Патент USA US2111421код для вставки
March 15, 1938. \ F, @_ FAiLE ' ELECTRIC SWITCH DEVICE 2,111,421 March 15, 1938. 2,111,421 F. G. FAILE ELECTRIC SWITCH DEVICE Filed April 19, 1954 3 Sheeìs-Shee't 2 gmc/Maw MJ' @ZM March 15, 1938. F, G, FAILE 2,Í.1'1,421 ELECTRIC SWITCH DEVICE Filed April 19, 1934 3 Sheets-Sheet 5 Patented Mar. 15, 1938 2,ll1,421 UNITED STATES PATENT ÜFFÍÉE 2,111,42l ELEC'I‘RÍC S‘WITCH DEVICE Fred G. Fails, Cleveland, Ohio, assigner to The Leonard Electric Manufacturing Company, Üleveland, Ghic, a corporation of Ohio Application April i9, 1934, Serial No. 6 Claims. The general object of this invention is to pro vide an improved electric switch of the double break multiple-contact type. A further object is to provide a heavy duty 5 multiple Contact electric switch wherein arcing during making and breaking of the circuits is greatly reduced and dangerous arcing eliminated. A further object is to provide an electric switch the contacts of which must be closed by appli~ 10 cation of positive manual pressure and rigidly locked in closed position by the saine pressure as against being maintained in closed position by resilient or other non-positive means. A specific object is to provide an improved 15 manually operable electric switch wherein the operations of both opening and closing the cirn >cuit or circuits are quickly accomplished manu ally but independently of the intentional speed of manual operation; in other words, a “fool 20 proof” switch of this type. . A further object is to provide a “quicknnake” and “quick break” switch in which the separable circuit making and breaking elements are for cibly engaged and disengaged without depend ing upon springs to effect either engagement or disengagement or to maintain engagement. Still another object is to provide an exceed ingly compact industrial multiple contact double 30 break switch. A further object is to provide an electric switch wherein the separable contact elements are positively engaged and disengaged by the application of manual pressure and with a wiping wedging action. A further object is to provide a multiple con tact switch and casing wherein the necessary operating elements extend only from the race of the casing, whereby a plurality of switches ci the type described may be mounted directly ad 40 jacent each other and efec-tively yet independ ently operated. A further object is to provide an industrial multiple contact switch and fuse supporting unit wherein fuses of different capacity and size may be easily and quickly installed by simple ad justment of the parts of the unit. Still another object is to provide a multiple contact switch including spaced stationary con tacts and bridging movable contacts cooperable DI C2 therewith wherein the movable contacts are so arranged and supported that full electrical con~ tact with the stationary contacts is assured not withstanding variations in the contac ing surfaces and other variations incident to manufacturing -’ the parts on a quantity production basis. (Cl, E60-6G) A still further object is to provide a multiple Contact switch wherein the electrically inde~ pendent conductor elements of the switch are more eiïectively insulated from each other to reduce cross or short circuiting and leakage. Other objects and features will become appar ent from the following description wherein ref erence is made to the drawings. ille essential novel characteristics are summarized in the claims. Referring to the drawings: Fig, i is a plan view of the switch and casing, the right hand portion ci the casing being broken away to show the construction of certain of the switch parts and fuse supports; Fig. Z is a sectional view as indicated by the line 2_2 on Fig. 1; Fig. 3 is a side elevation of the mechanism which will be hereinafter referred to as the switch unit; 20 Fig. Il is a transverse sectional view of the switch unit taken along the line fl-¿l oi” Fig. l; Fig. 5 is a detail view showing seine el" the parts illustrated in 3 but in a different rela tive position; and Figs. 6 and 7 are diagrammatic sectional views showing Various relationships between the sta tionaryand movable contact elements oi the switch; and Fig. S is a detail view showing a modined 30 arrangement of contacts. Referring further 'to the drawings, the casing l :nay comprise a boxlike casing element having a bottorn^` panel il and perimetral walls 3 bent up from the base and suitably joined at the corners, 35 the casing being completed by a hired cover panel and a movable. cover panel f5, both panels having perimetral side end wall flanges 'i adapted to telesoopingly engage the walls 3 oi the main part. rlìhe panel is hinged 40 to the panel 5 as at permitting the panel to be swung outwardly and away from the walls 3 exposing the interior or the. casing. Located within the casing and secured to the base panel 2 is a block it of suitable insulation 45 material such as colo molded asbestos composi tion, this bloclr being secured -to the panel 2 as by four screws ii extending through openings in the cover