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Патент USA US2111540

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March 22, 1938.
G. c. ARMSTRONG
2,111,540
VOLTAGE REGULATOR
Filed Sept. 5, 1935
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INVENTOR
?earye C. Hrmsfrovy.
BY
Patented Mar. 22, 1938
2,111,546}
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFEC
2,ll1,54®
'
VOLTAGE REGULATOR,
George 0. Armstrong, Forest Hills, Fa, assignor.
to Westinghouse Electric 85 Manufacturing
Company, East Pittsburgh, Pa, a corporation
of Pennsylvania
Application September 5, recs. Serial No. se,%t
3 Claims.
/(Cl. rise-s35)
This invention relates to voltage regulators.
It is an object of this invention to provide a
voltage regulator of more dead-beat action than
has heretofore been obtained.
5
It is a further object of this invention to pro-1'
duce a voltage’regulator thoroughly reliable and
of less cost than those heretofore known. '
Other objects of the invention will be apparent
from the following description and the accom
panying drawing, in which:
'
Figure 1 is a diagram illustrating the voltage
regulator and its circuit; and
Fig. 2 is a set of curves used in the explanation
of the invention.
In Fig. 1, the line I supplies direct-current
power which is intended to produce a uniform
alternating—current voltage on the line 2-2.
The voltage is supplied by means of an alternat
. ing-current generator 3 having a ?eld t and
20 driven by a motor‘fed from the line I. Con
nected across the line 2 is the voltage regulator
which comprises a magnetic circuit 5 having two
branches. One branch has less iron than the
other. This is represented in the drawing by a
25 notch 6, although in actual construction, a small.
er body of iron in this branch than in the other
branch could be used;
~
The middle member ‘I of the magnetic circuit
affords a pole face on which arotor 8 moves. On 30 the branch having the smaller amount of iron
is a coil 9. The number of turns in this coil is
preferably larger than that of the cell It on the
other branch. Instead of the larger mimber of
turns, I may obtain the same effect by altering
35 the length of the branch or of the air gap there
pole it.
This is illustrated in Fig. 2 where the curve
Al3 shows the ?ux in pole l3 and the curve B“
that in pole it for given voltage across the line
2.
These curves cross one another because for
the magnetic circuit with the smaller amount of 20
iron, the increase in ?ux with increasing voltage
is more rapid at low voltage than it is at higher.
For the magnetic circuit with the more iron and
the fewer turns in the coil, the increase in ?ux
with increasing voltage is less rapid at low volt
age and more rapid at high voltage than with the
other magnetic circuit. This means that the
curve Alt will be steeper at first than curve B“
but more nearly horizontal at high voltage than
curve Bit. The two curves must, therefore, cross.
The resistor M is adjusted so that the ?uxes
so’
through the two pole faces are equal at the volt
in.
_ In series with the coil 8 is an adjustable resistor
convenient setting of the resistor H.
series with the coil Ill. The connections through
40 the coils and resistors in each case are across the
line 2.
The rotor’ 8 is mounted on the pole face “i to
oscillate under the in?uence of the alternating
?ux of. the pole ‘ faces l3 and H in- the two
45 branches, respectively. The windings of the coils
8 and Ill are in such senses that the polarities of
poles l3 and I l at any one moment are alike.
. Springs I5 and I6 act on the rotor' 8 through
pressure blocks. A spiral spring I’! connects the
50 I rotor 8 with a shaft l8 which may be mounted in
any suitable bearings. Springs l8 and 20 serve
to center the arm 2| which‘ is connected to the
shaft l8. Contacts 22 and 28 cooperate with con
tacts 24 upon said arm.
.66
the branch having the pole piece it. At higher
voltage, the e?ect oi the notch 6 becomes notice
able and the coil Si produces less ?ux through the
pole it than the coil ill produces through the 16
age on the line 2 which is desired. The resistor
l2, if one is used, is so adjusted that the adjust 35
ment just described can be accomplished with a
II and an adjustable resistor i2 may be in
\
l ; contacts 22 and 28 are connected, respectively,
to ?elds 5 and
of a motor 2?. The armature
of this motor is connected between that side of
the line H which is not connected to the contact
2t and the common terminal of the two ?elds 25
and it. The motor
drives an adjustable rheo
stat ?t.‘ which is connected in series between the
held it and the line 6.
In operation of the device, at low voltage, the
coil iii will produce less ?ux in the branch having 10
the pole face it than the coil 5 will produce in
- ‘
I
Contact 24 is connected to one side or the line
.
