use the alloy in forming a
lining by another method in which the melting
point of the alloy is not so'vital. In this latter
method the molten alloy is poured into a spinning
cylinder which is practically at room tempera
ture, and in this case the lining material does not
adhere to the cylinder, whereas in the ?rst
method the lining material is bonded to the
An alloy made in accordance with the above
formula bears a resemblance to the alloy known
as Ni-Resist, in that the nickel and copper pro
portions are substantially the same in both 9.1
loys. However, Ni—Resist is an austenetic cast
iron, whereas my improved alloy is not an austen
etic cast iron. There is also a difference be
tween the two alloys in that the coefficient of
In addition to the qualities above stated as expansion of Ni—Resist is de?nitely greater than
necessary for an alloy for making cylinder liners that of my improved alloy.
it is important that the alloy shall have a rela
. Having thus described my invention, I claim: 25
tively low melting point as compared with ordi
An alloy steel consisting of 8 to 16% of nickel,
nary steel so that it will be possible to line a steel
3 to 6.5% copper, 0.5 to 10% chromium, 0.5 to
tube with the alloy by the spinning process in ' 4% molybdenum, the chromium and molybde
which the molten alloy is deposited on the in
num together being not. less than 4%, 0.25 to 2%
manganese, 0.25 to 3% boron, 1 to 3% carbon, 30
30 side of the tube by the rotation of the latter at
high speeds. For this reason the alloy should sulphur not over 0.5%, phosphorus not over 0.5%,
be in the molten condition at 2300° F. and this silicon 0.5 to 2.5%, and the balance iron.
temperature 'is su?iciently below the melting
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