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Патент USA US2111508

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March 15, 1938.
L. D. JONES
2,111,508
PROCESS OF DEWAXING
Filed Feb. 1. 1936
2 Sheets-Sheet i
INVENTOR.
,
LE0 DJoHEs
BY W CL (MM/J1
ATTORNEY. '
March 15,1938.
|_. D. JONES
2,111,508
PROCESS OF DEWAXING
Filed Feb. -1. 1936
2 Sheets-Sheet 2
‘1216.2
INVENTOR.
'
'
,,
‘
LEO DJoNEs
53y WW
I
W
ATTORNEY.
'
_ 2,111,508
‘ Patented Mar.v '15, 1938
UNITED ‘STTES PATENT OFFICE
riaocnsszililrlkizwe '
A
7
Leo D. Jones, Philadelphia, Pa., assignor to The ' '
Sharples Specialty‘ Company, Philadelphia,
Pa., a corporation of Delaware \
Application February 1, 1936, Serial No. 61,845
7 @laims. (Cl. 233-'22)
' The present invention pertains to the continu
ous separation of materials of a viscous or semi
solid nature from a liquid by means of centrif
lying within this heavy oil solution consists of
wax particles occluding varying proportions of
the oil solution. It is self-evident that the wax
ugal force. It is particularly concerned with the ' in the portion of the rotor close to its center
e?icient performance of a separating operation will contain less oil solution than the wax fur
of this‘ character in a case in which the viscous ther from thecenter of the rotor. While the
material is separated as the lighter e?luent from innermost zone of the wax layer may therefore
an .inner radial zone of a, centrifugal rotor in contain but a small proportion of oil, the wax
zones extending between this innermost zone
which the liquid and lighter material are strati
The invention . and the zone of the oil stratum contain progres
?ed
by
centrifugal
subsidence.
‘15)
sively larger proportions of oil and are accord
' was conceived in connection with research on
the problem of separating precipitated paraffin ingly progressively softer in texture and more
wax from aheavier petroleum oil ‘solution and ?uid by reason of the entrainment of such oil.
When we consider these facts as to consistency
will be discussed in connection with that problem
and ?uidity of the material extending from an 15'
for the sake of convenience of description.
The invention includes, as a fundamental fea-v
ture of design and operation, the employment'of
a stationary member which projects into the path _
of the wax and effects dislodgment of that wax
20 by reason of the inertia of the wax itself. The
member which effects such dislodgmentlmay be
a skimming nozzle of more or less conventional
design, or it may be a dislodging knife or scraper
adapted to cut intolthe wax layer for a. short
distance and dislodge the wax layer so displaced
25 from the centrifugal rotor. If a skimming nozzle
is'used, the rotor axis may extend in any direc
tion, but if a dislodging knife of non-tubular
form is used, it is preferable that the rotor axis
extend in a vertical plane and that the lower
30 part of the rotor be circumferentially unob
structed at its center in order that the dislodged
wax may fall out of the rotor by gravity.
Although an arrangement embodying a dislodg
ing tool in the nature of a skimming nozzle or
35 narrow knife might appear to be capable of re
moving ef?ciently any type of wax, di?iculties are
innermost radius of the wax zone to they sub
stantially wax-free oil solution zone, the phe
nomenon of discharge of a waxy material con
taining an unexpectedly large ratio of oil can
be readily understood. If we consider a case 20
in which a dislodging tool of relatively narrow
width is located in a. given plane and remains in
that plane, we ?nd it reasonable to suppose that
the following type of separation occurs. When‘
the dislodging tool is ?rst placed in position inv
which it dislodges wax from the inner surface of
the material under treatment in the rotor, that
dislodging tool will dislodge a strip of wax of ap
proximately its own width’ extending circumfer- ,
entiaily of the rotor. As the rotor continues to
rotate, the material dislodged by the tool during
such continued rotation must be material which
has ?owed into the zone occupied by the originally
dislodged and removed wax strip. If we were
concerned with treatment of a homogeneous wax
cake, the material which would replace the dis
lodged wax cake by ?owing into the space previ-, ,
encountered in the practical application of the lously occupied thereby would ?ow into that
space from all directions. In ‘reality, however,
principle and it is to the solution of these dif?
we are concerned with a practical problem in 40
culties that the present invention pertains.
