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Патент USA US2111483

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M
15, 1938.
c, E, TRUBE
_ 211L483
ELECTRIC COUPLING SYSTEM
_
Original Filed July 2, 1926
2 Sheets-Sheet 1
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FREQUENCY
INVENTOR
ACOT/ E. Trube
-
M’ QM’
BY
ATTORNEYS
I
C. E T R U B E
- 2,111,183
ELECTRIC COUPLING SYSTEM
Original Filed July 2, 1926
' 2 Sheets-Sheet 2
0
_
FREQUENCY
INVENTOR
Ca-r/ ETrube
-
’
BY
'
ATTORNEYS
Mensa ‘Mn. 15,1938
' 2,111,483
"""ED STATES PATENT OFFICE "
snsc'mrc COUPLING SYSTEM
Carl E. Trube, Maplewood, N. J., assignor to ‘
Hazeltine Corporation, Jersey City, N. L, a cor- ‘ _ 1
poration of Delaware
‘Application July 2, 1926, Serial No.12o,o45
Renewed June 18. 1930
'
(Cl. 179—171)
the best compromise design, considering sensitivi-'
'This'lnvention relates to electric coupling sys
ty and selectivity and‘ this ratio also generally
tems particularly adapted for use with radio-fre
38. Claims.
varies rapidly with frequency. ‘This invention
provides means for securing substantially the
5 effectively over a relatively wide range infre- ' most desirable ratio at all frequencies in order to
procure the most desirable frequency-response
quency. This application is a continuation-in
part of my copending application Serial No. 101,- q and. selectivity characteristics without having any
adjustable element except the tuning adjustment.
906, ?led April 14, 1926. In United StatesLet
. Stated in another way, the present invention
ters Patent No. 1,762,431, granted June 10, 1930, provides
a new and improved means for procuring 10
10 are shown electric coupling systems arranged to
give effective operation over a range in frequency an effective coupling between the input and out
by providing a single manual device to adjust si put circuits of the coupling system that varies
multaneously the tuning and the voltage ratio. with frequency in a preselected manner under the
control of the designer. By the term “e?ective
The present invention constitutes an improve
ment over that of the above-mentioned Patent coupling” is meant the ratio of the effect coupled 1:,
No. 1,762,431 in that the coupling system is so into‘ the secondary or output circuit-which may
arranged as to give a voltage ratio that varies be a current or a voltage, to the input or primary
quency vacuum tube ampli?ers and more particu
larly to circuit arrangements which operate most
automatically with the frequency‘ thus leaving effect, which may also be either a current or a
only the single adjustment of tuning for different voltage. When the effective-coupling is meas
frequencies. This simpli?es the construction ured as the ratio of the voltage coupled into the
20 and increases the reliability of the system.
This invention is applicable both to coupling
systems interposed between consecutive vacuum
tubes of an ampli?er, and to the coupling system‘
interposed between an antenna and a vacuum
2
tube.‘ Furthermore, this invention is applicable
to vacuum-tube ampli?ers that are stabilized by
the use of a high step-up voltage ratio in the cou
pling system, as described in my prior patent
above referred to, to ampli?ers that are stabilized
3O by partial neutralization or by other means, and.
- to amplifiers wherein complete neutralization of
capacity coupling is attained and wherein regen~
erationis eliminated.
3,.
-
‘
The degree of responsiveness or ampli?cation
of an inter-tube coupling system is dependent,
among other factors, on the voltage ratio of the
system and the nature and magnitude of the in
put impedance of the system, which comprises
43
the plate circuit load impedance of the preceding
vacuum tube. Ordinarily, the-finput impedance
of such a system> varies substantially over the
tuning range of the system, following generally
the impedance variations of the secondary tuned
, circuit, increasing with frequency when the sec
ondary circuit is tuned bymeans of a variable
condenser and decreasing with frequency when
the secondary circuit is tuned by means of a vari
ometer. As a result of- this impedance variation,
50 at each frequency there is a particular ratio of
output voltage to input voltage that will give the
best compromise design. This ratio generally
varies rapidly with the frequency, being relatively
high at high frequencies. Similarly, in the an
“ tenna circuit, there is a voltage ratio that gives
output circuit to the input current, as’is the case 20
in an inter-tube coupling system, this ratio may
be termed the “e?ective mutual reactance” of the
coupling system.
,
,
A feature of the invention is the maintenance,
,
during tuning, of the effective reactance appear- 2”
ing at the output of the vacuum tube within such
‘limits that the reaction upon the input circuit
through the inherent interelectrode capacityv of
the tube is held within predetermined limits and
in any event is insufficient to produce oscillations.
Referring to the drawings:
Fig. 1 illustrates a vacuum tube and an electric
coupling system of the conventional type, in which
the voltage ratio does not vary with the frequency.
-
Fig. 1A is the response-frequency curve corre
sponding to Fig. 1.
~
Fig. 2 illustrates a modi?cation of Fig. 1 and
also is a conventional type.’ Fig. 2A gives re
spouse-frequency curves corresponding to Fig. 2
or to Fig. 6.