portions oi the block and into threaded bosses i2 in 'the bottom panel. The block it constitutes a unitary rigid base for the switch unit. As shown in Figs. l, 2 and e, the block is rectangular in shape and carries at its sides relatively heavy bracket elements i3, pref erably sheet rnetal, these being substantially 55 2 2,111,421 identical in form. The bracket elements I3 have inwardly extending flanges i5 disposed between the underside of the switch base Ill and the cas ing panel 2, the bracket elements being secured Ul to the base block I0 by means of the flanges and suitable screws (not shown) extending through the iianges and into suitable threaded inserts (not shown) in the base block. The outer ends of the bracket elements I3 carry ears i5 bent parallel to the flanges I5, the ears being apertured to receive suitable fasten ing screws, one being shown at I'I, Figs. 1 and for securing the fixed panel 5 of the casing cover to the switch unit. The separable contacts of the switch are ar - ranged as follows: Mounted on the base block I0 are a plurality of stationary electrical contacts 20, (six being present in the illustrated embodiment) these be 20 ing substantially identical in form and electrical ly connected to electric service wires in a manner to be hereinafter described. The contacts 20 are ence of the stationary and movable contacts and conductors of the different sets notwithstanding a considerable accumulation of foreign matter which may be more or less electrically conductive. Likelihood of short or cross circuiting is further rendered negligible by reason of the fact that the overlapping surfaces of the insulation members clean themselves during the operation of the switch to open and closed position, that is during inward and outward throw of the cross head. 10 The arrangement further permits the electrically independent contacts and conductors to be placed closer together, saving space, i. e. permitting greater compactness of construction. Further protection against the accumulation of foreign matter is afforded by cross strips of insulating material 35 and 38 (asbestos board e. g.), see Figs. 1 and 2. These strips are secured to the outer edge surfaces of the barrier strips 30 and 3i as by suitable screws 39 and hold the barrier 20 strips firmly in parallel relationship. It will be noted in Figs. 2 and 4 that the mov able contacts 22 are secured in respective rec tangular recesses or troughs 40 on the inward side of the insulating cross bar 23. It will also 25 arranged in pairs, see Fig. 2, and the contacts of each pair are adapted to be bridged by respective generally V-shaped movable contact elements or blades 22, three being shown (see Fig. 4) car be noted from Fig. 4 particularly, that the same ried on a cross head 24 including an insulating side of the insulating cross bar is recessed as at cross bar 23 (asbestos composition e. g.) and a metal bar 25 inset into a rectangular channel 2‘I bar and, being rectangular in cross section and 4I for the reception of the barrier strips of in sulation 30 and 3|. Thus when the insulating cross bar 23 is forced inwardly toward the base 30 block I0, the different sets of contacts and con ductors are further insulated from each other about three times as deep as it is wide, the bar prevents any bending of the cross head such as would tend to make say one of the blades 22 seat or unseat with respect to its contacts 20 ahead of the other blades. ping portions of the cross bar and the barrier strips. Likewise, the outermost contacts and con 85 ductors are fully insulated from the metal parts of the switch, particularly the brackets I3 and the outer side of the insulating bar. The bar 25 will be hereinafter referred to as the pressure The bar 25 is less wide than the channel 21 wherefore the insulating bar 23 may float slightly with reference to the pressure bar which latter 1ras its ends slidably fitted to parallel slots 26 in ie respective brackets I3, the slots guiding the pressure bar for true right line movement in and out to open and close the switch contact elements 2D and 22. The pressure bar is secured in the channel 2l by cross pieces 28 (see Figs. 2 and 4) which are, in turn, securely fastened to the in sulating bar 23 as by means of screws and thread ed inserts (not shown) in the insulation material. e individual sets of movable and stationary contacts and the conductor elements associated with the fixed contacts are effectively separated from each other by barrier strips 39 (hard as bestos board e. g.) and the outermost contacts and conductors, that is, those nearest the bracket elements I3 are insulated from the latter by bar against cross circuiting by leakage by overlap switch operating parts carried thereon. The movable contacts or blades 22 (as shown in Figs. 6 and '7) each comprises a single V 40 shaped bar having outwardly extending ears 22’. seated at the bottom of the respective rectan gular troughs 40. Suitable screws 42, extending inwardly through openings 43 in the insulating bar 23, are threaded into the