40
In practical operation, many cases have been volving a more ?uid mixture of. oil and wax in
the zone lying radially without the ,dislodging
encountered in which an undesirably large pro
portion of oil is dislodged and discharged with ' tool than-in the portions of the rotor spaced
the wax. Examination and analysis of the waxy longitudinally from the dislodging tool but in the
' material occupying the zone of the rotor of least zone of the radius thereof. There is thus a 45
45 radius from which this wax is dislodged indicate stronger tendency for the material lying out
that this relatively high oil content is'. “by no wardly of the tool to ?ow inwardly and replace
means characteristic of the material occupying the dislodged wax than for material occupying
this zone of the rotor and considerable dimculty a- stratum of similar radius with the- removed
has accordingly been-encountered in attempting
50 to ascertain the reason for this high proportion of
lodged material is largely replaced by wax con
taining an undesirably large proportion of oil and
conceived the following theory as to the cause of it is this wax containing thehigh ratio of oil that
55,
the di?iculty and it is upon this theory thatthe isremoved in the subsequent operations.
The e?ects discussed above are aggravated by
invention is based. When a heavy oil solution
free of dissolved wax and containing suspended reason of the fact that the waxy material occu
wax is strati?ed, the outermost stratum of the pying the innermost zone of material under treat
centrifugal rotor constitutes the oil solution ment but substantially removed longitudinally
almost completely freed of wax and the material from the zone occupied by the dislodging tool 60
oil discharged with the wax in such instances.
After considerable study, the present applicant
60
wax, but longitudinally removed therefrom to 50
?ow into that space. As a consequence, the dis
‘
amines
remains in? the rotor an undesirably long time
and has a still larger proportion of its oil solu
tion removed incident to the prolonged centrif
ugal treatment caused by such retention. As
Cl
substantially the entire length of the wax zone
within the rotor with substantial frequency.
Special means are also provided for moving the
skimming nozzle towardand away from the‘axis
of the rotor, thus changing the position ofv the
progressively more oil is freed by centrifugal
force from waxy material so located, that mate
rial becomes even stiffer than before, accentuat
inner surface of the wax stratum.
The means by which motion and adjustment of
the nozzle are obtained are illustrated in Figure 1
and may comprise a shaft it which receives a
reciprocating or rotary motion from any suit
able source of power, (not shown), and which
ing the chest of replacement of the dislodged
wax strip by material lying radially without that
10 strip instead of edecting the desired ?ow longi
tudinally of the rotor along the inner wax surface.
The present invention embodies method and
apparatus for obviating the dimculties discussed
above.
carries a crank arm it connected to a link it
which is in turn connected to a lever 20 pivoted
to a fixed support at 2i. The lever 2t is con
nected to a link it“ which is pivoted to a yoke 23 15
It involves asan essential feature the
15 mechanical dislodgment of wax along the entire
inner surface of a mixture of this character in a
which is longitudinally ?xed with respect to the
centrifugal rotor. In the preferred embodiment
skimming nomle it by means of a pair of con
of the invention a dlslodglng tool or tools are
?ning sleeves 2d secured to the skimming nozzle.
The skimming nozzle l 6 is, however, free to rotate
within the yoke 23.
20
reciprocated longitudinally of the rotor with a
20 su?icient degree of frequency to avoid, to a large
extent at least, the effects discussed above. By
moving the dislodglng tool longitudinally in the
A shaft 2% is contained within a stationary
housing Elli through which the skimming nozzzle it‘
rotor, it is possible continuously to remove war: of
projects and this shaft carries a worm, (not
shown), which meshes with a worm wheel 2i‘.
The worm wheel El'l carries a key 28 which effects
rotation of the skimming nozzle with the worm
wheel by being received within a slot 29 in a
sleeve'e‘id which surrounds the skimming nozzle
and is secured thereto.
In the practice of the invention, the skimming 30
desirably low oil content. By moving the dis
25 lodging tool or tools in such a manner that they
operate at frequent intervals upon material lying
in substantially every part of the length of the
. rotor, a uniform removal of was: is attained with
out an undesirably high degree of discharge of
30 oil therewith.
In the drawings accompanying this speci?ca
tion,
nozzle is moved radially to the desired extent in '
to the wax stratum within the rotor by rotation
of. a handle 33 secured to the shaft 25 and the
'
Figure l is a view partly in cross section and
partly in side elevation illustratiru; one form of
apparatus for use in the practice of the invention,
Figure 2 is a similar view illustrating an appa
ratus utilizing an alternative form of a dislodg
skimming nozzle is reciprocated throughout sub
stantially the entire length of the wax stratum Slit
of the rotor by the motion of the shaft ii and the
parts connecting that shaft with the yoke 23.
Wax removed from the rotor is discharged from
the opposite end of the skimming nozzle at it.
Oil is simultaneously discharged during the dis— 40
charge of the wax by passage through the out
ing tool,
Figure 3 is a detailed sectional view illustrat
40 ing a modi?cation of the embodiment of Figure I.