_
, Fig. 3 illustrates an electric coupling system in
which the voltage ratio varies with the frequency
in accordance with this invention, but in which
the variation with frequency is more rapid than 45
is usually desired. Fig. 3A. is the corresponding
response-frequency curve.
Fig. 4 illustrates a preferred form of this in
vention which combines Figs. 1 and 3 to ‘give
a voltage ratio which varies with the'frequency 50‘
Fig. 4A is the response
frequency curve corresponding to Fig. 4 or to
1 in a desired manner.
Fig. .5.
.
Fig. 5 is the combination of Figs. 2 and 3 and
‘gives results similar to those of Fig. 4.
55
a,111,4sa
Fig. 6 illustrates an alternative arrangement
Cs a very low‘ impedance; the former acting -
in vmich some of the advantages of this inven- . substantially as an open cirhuit and the latter
tion may be secured.
~
’ Fig. 7 also illustrates a modi?cation of this
invention in which some of the advantages may
be secured. Fig. "7A is the corresponding re
_ sponse-frequency curve.
Fig. 8 is a further modi?cation, in which the
primary circuit is isolated from the secondary
10 and main resonant circuit.
Fig. 9 illustrates the application of this inven
tion to a complete uni-control radio-frequency
ampli?er, including the coupling between the
antenna and a vacuum tube.
15
20
,
For convenience, the voltage E: measured at
the output terminals of the coupling system may
be called the "output voltage”, and the voltage
E1 measured at the input terminals of the cou-
pling system may be called the "accompanying
alternating voltage” or “input alternating volt
age”. It may here be pointed out that the out
put voltage will in certain modi?cations of this
invention be identicallwith the "resonant volt
1. e., the voltage across the adjustable .main
'25 age”,
resonant circuit, as in Figs. 3 and 6; while, in
other modi?cations the output voltage will not
necessarily be the same as the resonant voltage,
as in Fig. 5.
30
_
In the coupling system of Fig. 1, the ratio of
the output voltage E2 built up across the resonant
circuit Ca, La to the accompanying alternating
input voltage E1 across the coil L1 is substan
tially equal to the ratio of the self-inductance
35 L2 to the mutual inductance M, and is therefore
independent of the frequency. The rate at which
the reactances and the resistances vary with the
frequency, however, is such that the input im
pedance at resonance as measured between the
40 terminals of L1‘ is relatively low at low fre
quencies. Therefore, both the effective coupling
and the response or ampli?cation are corre
spondingly low. For reasons of selectivity and
stability, it is ordinarily the-practice to make
the voltage ratio (Ea/E1) higher than that giv
ing maximum ampli?cation at the highest fre
quency.
This is especially necessary in an un
neutralized ampli?er, where stability is particu
larly di?lcult to attain at high frequencies. The
50 result is that both the effective coupling and the
amplification fall off markedly .at ‘the lower
frequencies, as illustrated by the full-line curve
in Fig. 1A, which indicates qualitatively the rela
tive response of a complete ampli?er as /a func
55 tion of frequency.
In a neutralized ampli?er
it is possible to lower the voltage ratio, by em-_
ploying larger values of self-inductance L1 and
thus of mutual inductance M, resulting in a re
sponse curve such as the dotted line in Fig. 1A;
but still the ampli?cation falls off at the lower
end of the frequency range, and ‘furthermore
the selectivity is impaired at the higher fre
quencies.
-
q
'
In place of the series-feed arrangement of
65 Fig. 1, in which direct current is supplied by the
battery 13 connected in series with the primary
coil L1, it is sometimes the practice to employ
a parallel-feed system as illustrated in Fig. 2,
where the direct plate‘ current is supplied through
70 the choke coil L: which is e?ectively in parallel
with the input circuit of the coupling system,
including condenser C5 and coil L1. It is the
practice to design the choke coil 'L: and the
blocking condenser Cs so that L3 offers a very
75 high impedance to radio-frequency current, and
as a short circuit. Under'these conditions, the
system of Fig. 2 is electrically equivalent to that
of Fig. l, and has therefore the same disadvan
tages, giving the same response-frequency curve,
as represented‘by the full-line curve in Fig. 2A.
In the arrangements of the-,wprior art, of which
Fig. 1 is typical, the coupling transformer gen
erally has an effective step-up ratio greater than
the optimum value; in other words, the primary
or input impedance of>the coupling ‘system is
less than the internal plate resistance of the
tube. By virtue of the use of the greater than
optimum value instead of the optimum value,v
the selectivity is greatly improved, while the am
pli?cation is decreased by only a small amount.‘
In this region of operation, an increase in the
e?'ective step-up ratio causes a further departure
from the optimum value and results in decreas 20
ing the ampli?cation, and vice versa.
In Fig. 3, there is provided a system essentially
the same as that illustrated in Fig. 1 of my pat
ent above referred to, but the condenser 0: now
has a ?xed capacity, and the condenser C4 alone
is the adjustable tuning element. This circuit,
like Fig. 2, embodies a parallel feed; and it will
also be understood thatv the choke coil La has it ~
very high impedance. The resonant circuit then
includes the two ‘condensers Ca and C4 and the
inductance coil L2. As the impedance of La varies
directly with the frequency, and the impedance
of Ca varies inversely with the frequency, the
ratio Ez/Ei of the resonant output voltage across
L: to the accompanying alternating input voltage
across Cs varies as the square of the frequency.