ears 22’ and hold 45 the contact members 22 in fixed position on the insulating bar 23. The stationary contacts 20 re also V-shaped and each comprises spaced contact arms 50, see Figs. 4, 6, and '7, connected by a base loop 5I. The base loop is generally rec 60 tangular as shown and the bottommost portion is apertured as at 52 to receive attaching screws 53 extending upwardly from the base block in suitable openings therein as shown in Fig. 2. Preferably the arms 50 are buttressed by gen erally U-shaped spring members 55, the arms of rier strips 3l, constructed similarly to the bar rier strips 30. The contours of the barrier strips 3D and 3l are best illustrated in Fig. 2. The strips 60 have substantially straight inner edges and these rest in grooves 33 in the base block I0, said edges extending the entire length of the base block. which extend in embracing relation to the con tact arms 50. The bases of the spring members are likewise apertured to receive the screws 53. The screws threadingly engage openings 56 in 60 conductor bars 51 and 51’. The barrier strips, incidentally, greatly strengthen angularity between the arms of the V-shaped movable contacts or blades 20 and the resilient arms 50 of the ñxed contacts is dissimilar, the 65 angle between the arms 5i) being smaller. The purpose of this is to provide a yielding wedging and sliding Contact between the arm portions the block against transverse cracking. Each of the strips 33 and 3l is cut cut at 34 substantially centrally thereof and rectangularly as shown in Fig. 2 to embrace the insulating cross bar 23. The latter has parallel grooves 35 on its oppo site surfaces into which the marginal portions of the barrier strips adjacent the rectangular notches 34 extend. The tongue and groove relationships just de scribed between the insulating cross bar and the rectangular notches 34 in the barrier strips 3i) 75 and 3| further insures the electrical independ Referring to Fig. 6, it will be noted that the of the contacts 20 and 22 as the same are brought together. Fig. 6 illustrates in broken lines at 22x the condition when the contacts 20 are first brought into engagement with the arms 59 and in Fig. 7, the full Contact position with respect to both cont-acts is shown. As shown in Fig. 2, the conductor bars 5l (one 3 2,111,421 being shown) extend to suitable detachable con rollers occupy the circumferentially extending ductor wires 58 secured as by screws 59 to portions 19h of the cam slots and are retained threaded metallic inserts 59' in the base block. The bars 51’ extend from the respective oon tacts 20 and are electrically associated with suit able iuse clips 60, see Figs. 1 and 2. The fuse clips 60 are of conventional construction and may be secured to» the base block I0 by suit able screws Si engaging threaded inserts 6l’ in the base block. A fuse of conventional type adapted to be supported by clips such as 60 is shown in Fig. 1 at F. Each of the fuses has one of its ends in this position, see Fig. 3, by the shoulder 19e. lThe path of the shoulder 19e intercepts a` poru tion of the normal path of the roller while the roller is traveling along such portion and con supported by one of the clips 60, just described, and the opposite end by one of a series of similar fuse clips 62 (one being shown) connected with conductor wires 63. The clips 62 and connec tions are carried on a common insulating block t5 secured to the base panel 2 of the switch cas ing as by suitable screws 61. The block may be positioned as illustrated in Fig. 1 or, if it is desired that a shorter fuse (of less capacity) be employed, then. the b-lock 65 may be moved toward the base block l0 of the switch, the screws 61 then entering other openings, one of which is shown at 68, Fig. 1, in the casing panel 2. This adjustment may be done by means of a screw driver without having to remove the casing l from. the wall or to disturb the switch unit. The operating mechanism for the cross head 24 is best shown in Figs. 1, 3 and 5. Supported on a suitable rock shaft 10 mounted in the brackets i3 are a pair of pressure bar operating cams 12 and 13. One of these operating cams, namely 13, has an extension 14 passing out wardly through a slot 5a in the fixed portion 5 of the casing cover and this extension 14 carries an operating handle 15, mounted on a suitable 40 pin 16, by which the operating cams are turned manually to move the cross head. The exten sion 14 also has an arm 14a (Fig. 3) projecting into closely overlying relation to the movable cover panel 6 when the switch is closed whereby opening of this cover panel about its hinges 8 automatically opens the switch contacts. sequently the roller must be slightly stressed out of its normal path by the shoulder to pass the same, whereupon it lies in the portion 1Gb as shown in Fig. 5 and must remain in this position 10 due to the fact that the circumference of the roller is closer, at a point beyond the shoulder, to the pivotal axis 10 than is the point of con tact of the shoulder with the roller circum ference. This accomplishes the desired result 15 of holding the blades and contacts 22 and 2S rmly in full contact against accidental dis lodgment and assists in the quick making and breaking operations oi the switch by interpos ing a “hazard” with respect to both operations. 