Патент USA US2111466код для вставки
5 March 15, 1938. _ > ‘ 2,111,466 a. WUNSCYH 'FLUID OPERATED RELAY MECHANISM Filed Sept. 17, 1936 x . ‘ . / QE\CzuWBSE / _\ Av m% A.a5 0.5 0-6 07 0-6 #1) _0.9 [-0 LI 0-5 .06 0-7 % 04 » 0-9 ~ I- 0 ' 3mm Guido Wibwaé/ 2,111,466 ‘Patented Mar. 15, 1938 PATENT OFFICE 2,111,466 UNITED STATES FLUID orzaa'mo RELAY nmcnmsm Guido Wiinsch, Berlin-Steglitz, Germany,v as v signor to Askania-Wcrke A. G. vormals Gen tral -Werkstatt Dessau und Carl Bamberg Friedenau; a company of Germany Application Septemherl‘i, 1936',"Serial No. 101,329 . In Germany December 11, 1935 4 Claims. (01. 137-111) Tl'iis invention relates to ?uid pressure oper ated relays such asv are employed in regulators -for controlling physical conditions and, among other objects, aims to provide important im 5 provements in ‘fluid jet relays such as those of the well known “Askania” type. whereby to increase the e?iciency and reduce the power required to supply the pressure ?uid. ‘ The main idea is to produce the most efficient ratios be: 10 ‘ tween the sizes of the jet nozzle and the ori?ce or ori?ces into which the jet discharges, so that both the pressure regain or e?ective pressure in and the volume of ?uid delivered to the control . conduits for actuating the servo motor or con-_ 15 trol device may be increased to a maximum for any ordinary operating ?uid medium. ' Other aims and advantages of the invention will appear in the speci?cation, when considered in connection 'with the accompanying drawing, wherein: Fig. 1 is a sectional view showing jet pipe relay mechanism embodying the invention; _ Fig. 2 is a sectional view taken at right angles - to Fig. 1; ‘ 2,. ~ ' Fig. 3 is a fragmentary sectional view of a ‘1 tube and conduit to illustrate the relative sizes . of the nozzle and a receivingori?ce; and Figs. 4 and 5 are charts illustrating the e?l ciency of 'jet pipe relay systems embodying the m invention. - In relay mechanisms of the type illustrated, the pressure fluid is usually supplied by a pump‘ and the velocity of the ?uid is transformed into I a pressure head which is delivered through either . one of two small ori?ces of a pair of control con duits to actuate a servo motor or control device therefore, aims to reduce such losses and greatly increase the ef?ciency of such relay systems. ' Referringfparticularly to the drawing, Figs. 1 and 2 disclose an “Askania" jet pipe relay sys tem embodying the invention. This particular 5 type of pivoted-jet pipe is the subject of a co pending application, Ser. No. 93,306, ?ied July 29, 1936. However, it is to be understood that the invention is equally applicable to all relay systems wherein ?uid jets are delivered to ori- 10 does of controlling conduits. .The illustrated sys tem discloses a jet pipe Ill carried by a bar ll having trunnion pins l2 and mounted for pivotal movement‘in a vertical plane._ Pressure ?uid is adapted to‘ be supplied to thejet pipe by an ordi- 15 nary pump (not shown) through a stationary conduit l3 having a nozzle ll‘ projecting into the upper open 'end of the jet pipe. The jet pipe is adapted to deliver the ?uid to one or the other or to both of a pair of ori?ces of the control 20 conduits l5 and It in a distributor blockv I‘! to . operate a control device (not shown), it being understood that the jet pipe moves relative to the orl?ces in response to changes in the condi tion to be controlled. In case liquid, such as oil, 25 is used, the jet pipe nozzle is surrounded by an oil catcher l8 which is usually kept full of oil returning through one or the other 0! the con trol-conduits from the control device or by the oil not used or ‘not delivered‘ to one of the con- 30 duits. From the above explanation of the illustrated example, it will be understood that the e?ective ?uid pressure for actuating 'a control device has to be built up or regained in the respective con- 35 trol conduits l5 and i6 and the rate of ?ow, as (not shown). The ‘pressure and volume of the ‘ well‘ as the pressure therein are the important factors with which this invention is concerned. The ratio of the sizes of the nozzle and each ori?ce in terms of their diameters d/D, is less 40 ' 40 mine the energy delivered to the control device. than one to one. That is to say, the cross sec It is therefore highly desirable to regain a high tional area of the nozzle bore is less than that percentage of the pump pressure in and to deliver of the respective reception ori?ces, the areas oi a maximum volume of the ?uid to the vcontrol round nozzles and ori?ces being proportional to ?uid delivered to the control device through the conduits, in conjunction with other factors, deter conduits. That is to say. both the pressure em 4 _ciency and the volumetric e?iclency are very im the squares. of the diameters. For most suitable 45 _ ?uids, a long series of experiments has demon strated that best results are obtained when the nozzle and the ori?ces have been practically the ratio of the'diameters ranges between one to two , ‘same. An appreciable percentage of pressure loss "and one to one, depending upon some variable 50 and low volumetric e?iciency, ,with consequent i'actors, such as the kind of oil used,‘ the charac- 50 power waste, increase in size. capacity