Such a variation is in the right sense to result
in an improvement over the constant ratio given
by the arrangements of Figs. 1 and 2, and under
some conditions may be satisfactory, particu
larly when stability is the most serious‘ limita
tion and where the high-frequency losses in the
coupling system are especially low, but ordinarily
such a variation is too rapid in rate, resulting in
a rapid falling off of both the effective coupling
and the response at the higher frequencies, as
shown in Fig. 3A.
In general, therefore, an effective combination
of Fig. l or 2 with Fig. 3 will give the most desir
able variation with frequency of the voltage ratio 60
E2/E1 and of the response of the system. The
combination of Fig. l with Fig. 3 is illustrated in
Fig. 4, in which the main resonant circuit com
prises the two condensers Ca and C4 and the in
ductance coil In. If, as before. L: is a choke-coil
of very high impedance, then between the input
terminals of the coupling system there are two
coupling elements across which are developed two
components of voltage: that across the electro
magnetic or inductive coupling element L1 which
is constant relative to the resonant output voltage
E2; and that across the electrostatic or capacitive
coupling element 03 which varies‘ inversely as the,
square of the frequency-relative to E2. Thus,
so
there is obtained a resultant voltage ratio which 65
increases with frequency but at a rate which is
somewhat less than proportional to the square of
the frequency, a variation of this sort being desir
able ,for certain types of receivers. By properly
choosing the magnitudes of the capacity C: and -70
the mutual inductance M, it is thus possible to
obtain any desired law of variation of both the
voltage ratio. Ea/Ei- and the effective coupling of
the system intermediate between that of Fig. 1 II
3
9,111,498
and that of m. a That a‘ to say.
auce of the tunable absorbing circuit is not re
input
voltage relative to the output voltage will fall oi! ' ilected into the-said input circuit to a su?lcient .
asthe frequencyincreases, but the. rate of falling
extent to cause the output impedance connected
,istic of the coupling system, isunder the control
' plate capacity of the saidiampli?er tube and co- -
oil. and thus the frequency-response character-~ to the ampli?er to act'throughthe internal grid
_. of the designer and the voltage ratio and response
can begiven preselected values at any two speci
fled frequencies. Ordinarily, it is preferable to
have the voltage across C3 considerably exceed
10 that across L1 at the lower ‘radio frequencies,
while at the higher radio frequencies the voltage
across L1 may be the greater. More specifically.
elements Ca and L1 cause theratio of the output
alternating voltage to the input voltage (Ea/E1)
tofall off automatically when the tuning element
0 is adjusted for higher frequencies, but at a'rate
which is less rapid than the inverse square of the
frequency. Under this condition, the response
curve has a form such as illustrated in Fig. 4A.
In the coupling system of Fig. 4. coil L1 is ordi
narily woundwith only a few turns, while coil L:
I is wound with many times that number. Capacity
C3 is much larger than capacity C4. The actual
operate with the currents in the ampli?er input
to a su?ioient extent to produce ‘oscillation. The
tendency toward oscillations in ampli?er coupling
circuits is particularly pronounced when the in
put circuit of theampliiler tube is tunable in con 10
sonance with the tunable circuit associated with
the coupling system inthe output of the amplifier
tube; such tunable circuits are shown, for ex
ample, in Fig. 9.
'
The objects of this invention may be attained
by a great number of circuits, of more or less
complexity. [For example, one of the simpler em
bodiments of the invention may comprise a modi
fication of the circuit arrangement of Fig. 2 as by
replacing the choke-coll In by a radio-frequency 20
self-inductance and the blocking condenser C5 by
a radio-frequency condenser, the two being de
signed to be resonant together at a frequency
inductance and. capacity values may be of the somewhat lower than the lowest frequency of the
signals to be ampli?ed. Under these conditions,
same order of magnitude as the values given here
inafter for the identically numbered elements of the voltage ratio Ez/E1 is no longer substantially
, independent of the frequency, but falls off at the
the circuit of Fig. 5.
Fig. 5 illustrates the combination of Fig. 2 with lower radio frequencies due to the approach to. .
‘that of Fig. 3, the coupling system, per se, being resonance of La and C5 in parallel, the increase in
30 identical with that of Fig. 4 of my previously input impedance thus compensating at least in 30
mentioned copending application, Serial ' vNo. part for the variation in the coupling reactance
101,906. The operation is essentially the same as provided by the coil L1. This arrangement, how
ever, is not so desirable as that of Fig. 4 or Fig. 5;
that just described for Fig. 4 and gives a response
frequency curve as in Fig. 4A. The main resonant for the voltage ratio will be relatively too high at
35‘ circuit in this instance comprises the two con— intermediate frequencies, with the result that the
densers Ca and C4 and the inductance coll L2. response curve tends to have a dip in the central
There is an advantage in the circuit arrangement portion, as illustrated by the dotted curve in
'
of Figure 5 over the ‘preceding circuits in that in Fig. 2A. 7
In Fig. 6, which illustrates a coupling system
the circuit of this ?gure the outputvoltage is the
40
40 sum of the resonant voltage; (i. e., the voltage in many respects similar to that system illus~
trated
in
Fig.