20 Various parts of the switch are subject to sub stantial stresses as the rollers ride from one portion of the cam slots to the other but the parts so subjected are sturdily built to withstand the strains and the rollers and cams are hard 25 ened to withstand the wear. The cross head 24 is normally biased into open position by suitable springs 82 and levers 83, the springs being connected to the respective bracket elements i3 and to the levers 83, as 30 shown in Fig. 3. The levers are pivoted to suit~ able ñxed pins 34 on the brackets i3 and have slots 85 emb-racing the pins 18 of the pressure bar. As will be seen from Fig. 3, the springs 82 tend, on contracting, to throw the pressure bar to 35 switch contact releasing position. These springs and levers 82 and 83 accomplish “quick break~ ing” of the contacts at 2€? and 22 as soon as the pressure bar operating cams are turned to move the rollers 8G beyond the shoulders 19o. The 40 manual force necessarily required to release the rollers adds to the quick breaking action or the springs 82. In order that the operator cannot hold back the cross head against the quick breaking action, -45 just described, the operating handle 15 has a lost Openings 14h and 14o' may also be provided motion connection with the cam 13, as illustrated in the cam extension 14 for the purpose of permitting the cam to be locked (as with a padlock) with the switch contacts in open or closed position as desired. Preferably the pressure bar operating cams in Fig. 3. have non-circular openings 11, one only being shown, embracing complementary non-circular To secure “quick making” of the contacts a sliding bar 90 is provided generally parallel t the slots 26 of the bracket element i3 shown Fig. 4, the bar 9U being carried on the pin between the cam 13 and lever 83. A strap is shown for additionally securing the bar Sii 50 i 1 9 in f end portions of the rock shaft 10 and the cam may be held onto said non-circular shaft por position, the strap being secured to the adjacent 55 tions by suitable cotter pins as shown. The opposite ends of the pressure bar 25 have sub latter permitting the strap to be swung aside about the rivet to permit assembly of the bar 90 into position. Near the lower end of the bar 9U is an inwardly extending pin 9i of a diame 60 stantially cylindrical pins 18 preferably integral therewith and extending through cam slots. 19 in the respective cams 12 and 13. The slots are identical in contour and the contour is best illustrated in Fig. 5. The pressure bar pins 18 carry suitable hardened rollers 80 which ride on the cam surfaces of the slots 19 which will now be described. Each cam slot 19 has a portion 19a extending generally radially from the axis of the rock shaft and a circumferentially extending portion 19h, the latter portions forming retaining shoul ders 19e for the respective rollers 8B. When the switch contacts 2B are in the open position, illus traied in Figs. 2 and 4, the rollers 80 occupy the radial portions 19a of the cam slots and when lthe contacts are closed, ‘see Figs. 3> and '7, the bracket I3 as by a rivet 94’ and screw 94” the ter substantially the same as the width of the slot 26 but easily slidable therein. The slot 25 has, near its lower end, a notch G2 which, in the closing operation of the switch, receives the pin 9| as a “hazard” and impedes the closing opera 65 tion of the switch due to the fact that the end of the bar 9D, which carries the pin 9|, is drawn toward the notch by a suitable tension spring 93 connected and bar 90atrespectively. its opposite ends to the bracket 70 The relationship of the switch contacts and blades at a time when the pin âl engages the notch 92 is shown in Fig. 6, (full line showings of both parts). Referring to Fig. 5 and assurn« ing that the cam 13 is being rotated in a counter 75 4 2,111,421 clockwise direction (closing the switch) it will be seen that before the rollers B0 can enter the circumferentially extending portions '19h of the cam slots the pin 9| will have to be forced out of the notch. This requires considerable force and the speed and pressure of the operator’s hand on the handle 'l5 must be increased sev eral fold after the pin encounters the notch 92 and before the switch contacts can be fully 10 closed. The detaining forces are released upon the pin slipping out of the notch but the excess pressure on the operating handle continues mo mentarily and is always sufficient to quickly close the contacts and seat the rollers 80 into provided with one or more reinforcing bars of copper e. g. as at |05 and |06, the portion there of between the two wedge-shaped elements of a single contact bar being secured to the insu lating cross bar 23 as by screws for example (not shown) entering suitable openings in the reinforcing bar or bars. The