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Патент USA US2111466

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March 15, 1938. _
Filed Sept. 17, 1936
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/ _\
04 » 0-9
I- 0
Guido Wibwaé/
‘Patented Mar. 15, 1938
FLUID orzaa'mo RELAY nmcnmsm
Guido Wiinsch, Berlin-Steglitz, Germany,v as
v signor to Askania-Wcrke A. G. vormals Gen
tral -Werkstatt Dessau und Carl Bamberg
Friedenau; a company of Germany
Application Septemherl‘i, 1936',"Serial No. 101,329
In Germany December 11, 1935
4 Claims. (01. 137-111)
Tl'iis invention relates to ?uid pressure oper
ated relays such asv are employed in regulators
-for controlling physical conditions and, among
other objects, aims to provide important im
5 provements in ‘fluid jet relays such as those of
the well known “Askania” type. whereby to
increase the e?iciency and reduce the power
required to supply the pressure ?uid. ‘ The main
idea is to produce the most efficient ratios be:
10 ‘ tween the sizes of the jet nozzle and the ori?ce
or ori?ces into which the jet discharges, so that
both the pressure regain or e?ective pressure in
and the volume of ?uid delivered to the control
. conduits for actuating the servo motor or con-_
15 trol device may be increased to a maximum for
any ordinary operating ?uid medium.
Other aims and advantages of the invention
will appear in the speci?cation, when considered
in connection 'with the accompanying drawing,
Fig. 1 is a sectional view showing jet pipe relay
mechanism embodying the invention;
Fig. 2 is a sectional view taken at right angles
- to Fig. 1;
‘ 2,.
Fig. 3 is a fragmentary sectional view of a
‘1 tube and conduit to illustrate the relative sizes
of the nozzle and a receivingori?ce; and
Figs. 4 and 5 are charts illustrating the e?l
ciency of 'jet pipe relay systems embodying the
m invention.
In relay mechanisms of the type illustrated,
the pressure fluid is usually supplied by a pump‘
and the velocity of the ?uid is transformed into
I a pressure head which is delivered through either
. one of two small ori?ces of a pair of control con
duits to actuate a servo motor or control device
therefore, aims to reduce such losses and greatly
increase the ef?ciency of such relay systems.
Referringfparticularly to the drawing, Figs. 1
and 2 disclose an “Askania" jet pipe relay sys
tem embodying the invention. This particular 5
type of pivoted-jet pipe is the subject of a co
pending application, Ser. No. 93,306, ?ied July
29, 1936. However, it is to be understood that
the invention is equally applicable to all relay
systems wherein ?uid jets are delivered to ori- 10
does of controlling conduits. .The illustrated sys
tem discloses a jet pipe Ill carried by a bar ll
having trunnion pins l2 and mounted for pivotal
movement‘in a vertical plane._ Pressure ?uid is
adapted to‘ be supplied to thejet pipe by an ordi- 15
nary pump (not shown) through a stationary
conduit l3 having a nozzle ll‘ projecting into
the upper open 'end of the jet pipe. The jet pipe
is adapted to deliver the ?uid to one or the other
or to both of a pair of ori?ces of the control 20
conduits l5 and It in a distributor blockv I‘! to .
operate a control device (not shown), it being
understood that the jet pipe moves relative to
the orl?ces in response to changes in the condi
tion to be controlled. In case liquid, such as oil, 25
is used, the jet pipe nozzle is surrounded by an
oil catcher l8 which is usually kept full of oil
returning through one or the other 0! the con
trol-conduits from the control device or by the
oil not used or ‘not delivered‘ to one of the con- 30
From the above explanation of the illustrated
example, it will be understood that the e?ective
?uid pressure for actuating 'a control device has
to be built up or regained in the respective con- 35
trol conduits l5 and i6 and the rate of ?ow, as
(not shown). The ‘pressure and volume of the ‘ well‘ as the pressure therein are the important
factors with which this invention is concerned.
The ratio of the sizes of the nozzle and each
ori?ce in terms of their diameters d/D, is less 40
' 40 mine the energy delivered to the control device.
than one to one. That is to say, the cross sec
It is therefore highly desirable to regain a high tional
area of the nozzle bore is less than that
percentage of the pump pressure in and to deliver of the respective reception ori?ces, the areas oi
a maximum volume of the ?uid to the vcontrol round nozzles and ori?ces being proportional to
?uid delivered to the control device through the
conduits, in conjunction with other factors, deter
conduits. That is to say. both the pressure em
4 _ciency and the volumetric e?iclency are very im
the squares. of the diameters. For most suitable 45 _
?uids, a long series of experiments has demon
strated that best results are obtained when the
nozzle and the ori?ces have been practically the ratio of the'diameters ranges between one to two
, ‘same. An appreciable percentage of pressure loss "and one to one, depending upon some variable
50 and low volumetric e?iciency, ,with consequent i'actors, such as the kind of oil used,‘ the charac- 50
power waste, increase in size. capacity and cost a ter of_ the jet, the distance between the nozzle
of pumping equipment, have been tolerated. In and the receiving ori?ces and other factors.