2
of
my
Patent
No.
1,762,431
above
developed across the adjustable main resonant
referred to, the voltage ratio E2/E1 will be sub
circuit C4, C3. L2) and the voltage across in
ductance L1. Ordinarily L3 is a choke-coil of very stantially constant if the coil L3 is a choke coil
of high impedance. This voltage ratio is ob
high impedance and C5 is a large capacity intro
4.5 duced to reinforce C3 and C4 in insulating for tained from a double step-up, ?rst between C3
direct current; if L3 and C5 are made somewhat and the combination of Ca and C5, and then be
smaller they will have a qualitative effect in the tween L1 and L2; but both of these step-up ratios
radio-frequency system, but will not change the are constant under the‘ condition just stated. The
essential operation. The circuit of Fig. 5 was the response-frequency curve is then given by the
50 basis of certain models of a successful commercial
receiver known as the “Thermiodyne”.
In order that one skilled in the art may im
mediately practice this invention, the following
constants for the system of Fig. 5 are given:
55
L1+L2=one tapped solenoid coil of 390 micro
henries inductance, tapped so that L1=12 micro
henries.
-
C5==lto 10 milli-microfarads.
60
C3=2 to 10 milli-microfarads.
C4=variab1e condenser having a range of from
15 to 220 micro-mlcrofarads.
-
La=a choke coil of not less than 500 micro
henries inductance.
‘
It will be observed that when values ofthe
order of those given‘ above as applicable to the
system of Fig. 5 are assigned to the elements, the
mutual reactance of the input and output circuits
of the coupling system is fairly low. This result
follows from the fact that the inductance of L1 is
small in comparison with that of L2, and that the
capacity of C3 is large in comparison with that
of C4. Since the mutual reactance between the
input circuit and the variably tunable absorbing
75 circuit" of the coupling system is small. the react
full-line curve of Fig. 2A. However, if L3 is made
a lower radio-frequency selfeinductance, so as to
be resonant with the combination of C3 and C5
at a somewhat lower frequency than that of any
signal to be ampli?ed, then a variable voltage will 55
be obtained which will automatically vary with
the frequency in the same manner as for Fig. 2
when modi?ed as described in the preceding para
graph. The response-frequency curve is then
given by the dotted curve in Fig. 2A. The circuit 8.0
of Fig. 6, when adjusted in this manner, was em
ployed in some of the earlier models of the men
tioned “'I'hermiodyne" receiver.
.
Fig. 7 shows a modi?cation of Fig. 6, which ob
tains a voltage ratio which varies automatically 65
with the frequency by the insertion of a small
self-inductance L6 in series with C3. L6 is given
such a value that its reactance is lower than that
of condenser C3 at all ‘frequencies to which the
system is to respond. At relatively high fre 70
quencies it will subtract a relatively large portion
of the reactance of C3, thus giving a relatively
low voltage E1 between the plate and the ?lament.
This makes the step-up ratio Ez/E1 increase as
the frequency rises, which is the result desired.v
4
v8,111,688
However, this effect does not become important vacuum tubes of s‘sid apparatus, said ?xed reac
except near the high-frequency‘ end of the range.
The result is that the voltage ratio is relatively
tive elements being so arranged that between two
trated in Fig. 7A. The system is therefore in
alone is adjusted for higher frequencies. ' ~ .
points, thereof there is developed an alternating
too low at intermediate frequencies, and the re- ' voltage which automatically falls all relative to
sponse curve is correspondingly too high, as illus
said output voltage when said tuning element
i‘erior to that of I"igs'.'_4 and 5.
.
Fig. 8 shows a system embodying my inven
tion in which the primary circuit Cs, L1, In is
The
10 isolated from the secondary circuit 0:, Le.
proportions‘ of Co, Li and In and thecoupling's be
tween “L1, In and'Ic may be adjusted to give a
desirable variation with frequency of the voltage
ratio Es/Ei. This modi?cation of my invention
15 is more fully described in my United States Iet
ters Patent No. 1,763,380, granted June 10, 1930,
which is a continuation-in-part of the present
application.
1
Fig. 9 shows the application of the arrangement
of Fig. 5 to a.._gcomplete uni-control radio-fre
quency ampli?er, both as coupling between the
. antenna and the grid of the ?rst vacuum tube
and as coupling between consecutive vacuum
tubes. The advantages of vapplying such a com
pound coupling system to an antenna circuit
are: ?rst, to permit of attaining at all frequencies
the most suitable compromise between sensitive
ity and selectivity; and second, to make the elec
trical constants of the tuned antenna system and
the subsequent coupling systems substantially
identical at all frequencies, so as to permit them
to be tuned alike, particularly when it is desired
to employ a single control for tuning all circuits,
as has been done in the "'I'hermiodyne" receiver.
It is to be understood that by the'terms “an
tenna” and "antenna and ground", as employed
in this speci?cation and the appended claims, is
meant any suitable system for collecting radio
frequency energy to- which the input terminals of
40 an ampli?er would customarily be connected.