and cost a ter of_ the jet, the distance between the nozzle of pumping equipment, have been tolerated. In and the receiving ori?ces and other factors. Referring now to Fig. 3, there is shown an some installations, considerable power is required to operate heavy control equipment and the losses illustrative jet .pip'e nozzle 20 discharging into a 55 involve heavy expense. The present invention, conduit 2| having an ori?ce of‘ larger'diameter, 55 portant factors. Heretofore, the sizes of the jet 2,111,466 2 the ratio being represented by (1/11 The straight Having thus explained the nature of the in arrows represent the ?uid‘ being delivered directly from the nozzle into the ori?ce and the curved arrows indicate ?uid entering by the injector e?'ect._ However, some of the original ?uid ‘is usually dissipated‘ by eddy currents, and the vention, with the understanding thtt it is not limited to the illustrative embodiment thereof, what I claim and desire to secure by Letters Patent is: , ' 1.'Jet relay'mechanism comprising, in com volumetric e?iciency seldom exceeds 100% of the .bination', a reception ori?ce; and a nozzle mov but, in some cases, the able relatively to said orifice and arranged to dis charge a Jet of pressure ?uid into said ori?ce to volumetric e?iciency is greaterthan 100%. ' jet pipe delivery; Fig. 4 is a graph or chart in which the curve is shown to illustrate the volumetric e?iciency _.for a rangeof ratios oi.’ vnozzle and ori?ce di ameters between 1 to 2 or. .5 'and 1 to 1 or unity. This curve happens to represent the ?ow 15 e?lciency' of an oil which is an excellentexample for illustrative‘ purposes. It shows that the volumetric e?iciency all!’ for any ratio d/D be tween .5 and 1.0‘ is greater than the e?iciency . when the ratio is 1.0, the maximum e?iciency 20 being obtained when the ratio is .8, Expressed in terms of the areas, thisratio' would .be .64' to 1» and the critical range ofv areasuwouid be 1 .to 4. Incidentally, V'represents the volume deliveredby the pump‘through the jet pipe and v the volume regained'or delivered through the conduit 2|. - . Fig. 51s a graph or chart in which the curve is _ drawn to illustrate the pressure regain or e?i ciency under the same conditions as those ex plained in connection with Fig. 4. The curve also happens to show that the pressure regain or e?iciency p/P for any ratio d/D between .5 and unity isgr'eater than the emciency when the ratio is unity. This curve very closely coincides. with the volumetric curve and also shows that a maximum pressure‘ e?iciency is obtained when the ratio _'d/D is approximately .8. From the foregoing explanation of the charts, it will'be seen that the ratio d/D should'be with 40 in the range .5 to 1 to produce the best results. build up a pressure in the same depending upon 10 the degree inv which the‘ nozzle and the ori?ceregister, the cross sectional area of the nozzle bore being smaller than that of the ori?ce bore and greater than one fourth the cross sectional area of the ori?ce bore, whereby the loss of ?uid pressure and ?uid volume becomes a minimum, and even a gain in pressure ?uid volume may be attained.‘ ' " 1 ' ' 2. Jet relay mechanism comprising, in com bination, a reception ori?ce; and a nozzle mov 20 able relatively to said ori?ce and arranged to discharge a Jet 01’ pressure ,?uid into said ori?ce to build up a pressure in the same depending - upon the degree in which the nozzle and the ori?ce register, the cross sectional area of the nozzle bore being approximately .64 of the cross . sectional area of the ori?ce bore, 3._ Jet relay-mechanism comprising, in com bination, a plurality of reception ori?ces; and a jet-pipe mounted for movement relatively there‘ 30 to and arranged to discharge a jet or pressure ?uidinto said ori?ces to create a pressure in the samedepending'upon the degree in which the jet-pipe'nozzle and the ori?ces register, the cross sectional area of the jet-pipe nozzle being smaller than the bore of the ori?ces and greater than one fourth of the cross sectionalarea of the re spective ori?ces. , v 4. Jet relay; mechanism comprising, in com; bination, two reception ori?ces positioned adia An'area ratio of approximately two .to three or' ~cen_t to ‘each other; and a' jet-pipe pivotally .64 to 1 (diameter about .8 to 1) has been chosen mounted for movement relatively to said ori merely for illustration in Fig. 3. _ However. the " ?ces and arranged to discharge a jet of pressure critical ratio will be-diil‘erent depending upon the ?uid into said ori?ces to create a pressure in the, characteristics of the operating ?uid, the, jet same depending upon the degree in which the 45 . nozzle idi'stancesorz clearance, ?uid pressure and Wiet-pipefnozzle and the, ori?cesmegister; the v other variable factors.‘ Satisfactory results have been obtained using'regulator oils having vise cross sectional area‘ of the Jet-pipe nozzle being cosities from about 1000 to 20 Bayboit seconds. smaller than'the bore‘ ot‘the ori?ces and greater with apressu're range or 20 to 130 pounds per 'jthan one fourth of the cross sectional areaoi' 60 square inch, and jet nozzle clearances up to ‘about one-fourth of an inch. However, this is not intended to-de?ne particular limits. the ori?ces. "