Referring now to Fig. 3, there is shown an
some installations, considerable power is required
to operate heavy control equipment and the losses illustrative jet .pip'e nozzle 20 discharging into a
55 involve heavy expense. The present invention, conduit 2| having an ori?ce of‘ larger'diameter, 55
portant factors. Heretofore, the sizes of the jet
the ratio being represented by (1/11 The straight
Having thus explained the nature of the in
arrows represent the ?uid‘ being delivered directly
from the nozzle into the ori?ce and the curved
arrows indicate ?uid entering by the injector
e?'ect._ However, some of the original ?uid ‘is
usually dissipated‘ by eddy currents, and the
vention, with the understanding thtt it is not
limited to the illustrative embodiment thereof,
what I claim and desire to secure by Letters
Patent is:
1.'Jet relay'mechanism comprising, in com
volumetric e?iciency seldom exceeds 100% of the .bination', a reception ori?ce; and a nozzle mov
but, in some cases, the able relatively to said orifice and arranged to dis
charge a Jet of pressure ?uid into said ori?ce to
volumetric e?iciency is greaterthan 100%.
' jet pipe delivery;
Fig. 4 is a graph or chart in which the curve
is shown to illustrate the volumetric e?iciency
_.for a rangeof ratios oi.’ vnozzle and ori?ce di
ameters between 1 to 2 or. .5 'and 1 to 1 or
unity. This curve happens to represent the ?ow
15 e?lciency' of an oil which is an excellentexample
for illustrative‘ purposes. It shows that the
volumetric e?iciency all!’ for any ratio d/D be
tween .5 and 1.0‘ is greater than the e?iciency
. when the ratio is 1.0, the maximum e?iciency
20 being obtained when the ratio is .8, Expressed
in terms of the areas, thisratio' would .be .64'
to 1» and the critical range ofv areasuwouid be
1 .to 4. Incidentally, V'represents the volume
deliveredby the pump‘through the jet pipe and
v the volume regained'or delivered through the conduit 2|.
Fig. 51s a graph or chart in which the curve is
_ drawn to illustrate the pressure regain or e?i
ciency under the same conditions as those ex
plained in connection with Fig. 4. The curve
also happens to show that the pressure regain
or e?iciency p/P for any ratio d/D between .5
and unity isgr'eater than the emciency when the
ratio is unity. This curve very closely coincides.
with the volumetric curve and also shows that
a maximum pressure‘ e?iciency is obtained when
the ratio _'d/D is approximately .8.
From the foregoing explanation of the charts,
it will'be seen that the ratio d/D should'be with
40 in the range .5 to 1 to produce the best results.
build up a pressure in the same depending upon 10
the degree inv which the‘ nozzle and the ori?ceregister, the cross sectional area of the nozzle
bore being smaller than that of the ori?ce bore
and greater than one fourth the cross sectional
area of the ori?ce bore, whereby the loss of ?uid
pressure and ?uid volume becomes a minimum,
and even a gain in pressure ?uid volume may be
2. Jet relay mechanism comprising, in com
bination, a reception ori?ce; and a nozzle mov 20
able relatively to said ori?ce and arranged to
discharge a Jet 01’ pressure ,?uid into said ori?ce
to build up a pressure in the same depending -
upon the degree in which the nozzle and the
ori?ce register, the cross sectional area of the
nozzle bore being approximately .64 of the cross .
sectional area of the ori?ce bore,
3._ Jet relay-mechanism comprising, in com
bination, a plurality of reception ori?ces; and a
jet-pipe mounted for movement relatively there‘ 30
to and arranged to discharge a jet or pressure
?uidinto said ori?ces to create a pressure in the
samedepending'upon the degree in which the
jet-pipe'nozzle and the ori?ces register, the cross
sectional area of the jet-pipe nozzle being smaller
than the bore of the ori?ces and greater than
one fourth of the cross sectionalarea of the re
spective ori?ces.
4. Jet relay; mechanism comprising, in com;
bination, two reception ori?ces positioned adia
An'area ratio of approximately two .to three or' ~cen_t to ‘each other; and a' jet-pipe pivotally
.64 to 1 (diameter about .8 to 1) has been chosen mounted for movement relatively to said ori
merely for illustration in Fig. 3. _ However. the " ?ces and arranged to discharge a jet of pressure
critical ratio will be-diil‘erent depending upon the ?uid into said ori?ces to create a pressure in the,
characteristics of the operating ?uid, the, jet same depending upon the degree in which the 45
. nozzle idi'stancesorz clearance, ?uid pressure and Wiet-pipefnozzle and the, ori?cesmegister; the v
other variable factors.‘ Satisfactory results have
been obtained using'regulator oils having vise cross sectional area‘ of the Jet-pipe nozzle being
cosities from about 1000 to 20 Bayboit seconds. smaller than'the bore‘ ot‘the ori?ces and greater
with apressu're range or 20 to 130 pounds per 'jthan one fourth of the cross sectional areaoi' 60
square inch, and jet nozzle clearances up to
‘about one-fourth of an inch. However, this is
not intended to-de?ne
particular limits.
the ori?ces.
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