I claim:
1. An electric coupling system adapted to be
interposed between elements of a radio signaling
apparatus, including terminals across which an
45 alternating voltage is developed, a main resonant
circuit across which an output voltage is devel
_ oped, and means for adjusting said circuit over
a certain frequency range, an input path through
said coupling system, and means including said
50 path for causing the ratio of the output voltage
to the accompanying alternating voltage in said
input path of the coupling system to rise as the
frequency of said resonant circuit is increased,
whereby high degrees of sensitivity, selectivity
and stability are maintained.
2. A tuned radio-frequency coupling system
interposed between elements of a vacuum tube
radio-frequency ampli?er, including terminals
across which an alternating voltage is developed,
60 an adjustable main resonant circuit across'which
an output voltage is developed, an input path
through said coupling system, and means includ
ing capacity and inductance in said input path
for causing the ratio of the output voltage to the
accompanying alternating voltage in said path
to rise as the frequency is increased, whereby
'70
high degrees of sensitivity, selectivity and sta
bility are maintained.
3. In a radio-frequency signaling apparatus in‘
cluding vacuum tubes, an electric coupling sys
tem including the combination of ?xed reactive
elements and a resonant circuit across which an
output voltage is developed, said resonant circuit
having a single adjustable tuning element, said
coupling system being interposed between two
4. In a radio-frequency vacuum tube ampli?
er, an electric coupling ‘system including a com- .
bination of ?xed reactive elements and a resonant
circuit across which an output voltage is devel
oped, said resonant circuit having a single ad
Justable tuning element, said coupling system
being interposed between two vacuum tubes oi.’
said ampli?er, each tube having a grid, a- plate
and a ?lament, said output voltage being im
pressed across the grid and the ?lament of one
of said vacuum tubes, said ?xed reactive elements
being so related to each other and to said vacuum
tubes that between the plate and the ?lament
of the other of said tubes there is developed an
alternating voltage which automatically falls of! 20
relative‘ to said output voltage when said tuning
element alone is adjusted for higher frequencies.
5. In a radio ampli?er stage, including a vac
uum tube having a ?lament, a grid and a plate, 25
an electric coupling system comprising a main
resonant circuit in which a resonant voltage is
built up, a path through said coupling system be
tween said plate and said ?lament, a ?xed con
denser in series both with said path and with
said main resonant circuit, and reactive means
so associated with said path and with said main
resonant circuit that there is developed in said
path a voltage whose ratio to said resonant volt
age falls rapidly as the frequency is‘ increased.
,A 6. A system of ampli?cation of radiant energy
comprising an electronic device, a transformer,
a tuning capacity, a capacity connected in series
between the primary and secondary of the trans
former, said capacity being also in series with the
tuning capacity, and both capacities being con
nected in shunt across the secondary of the trans
former, and the electrical values of the said in
ductances 'of the transformer and of the said
capacities being relatively such that the system
is essentially nonregenerative.
-
_
7. A system of ampli?cation of radiant energy
as set forth in claim 6 which provides capacities
to form an electrostatic‘ path of energy transfer
whose value' is de?nitely variable, and induct
ances comprising a transformer to form an elec
tromagnetic path whose value is naturally vari
able with changes of frequency; the electrical re
lationship of these two paths and their values
being such'that a maximum transfer of energy
is obtained without regeneration or any ?ow of
undesirable disturbing currents at_any desired
frequency.
a
8. A system of ampli?cation of radiant energy
as set forth in claim 6 which comprises an elec
tromagnetic and an electrostatic path of energy‘
transfer whose values are variable, automatically,
by the act of tuning, said values being so related
to each other as to produce a zero di?'erence of
potential in respect to all undesired currents be
tween‘ the grid and plate‘ of the electronic device
when the set is tuned to any given frequency. '
- 9. A system of ampli?cation of radiant energy
comprising an electronic device, a transformer, a
tuning capacity, a capacity connected in series 70
between the primary and secondary of said
transformer, said capacity being also in series
with the tuning capacity and both capacities be
ing connected in shunt across the secondary of
the transformer, and the electrical values of said
5
2,111,483
coupled to said‘ tuned circuit, and at least two
so related to each other as to- simultaneously of said elements having di?erent reactance vari
ations with change of frequency, whereby the
maintain a condition of complete non-regenera
tion and a condition ‘of energy transfer main¢ total effective coupling can be made any desired
function of the frequency to which said circuit
tained constant at its maximum value at any de
inductancesand capacities being‘. so selected and
sired frequency.
10. A system of amplification of radiant energy
: comprising an electronic device having an output
is tuned.
’
16. A tuned radio-frequency coupling system
comprising two pairs of terminals, a tunable cir
circuit which comprises a transformer, a variable cuit connected with one ofsaid pairs of terminals,
and a network including ?xed reactance elements 10
10 condenser, and a series condenser, said variable ' , connected
with the other of said pairs of termi
and series cor'idensers being connected in series
with each other and the two being connected in nals, at least one of said elements being coupled
shunt across the secondary of said transformer to said tunable circuit, and at least two of said
and one end of the primary of said .transformer elements having different reactance variations
with change of frequency, the values of said two
15 being connected into the series connection be
tween the two said condensers and their values elements being so proportioned and said elements
being selected so as to prevent the production of being so related to said tunable circuit that the
undesired disturbing oscillations in the electronic total effective coupling is a preselected-function
of the frequency to which said circuit is tuned.
device.