Figure 4 is a detailed plan view taken in the
direction of the arrow 63-41 of Figure l, and
Figure 5 is a detailed plan view taken in the
direction of the arrow d-—Ei of Figure 2.
lets lt into the oil-receiving cover Ill’.
The modi?cation of Figure 2 is essentially
similar to the invention illustrated in Figure 1,
Referring to the drawings by reference char
except that a dislodging knife 33 is substituted
45
acters. the numeral it indicates a centrifugal . for the skimming nozzle it. This dislodging
rotor adapted to receive through the feed conduit knife is preferably secured to a bar it which may
ii the material to be separated. This material be rotated to bring the knife into the path of the
is passed into the main body of the rotor through wax and reciprocated longitudinally of the wax
stratum in the rotor by mechanisms similar to 60
50 openings if. The rotor is preferably provided
with a plurality of radially extending accelerator those illustrated in Figure 1 for e?ecting rotat
wings it and conically extending discs it. In ing and reciprocating movements of the skimming
nozzle in the invention of Figure 1. In the em
bodiment of Figure 2, wax dislodged by the knife
the use of a centrifugal rotor of this character
for the separation of wax from a heavier oil solu
dll'drops by gravity into a receptacle (it, while 55
discharged oil is being continuously discharged
into the oil cover 32.
55 tion, the wax flows radially inwardly to the zone
W of the rotor while the heavier oil solution
passes radially outwardly to the 'zone 0 and is
discharged through the outlets ‘it. In the em—
bodiment of Figure l, a non-rotating dislodg
60 ing tool, which may be, as illustrated, a skimming
nozzle it, projects into the stratum of the rotat
ing wax for continuously discharging it.
In the practice of the invention, special means
are provided for reciprocating this dislodging
65 tool longitudinally of the wax stratum within the
rotor with sufficient frequency to avoid the ob
jectionable phenomenon of the discharge of wax
containing a substantially higher proportion of
_oil than the average oil content of the wax con
.70 tained in the cylindrical zone having the general
’
,The vmodification of Figure 3 is essentially,
similar to 'the embodiment of Figure 1, except
that in this modi?cation, dislodging tools com—
prising a plurality of parallel skimming nozzles
are employed, these dislodging tools 35 being
secured to or integral with a central tube 36
which receives the wax e?luent therefrom. - It
will be self-evident that a plurality of dislodg 65
ing knives of-the character illustrated in Figures
2 and 5 may be employed according to the same
principle illustrated with respect to Figure 3 in
the use of a plurality of skimming nozzles.
. Modi?cations of the particular design of apps
70
ratus illustrated will be obvious to those skilled
in the art. I do not, therefore, wish to be limited
ably continued constantly during the separating in the interpretation of the scope of my inven
operation and is also preferably of such an extent . tion except ‘by the scope of the sub-joined claims,
and velocity that the skimming name moves and I wish to point out that the invention com 75
radius of the skimming nozzle. The reciproca
tory movement of the skimming nozzle is prefer
2,111,508
prises broadly they practice of a process in which
a dislodging tool is reciprocated longitudinally
of the zone of the rotor occupied by a lighter and
more viscous material strati?ed' within the rotor
by a process involving reciprocation of the dis
lodging tool or tools with su?icient frequency
and to a su?icient extent to e?ect discharge of
sided by said stratifying operation, said removal
being accomplished by dislodging wax from the '
1inner surface of the wax stratum under the in
?uence of its own inertia from relatively narrow
zones of said rotor, the axial zone of performance
such viscous material containing a proportion of
the heavier e?iuent not substantially greater than
10 the proportion of such heavier e?‘luent occupying
the general radial zone of the rotor of such dis
lodging tool.
I claim:
-
l
.
,
l. The method of separating wax from an oil
15 solution immiscible with said wax and having a
higher speci?c gravity than said wax which com
prises subjecting the suspension of the wax in
the solution to a centrifugal ,stratifying operation _
to thereby eifect progressive separation of the
20 wax from oil as it passes inwardly in the centrif
ugal rotor and removing from the rotor the wax
subsided by said stratifying operation, said re
moval being accomplished by dislodging wax from
the inner surface of the wax stratum under the
25 in?uence of its own inertia, from relatively nar
row axial zones of said rotor, the zone of per
formance of the dislodging operation being sub
stantially constantly reciprocated longitudinally
substantially through the axial limits of the wax
30 stratum during the continued feed of oil solution
to the rotor.