When the flux in the two branches is equal
the device is without effect upon the rotor 8.
When the flux through the branch H is greater 40
than the flux; through the branch l3, the rotor 8
is subjected to the ?ux entering from the pole
face I and to the difference between the flux from
pole l3 and that from pole M. It is also sub
jected to the biasing effect of one of the springs 45
l5 and I8 and its action is further e?ected by
its bwn hysteresis. The combined effect’ of these
three in?uences has been discussed in detail in
my copending application Serial No. 46,287, ?ied
October 23, 1935.
‘
'
‘
When the attraction of pole ll exceeds that of
pole H, the motion of the rotor 8 will result in a
cumulative, e?’ect of a. rotation clockwise as seen.
in Fig. 1. The step-by-step character of this ro
which is largely absorbed by theaction- of the
2,111,540
spring II, the individual steps or the rotation be
ing too rapid to show in the movement oi.’ the cyl
inder U.
The moment of inertia of the arm 2|
is great enough to further absorb what remains
of the non-uniform characteristic of the rotation
and the result is that the arm moves toward the
right with a practically steady torque. This
brings the contact 24 against the contact 23 and
holds it there.
After the motion of the arm 2|
10 is stopped by the contacts being in engagement,
further motion of the rotor 0 is absorbed in tight
ening the spring l‘l until this spring exerts enough
biasing effect to prevent further rotation of the
?uence of said pressure, the friction with the
pole face and the difference between the ?ux in
the two side portions, in one sense or the other ac
.
vided with pole faces and a member common to
both of said portions, coil means for energizing
the opposite direction.
of the spring 20.
10
cording as the ?ux in one side portion or the other
When the tractive effect of the pole I3 exceeds
that of the pole I4, a similar action takes place in
The spring It then takes ' said portions, a cylinder of magnetic material in
the place of the spring l6 and the spring I9 that
The contact 24 in this case
20 meets the contact 22.
‘
When the voltage on the line 2 is low, current
in coil 9 produces more ?ux in pole l3 than cur~
rent in coil III produces in pole l4. It results,
therefore, that contacts 22 and 24 close with the
25 result that the ?eld 25 and the armature 21 are
connected as a series motor and the rheostat 28
moves to adjust the ?eld 4 so that-the voltage
will be corrected.
On the other hand, when the voltage on the
30 line 2 is high, the rotor 8 will move clockwise as
seen in Fig. 1, and contacts 24 and 23 will close,
with the result that the ?eld 28 now cooperates
with the armature 21 and the rheostat 28 is moved
in the opposite direction adjusting the ?eld 4 in
the opposite way, to'again correct the voltage on
the line 2.
’
Many modi?cations o! the details of this inven
tion will be apparent to those skilled in the art
and I do not wish to be limited by the speci?c i1
40
pole of the central portion, and spring-pressed
blocks acting on said cylinder from each side,
whereby the cylinder will rotate, under the in
is greater.
2. In a voltage regulator, a magnetic structure
having two portions oi’ different reluctance pro
cylinder.
15
central portion and a pole on each side portion,
the three poles being adjacent each other, a hol
low cylinder of magnetic material in the space
separating said poles said cylinder resting on the
lustration 01' one circuit.
' ‘
I claim as my invention:
1. A magnetic structure having a central por
tion and two side portions of di?erent reluctance,
a coil on each of the two side portions, an adjust
45 able resistor in series with one coil, a pole on the
the space between said pole faces and contacting
said common member, spring-pressed blocks act
ing on said cylinder from each side, whereby the 20
cylinder will rotate under the in?uence of said
pressure and the di?erence between the ?ux in
said two portions, in one direction or the other
according as the ?ux in one portion or the other is
greater, and contact-making means controlled
by said rotation.
3. In a voltage responsive device, a magnetic
circuit having two branches severally comprising
portions extending in substantial alinement and
a member common to both of said branches and 30
extending at substantially right angles to said
portions, coil means for separately energizing
each 01‘ said branches, one of said coil means hav
ing more turns than the other, and a member ro
tatable in response to the relative ?uxes from
both of said coils around an axis at substantially
right angles to the ?ux emanating from each of
said portions and from said common member, one
of said branches having less iron than the other
and having wound thereon said coil having more (0
turns, whereby the effect of one branch on said
rotatable member increases with increasing volt
age faster at low voltage and slower at high volt
age than the ei'fect of the other.
GEORGE C. ARMSTRONG.
45
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