17. A tuned radio-frequency coupling system 20
11. In a system of ampli?cation of radiant en
20
comprising two pairs of terminals, a tunable cir
ergy comprising an electronic device, a trans
former, a tuning capacity, a capacity connected cuit connected with one of said pairs of termi
in series between the primary and secondary of
said transformer, said'capacity being also in se
'25 ries with the tuning capacity, and‘ both capacities
being connected in shunt across the secondary of
the transformer, the process'of simultaneously
maintaining a condition of complete non-regen
eration and a condition of energy transfer main
‘so tained constant at its maximum value over any
desired range of frequency by the selection and.
relation of the electrical values of said induct
ances and capacities.
12. An electric coupling system for coupling a
pair of input terminals to a pair of output termie
nals, said system comprising an inductive cou
pling element which acting alone would produce
a voltage across said output terminals which rises
nals and a network of ?xed reactance elements
connected with the other of said pairs of termi
nals, at least one of said elements being induc 25
tively coupled to said tunable circuit, and at least
two of said elements having opposite reactance
variations with frequency, whereby the effective
mutual'reactance can be made substantially in- '
dependent of the frequency to which said circuit 30
is tuned.
18. A tuned radio-frequency coupling system
comprising two pairs of terminals, a tunable cir
cuit including a variable condenser and a ?xed
inductance connected in parallel to one of said 35
pairs of terminals and a network of ?xed re
actance elements connected with the other of said
pairs of terminals, at least one of said elements
being coupled to said tuned circuit, and at least
two of said elements having different reactance 40
variations with frequency, the values of said two
elements being so proportioned and said elements
being so related to said tunable circuit that the
with increasing frequency, and reactance means
40 included in said system for maintaining said out—
put ‘voltage fairly constant over a substantial
range of frequency.
13. An electric coupling system for interposi
tion between a pair of input terminals and a pair ~ total effective coupling is a preselected function
45 of output terminals, said system comprising an of the frequency to which said circuit is tuned. 45
19. A radio-frequency coupling system com
exciting circuit and a tunable output circuit cou
pled to said exciting circuit, said exciting circuit prising two pairs of terminals, a tunable. circuit
including an element which acting alone would including a variable condenser and a ?xed in
produce a voltage in said output circuit which ductance connected in parallel to one of said
with increasing frequency, and reactive
so rises
means in said exciting ‘circuit for causing the
voltage across said input terminals to decrease
with increasing frequency, whereby the voltage
across said output terminals remains substanti
55 ally constant.
~’
14. An electric coupling system having a pair
of input terminals and a pair of output terminals,
- said system comprising an exciting circuit con
nected to said input terminals and an absorbing
60 circuit connected to said output terminals and
coupled to said exciting circuit, said system in
cluding only one manually variable element which
selects the frequencies transmitted by said sys
pairs of terminals, and a network of ?xed re
50
actance elements connected with the other of
said pairs of terminals, at least one of said ele
ments being capacitively coupled to said tunable
circuit, and at least two of said elements having
opposite reactance variations with frequency,
the values of said two elements being so propor
tioned and said elements being so related to said
tunable circuit that the total effective coupling
is a preselected function of the frequency to
which said circuit is tuned.
.
60
20. A tuned radio-frequency coupling system
comprising two pairs of terminals, a tunable
nals and a network including ?xed reactance
circuit connected with one of said pairs of ter
minals, and a network including ?xed reactance
elements connected with the other of said pairs 65
of terminals, at least one of said elements being
coupled to said tunable circuit, and at least two
of said elements having different reactance var
iations with change of frequency, said ?xed re
actance elements being of such types and having 70
such circuit relationship with each other and
with said tunable circuit that the total effective
coupling can be made any desired function of the
elements connected with the other of saidpairs
of terminals, at least one of said elements being
erly proportioning the values of said elements.
. tem, and said exciting circuit including elements
65 whose impedances vary with frequency in such a
manner that the voltage across said input ter
minals automatically decreases when the tuning
frequency is increased,‘ while the output voltage
remains substantially constant.
15. An electric coupling system comprising two
pairs of terminals, a variable condenser-tuned
circuit connected with one of said pairs of termi
frequency to which said circuit is tuned by prop
6
2,111,488
21. A tuned radio-frequency coupling system
comprising two pairs of terminals, a tunable cir
cuit connected with one of said pairs of termi
nais, and a reactance network connected to the
other of said pairs of terminals and‘including
?xed reactance means coupled to said tunable
circuit which acting alone produces a ratio ofv
output voltage to input current which varies in a
predetermined manner with the frequency to
10 which said circuit is tuned and ?xed reactance
means for substantially modifying the manner of
variation of the ‘voltage introduced into said
tunable circuit by said input current as said cir
cuitcis tuned over its range, thereby to modify
" 16
said ratio of output voltage to input current in
a preselected manner.