‘
2. The method of separating wax from an-oil
solution immiscible with said wax and having
a higher speci?c gravity than said wax which
35 comprises subjecting the suspension of the wax in
the solution to a centrifugal stratifying operation
- ‘ to thereby effect progressive separation of the wax
from oil as it passes inwardly in the centrifugal
-l rotor and. removing from. the rotor the wax sub
sided by said stratifying operation, said removal.
being accomplished by skimming wax in a con
?ned stream from the inner surface of the wax
stratum under the in?uence of its own inertia
from relatively narrow axial zones of said rotor,
of the dislodging operation being substantially
constantly reciprocated. longitudinally substan
tially through the axial limits of the wax stratum "
during the continued feed of oil solution to the
rotor, said reciprocation occurring at a su?cient 10
‘rate to cause the discharge of a wax phase of
substantially uniform oil content from the rotor.
5. The method of separating wax from an oil
solution immiscible with said wax and having a
higher speci?c gravity than said wax which com 15
prises subjecting the suspension of the wax in
the solution to a centrifugal stratifying operation , I
to thereby effect progressive separation of the
wax from oil as it passes inwardly in the centrif
ugal rotor and removing from the rotor the wax 20
subsided by said stratifying operation, said re
moval being accomplished by dislodging wax from
the inner surface of the wax stratum under the
in?uence of its own inertia simultaneously from‘
a plurality of relatively narrow axial zones of 25'.
said rotor, the zones of performance of the dis
lodging operation being substantially constantly
reciprocated longitudinally substantially through
the axial limits of the wax’ stratum during‘ the
continued feed of voil solution to the rotor, said 30
reciprocation occurring at a sumcient rate to
cause the discharge of a. wax phase of substan
tially-uniform‘oil content from the rotor.
6. The method of separating viscous or semi
solid particles suspended in a liquid immiscible 35
with said particles and having a higher speci?c
gravity than said particles which comprises sub
jecting the suspension of the particles in the liquid
to a centrifugal stratifying operation to thereby
effect progressive separation of the particles from
the liquid as they pass inwardly in the centrif
ugal rotor and removing from the rotor the
particles subsided by said stratifying operation,
said removal being accomplished by dislodging
the zone of performance of the dislodging opera- ' said particles from the ‘inner surface of the
tion being substantially constantly reciprocated
' longitudinally substantially through the axial
limits of the wax stratum during'the continued
feed of oil solution to the rotor.
3. The method of separating wax from an oil
50
solution immiscible with said wax- and having a
higher speci?c gravity than said wax which com
40
45
stratum thereof under the in?uence of their own
inertia, from relatively narrow axial zones of
said rotor, the zone of performance of the dis
lodging operation being substantially constantly
reciprocated longitudinally substantially through
50
the axial limits of the stratum during the con
tinued' feed of suspensionto the rotor.
.,
..'7. The method of separating viscous or semi
prises subjecting the suspension of the wax in vthe
solution to a centrifugal stratifying operation to solid particles suspended in a liquid immiscible 55
thereby
effect progressive‘ separation of the wax with said particles and havingla higher speci?c
55
from oil as it. passes inwardly in the centrifugal gravity than said particles which comprises sub
jecting the suspension of the particles in the
rotor and removing from the rotor the wax sub
sided by said stratifying operation, said removal liquid to a centrifugal stratifying operation to
being accomplished by dislodging wax from the thereby effect progressive separation of the par 60
ticles from the liquid as they pass inwardly in
‘inner surface of the wax stratum under the in
the centrifugal rotor and removing from the
?uence of its own inertia simultaneously from a rotor the ‘particles subsided by said stratifying
plurality of relatively narrowaxial zones of said operation, said removal being accomplished by
rotor, the zones of performance of the dislodging
dislodging said particles from the inner surface
operation being substantially constantly recipro
‘ of the stratum thereof under the in?uence of 65
65 cated longitudinally substantially through the their own inertia from relatively narrow axial
axial limits of the wax stratum during the con
.zones of said rotor, the zone of performance of
tinued feed of oil solution to the rotor.
4. The method of separating wax from an oil the dislodging operation being substantially con
stantly reciprocated longitudinally substantially
solution immiscible with said wax and having a‘ through the axial limits of the stratum during the 70
70 higher speci?c gravity than said wax ‘which ‘com
prises subjecting the suspension of the wax in the continued feed of suspension to the rotor, said re
solution to a centrifugal stratifying operation to ciprocation occurring ‘at a suf?cient rate to cause
thereby effect progressive separation of ‘the wax I the discharge of a solid phase of substantially
from oil as it passes inwardly in the centrifugal uniform liquid content from the rotor.
_ LEO D. JONES.
76 rotor and removing from the rotor the wax sub
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