stationary con tacts may be made as shown in Fig. 8, separate arm strips being shown as secured in slots |01 in .a base element oi' copper e. g. |08. The arrangement of V-shaped contact ele ments may be reversed if desired; that is to say, the wedge members may be carried on the base block in some instances and the wedge receiving 15 the circumferential portions of the cam slots, contact members carried on the cross head. mechanically locking the contacts in closed po sition (see Figs. 3 and 7). In connection with Fig. 5 it should be noted that the pin 9| is embraced by the notch 92 about 20 substantially one half of the pin circumference. In addition, a line through the axis of the pin 9| and axis of the pin 10, by which the bar 9G is carried, intersects the wall of the notch 92 beyond the pin in the direction of movement toward contact making position. Thus when moved toward contact making position, as` the pin 9| becomes fully seated in the notch 92, it becomes very diñicult to‘ unseat by pressure I claim: 1. In an electric switch, an insulating base, spaced contacts carried by the base, a. frame carried by the base and surmounting the same, exerted on the bar 90 in the same direction. 30 Upon movement in the opposite direction, how ever, this line of force lies outwardly beyond the wall of the notch so that the pin can wedge the bar 90 to the right and release. It is for this reason that the speed of movement, as above 35 mentioned, is important. When operating at suflicient speed the pin 9| will not become fully seated in the notch as it passes the same and consequently the resisting wall of the notch will be operating well out on the sloping surface of 40 the pin 9| and the bar 90 will be moved onward to the right. A speed sufficient to cause the pin 9| to partially jump the notch 92, however, is also such as to assure that the contact making position will be reached as the operator cannot 45 even intentionally arrest movement from so lgreat a speed between the time the pin 9| jumps 50 55 60 65 the notch and the blades come into contact. When the pin 9| has moved to a position in which it has passed the notch 92 or is only par tially seated therein so that it can be moved onwardly and not restrained by the notch, the roller 80 will have passed the peak 'l9c of the cam and will promptly be locked in position for maintaining the contact relation of the con tactors. In heavier duty types of switches it is neces sary to increase the gauge of the metal of the contacts to an extent such that the design of contacts illustrated in Figs. 4 and ’l is somewhat impractical. In such cases, it is preferred to make the generally V-shaped movable contact members or blades in generally triangular shape, as illustrated in Fig. 8 at |90, the edges of the strip forming the blade being adjacent the arms |0| of the fixed contacts rather than opposite the fixed contacts as in the previously described arrangement. This modification of contacts preferably includes pressure affording spring ele ments such as |02 for the movable contact. 16 said frame having parallel slots at opposite sides 20 of the base, a cross head mounted in said slots and a bridging contact element carried on the cross head adapted to cooperate with the spaced contacts, operating means carried on said frame for moving the cross head inwardly and out 25 wardly in the slots, and a hazard device carried by said cross head and comprising a bar piv otally mounted on the crosshead for swinging movement transversely of one of the slots and having a pin slidable in said one of the slots, 30 the latter slot having a notch adapted to re ceive the pin during its inward movement in a direction to close the switch, and resilient means yieldably urging the bar transversely of said one of said slots and opposing movement of the 35 pin out of the notch at a time when the elec trical contacts are in approximately closed posi tion. 2. In an electric switch, cooperable contactors, a carrier supporting one of said contactors and movable toward and away from the other con tactor for effecting the contact relation, a frame movably supporting said carrier, lineal guides for guiding said contactors to and from con tact relation, an operating cam pivotally mount» 45 ed on the frame, a pin on the carrier engage able with the cam for operation of the carrier thereby and guided lineally in said guides, and the pivotal axis of the cam being spaced later ally from the path of travel of the pin, said cam including a pin actuating cam surface extend ing generally radially from the pivot axis of the cam and shaped so that the force of `the cam is applied generally parallel to the lineal guides during substantially the entire movement of the carrier and a pin retaining surface extending generally circumferentially of the pivot axis of the cam, said circumferentially extending sur face being engageable with the pin only in the closed position of the contactors and having a 60 shoulder for locking the pin in seated position, means yieldably urging said carrier away