~
22. A tuned radio-frequency coupli
system
comprising two pairs of terminals, a tunable cir
cult connected with one of said pairs of termi
nals, and a reactance network connected to the
other of said pairs of terminals and including
?xed reactance means coupled to said tunable
circuit which acting alone produces a ratio of
output voltage to input current which increases
with the frequency to which said circuit is tuned, '
and means for varying the voltage introduced
into said tunable circuit by said input current in
versely in accordance with said frequency to'
which said circuit is tuned, thereby to compen
30 sate at least in part for the variations in said
ratio.
.
23. An electrical system composed of an am
pli?er of alternating currents, a tunable input
circuit, an output circuit, an internal path in said
35 ampli?er connecting said output circuit to said
input circuit, a tunable absorbing circuit as
sociated with said output circuit, and nieans for
limiting ampli?ed energy feedbaclg through said
internal path comprising means for loosely cou
pling said absorbing circuit to said output circuit
and electromagnetically in phase from said output
circuit in frequency consonance with the currents
therein to selectively’ create absorption reaction
thereon, controlling said selective absorption elec-'
.trostaticaliy whereby said electromagnetic ab
sorption decreases with frequency decrease, and
so relating the'variation of electrostatic absorp
tion to the necessary electrostatic variation for '
selectiveabsorption that said electrostatic ab;
sorption increases with frequency decrease at 10'
such rate that the effect of said electromagnetic
absorption on the reactions of said output circuit
with frequency is modi?ed in a desired way.
26. In ‘an electrical system including a source
of alternating currents'of a wide range of fre
quencies, the electrical conduct of said source
towards currents of different frequencies depend
ing upon the nature of the reactions to said vcur
rents of di?erentfrequencies of a circuit con
nected to the output terminals thereof, the meth
od of controlling said reactions with frequency
20'
as the current output of said source is changed
from frequency to frequency which consists of
selectively absorbing energy fromsaid output
circuit by way of a coupling which transfers 25
energy increasingly with frequency increase in
frequency consonance with the currents therein
to selectively create absorption reaction thereon,
further simultaneously selectively absorbing en
ergy from‘ said output in phase with said ?rst 30
selective absorption by way of a coupling which
transfers energy decreasingly with frequency in
crease, and selecting the rate of change of energy
transfer with frequency of one of said couplings
to produce a predetermined character with fre so
quency of combined absorption reaction on said
output circuit whereby the conduct of said source
with frequency is controlled in a desired way'.
27. In an electrical system the combination of '
a source of alternating currents of a wide range
and electrical elements maintaining said coupling of frequencies, an output circuit, the electrical 40
constant while said absorbing circuit is tuned in conduct of said source towards currents of dif
consonance with said input circuit.
. ferent frequencies depending upon the natureof
24. An electrical amplifying system including a‘ the reactions of said output circuit to said cur
three-electrode vacuum tube, an adjustable pe
rents, and means for controlling the electrical
riod circuit connected to the input electrodes of conduct of said source from frequency to fre 45
said tube, an output circuit, a responsive device,‘ quency through control of said reactions com
and means for controlling the reaction of said
output circuit and abstraction of energy there
from for said responsive device over a wide range
of frequencies that a predetermined effect in said
- responsive device with frequency is obtained, in
prising a circuit variable in period over said wide
range-of frequencies coupled to said output cir
cuit through a coupling which changes the ab-',
sorption reaction of said variable circuit on said
output circuit as varied from frequency to fre
ciuding a circuit coupled to said output circuit quency, and a second coupling between said cir
adapted to be adjusted in period in consonance _ cuits in phase accord with said ?rst coupling, said
with said adjustable period input circuit, and
across which second adjustable circuit said re
sponsive device is connected, said‘ coupling in
cluding a pair of coupling elements transferring
energy in phase, one of which couplings increases
in effect with frequency increase and the other
of which couplings decreases in effect with fre-.
quency increase, the relative values of said cou
plings being chosen to give the said predeter
mined eifect over a wide range of frequencies.
25. In an electrical system including a source
of alternating currents of a wide range of fre
quencies, the electrical conduct of said source
towards currents of di?erent frequencies depend
ing upon the nature of the reactions to said cur
70 rents of different frequencies of a circuit con
nected to the output terminals thereof, the meth
od of controlling said reactions with frequency
as the current output of said source is changed
from frequency to frequency which consists of
76 ‘selectively absorbing energy both elcctl'ostatically
second coupling being adapted to change the ab
sorption reaction of said variable circuit'on said
output circuit from frequency to frequency in
versely to the change produced by said first cou
pling.
>
‘
'
28. The method of transferring electrical '00
energy throughout a range of frequencies from
an exciting circuit to a tunable absorbing circuit,
which consists of transferring the energy both
electromagnetically and electrostatically in aid
ing phase, and causing said electrostatic energy 65
transfer to decrease as said absorbing circuit is
tuned in such sense as to increase the frequency
of the energy so selected'for transfer in sub
stantially the same degree as the electromagnetic
energy transfer increases through such tuning. 70
29. An electrical energy transfer system com
prising means for transferring energy throughout
a range of frequencies from an‘exciting circuit to
a tunable absorbing circuit including a coupling
between said circuits comprising in combination
amass
a capacitive reactance element and an‘inductive
reactance element poled to transfer energy in
aiding phase, the reactions of said elements being
therewith, ?xed reactance coupling means'in
eluding inductance for providing coupling there
between; which varies with frequency in one sense
adjusted to produce a resultant energy transfer
as said tunable circuit-is tuned over said range,
which, remains substantially constant with fre ‘ and ?xed reactance coupling means including
quency variationsas said absorbing circuit is capacitance for providing coupling therebetween
tuned.
‘
which varies with frequency in the opposite
' 30; An electrical energy transfer system includ- sense, said coupling means beingrelatively poled
ing an exciting circuit and a tunable absorbing ' in aiding phase, whereby the coupling variation
10 circuit, an electrostatic coupling between said
of one said means at least partially compensates 10
circuits, and an electromagnetic coupling be -for_ the coupling variation of the other said
tween- said circuits, said couplings being so poled
and‘ relatively adjusted that, for such adjust-Q
36. A tunable radio-frequency coupling sys
ment, their combined energy transfer remains tem comprising a resonant circuit including in
substantially constant with'frequency as said ab
ductive and capacitive elements, only one of said~ 15
means.
sorbing circuit is variably tuned.
'
-
-
~
_
-
-
.
elements being adjustable for tuning ,said cir
. 31. The method of transferring electrical en- ' cuit over a wide range of radio frequencies, an
ergy ‘throughout a range of frequencies from an
other circuit to be coupled therewith, ?xed re- -
exciting circuit to a tunable absorbing circuit,f actance coupling means including inductance for
20 which consists of transferring the energy both providing coupling therebetween which varies 20'
electromagnetically and electrostatically in aid
with frequency in__one sense as said tunable cir
ing phase, and causing said electrostatic transfer cuit is tuned i'over said range, and ?xed react
to vary in a preselected manner as said absorbing
circuit is tuned.
25
'
ance coupling means including capacitance for ,
providing coupling ‘therebetween’ which varies
'
32. The method of transferring electrical en
with frequency in the opposite sense, said cou
ergy throughout a range of frequencies from an
pling means being relatively poled in aiding
exciting circuit to an absorbing circuit whose‘
constants include a capacitive reactance divided
into two portions, which consists of transferring
energy in aiding phase both electromagnetically
and, through one of said capacitive portions, ad
justing'said absorbing circuit for resonance with
desired current frequencies in said exciting cir
cuit by varying the other of said capacitive por
35 tions, and adjusting the relative values of said
capacitive portions to produce an energy trans-.
fer that combines with the electromagnetic en‘
ergy transfer to produce a combined transfer
that varies in a preselected manner with fre
40 quency.
phase, whereby the coupling variation of one said
, means at least partially compensates .for the
coupling variation of the other said means.
37. A tunable radio-frequency coupling system 30
comprising a'resonant circuit including ?xed in
ductance and adjustable capacitance for tuning
over a wide range of radio frequencies, another
circuit to be coupled therewith, ?xed reactance
coupling means including inductance for provid 35
ing coupli?g therebetween which increases with
increasing frequency as said tunablecircuit is
tuned over said range, and ?xed reactance cou->
cluding an exciting circuit and a tunable ab
pling means including capacitance for providing
coupling therebetween‘ which decreases with in 40
creasing frequency, said means being relatively
poled in aiding phase, whereby the coupling vari
sorbing circuit, an electrostatic coupling bee
tween said circuits adapted to ‘decrease inva pre
pensates for the coupling variation of the other
33. An electrical energy transfer system. ‘in-
45 selec'ted manner with increase of frequency as
said absorbing circuit is tuned, and an electro;
magnetic coupling between said circuits so poled
50
25'
ation of one said means at least partially com
said means.
1'
'
'38. A tunable radio-frequency coupling system
as to transfer energy in phase with said electro
comprising a resonant circuit including in series
a ?xed inductance element, a ?xed capacitance
static coupling.
element and an adjustable capacitance element
_,
_
a,
34. An electrical energy transfer system in
cluding an exciting circuit and a tunableab
sorbing circuit, an electrostatic coupling between
‘ said circuits adapted to decrease in a preselected
manner with vincrease of frequency ‘as said .ab
55 sorbing circuit is tuned, an electromagnetic cou
pling between said circuits ‘so poled as to transfer
45
for tuning the circuit over a wide range of radio 50
frequencies, and another circuit including in
series said ?xed capacitance element and an
other ?xed inductance element inductively cou
~'pled with that of said resonant circuit, said in
ductive coupling being poled to aid the coupling 55
of said ?xed capacitance, whereby the variation
energy in phase with said electrostatic coupling, ' of coupling due to. said ?xed capacitance ele
and a condenser in said exciting circuit in series
with said couplings.
-
'
'
_
35. A tunable radio-frequency coupling system
ment at leastpartialiy compensates for the cou
.pling variation due to said‘ inductive coupling as -
said resonant circuit is tuned over said range.
comprising a circuit tunable over a wide range of '
radio frequencies,'another circuit to be coupled
OARLETR'QBE.
. so
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