from contact making position, hazard means cooper able with the carrier when the carrier is moved almost to contact making position by the cam with a predetermined force >applied to the cam and opposing further movement toward said po sition, said hazard means being inoperative to oppose -said movement consequent upon a pre The 70 spring |92, as illustrated, comprises a generally -determined greater force .applied to .and by said U-shaped strip of spring metal secured between cam for moving the carrier toward the contact the arms |03 of the movable Contact, with the base secured to the closed portion of the strip forming the blade |00 `as by a rivet or screw 75 (not shown). The movable contact may also be position, said hazard means being positioned to operate just prior to the engagement of the pin by the pin retaining surface of the cam. 3. In an electrical switch, a pair of cooperable 5 2,111,421 contactors, a carrier supporting one contactor and being movable toward and away from the other contactor for effecting the contact relation, a frame, a guideway in the frame, a guide on the carrier accommodated in the guideway for guid ing the carrier in a generally linear path to and from contact making position, a cam pivotally mounted on the frame for rocking movement, the pivotal axis being offset transversely of the path 10 of travel of the carrier from the guideway, said 5. In an electrical switch, a pair of cooperable contactors, a carrier supporting one contactor and being movable toward and away from the other contactor for effecting the Contact relation, a frame, a guideway in the frame, a guide on the carrier accommodated in the guideway for guiding the carrier in a generally linear path to and from contact making position, a cam pivotally mount ed on the frame for rocking movement, the piv etal axis being offset transversely of the path of 10 cam having an operating surface coacting with travel of the carrier from the guídeway, said cam the guide for moving the carrier to Contact mak î“ving an operating surface coasting with the ne for moving the carrier to contact making ing position, said surface extending transversely of the path of travel of the guide in the guideway and being conñgured to extend at substantially right angles to the guideway at the instantaneous guide engaging portion of the surface throughout the major portion of the travel of the carrier, whereby the force and movement delivered by the surface is substantially directly parallel to and along the guideway. íl. In an electrical switch, a pair of cooperable contactors, a carrier supporting one contactor and being movable toward and away from the other contactor for eiîecting the contact relation, a frame, a guideway in the frame, a guide on the carrier accommodated in the guideway for guid ing the carrier in a generally linear path to and from contact making position, a camA pivotally mounted on the frame for rocking movement, the pivotal axis being offset transversely of the path of travel of the carrier from the guideway, and positioned close to the level of the guide when the carrier is in fully open position, said cam having an operating surface coacting with the guide for moving the carrier to contact making position, said surface extending transversely of the path of travel of the guide in the guideway and being configured to extend at substantially right angles to the guideway at the instantaneous guide engaging portion of the surface throughout the major portion of the travel of the carrier, whereby the force and movement delivered by the surface is substantially directly parallel to and along the guìdeway. osition, said surface extending transversely of path of travel of the guide in the guideway 15 nd being configured to extend at an angle to the guideway at the instantaneous guide engag ing portion of the surface such that the greatest component of force of the surface on the guide is parallel to the guideway throughout substantially 20 the entire movement of the carrier. 6. In an electrical switch, a switch box, a pair of cooperable contactors mounted therein, a car rier supporting one contactor and being movable toward and away from the other contactor for ef fecting the contact relation, a frame for support ing and guiding the movable contactor, a cam piv otallv mounted on the frame for rocking move ment and being cooperable with the movable con tactor for moving the same to contact making po 30 sition, said switch box having a front wall ex tending at right angles to the plane of the cam and a door hinged to the switch box and forming a continuation of the front Wall when closed, said front wall having a slot, said cam having a por 35 tion extending through said slot to the outside ci the box, said extending portion of the cam hav ing a lug portion overlying said door when the door is in closed position and being engaged by said door upon opening thereof to move the cam 40 to contact breaking position, and an operating handle connected to the outwardly extending por tion of the cam. FRED G. FAILE.