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Патент USA US2111707

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March 22, 1938.
Filed March 13„ 1936
3 Sheets-Sheet l
March 22, 1938.
Filed March l5, 1956
5 Sheets-Sheet 2
im 3. `
' E30.
March 22, 1938..
Filed March 13, 1936
5 Sheets-Sheet 5
)H ¿MM
Mar. 22, 1938-
~ ,111,101
BLANKET msm'ran nameaaa'roa een
Gustav r. v'rorimîra on, sans. _
Appucatión March 1s, 193s, serian No.- satis
comms. (ci. mss-42a» f
The present invention relates to refrigerator
cars in which the walls, floor and roof are pro
N, These and other objects and advantages ofthe
invention will be brought out more fully in the
tected against entrance of heat by means >of in
following speciñcation, which should be readl
sulation applied in the form of felted or woven
with the understanding that the form. _construc
sheets or blankets.
. tion and arrangement'of the several parts de
lanket insulation is more efil'cient than other
forms, and is considerably cheaper and easier
".toinstall. Its use permits thinner and lighter
_ walls,_ thereby saving space, material, and weight.
l@ lit has been used in refrigerator cars to some
' extent, but with indifferent success, the diiiiculty
being that, in orderto be most effective, it must
be continuous, or as nearly so as possible, around
lthe sides, ends. hoor and roof of the car, and
it must have a minimum‘number of fastening mem
bers extending through it. Under such condi
tions, 4which are necessary to proper emciency of
insulation. no successful and practicable means
have heretofore been developed for holding the
blanket insulation in place, and for connecting'
the innerand outer walls of the car together‘with
suilicient strength and rigidity to withstand the
stresses of loading and traveling. " `
The principal object of the 1present invention
is to overcome the dimculties described above,
vim-¿to provide a construction in which the in
ner structure or lining of the car> is as nearly .as
possible entirely surrounded by an unliroken lay
scribed and »illustrated may be varied without de»
parting from the spirit of the invention as de
fined in the appended claims. -
Reference will be made to the accompanying
drawings, wherein`
Fig. 1 is a transverse section through a refrig
erator car embodying a preferred form of the in- .
Fig, 2 is a broken plan view with the outer
roof renioved, showing one method of folding the
blanket insulation at the corners.
Fig. 3 is a broken plan view similar to Fig. 2,
showing another _method of folding the blanket
Fig.- 4 is a vertical sectional detail of an upper
corner, taken on the line i-t ofFig. 2.
Fig. .5 is a vertical sectional detail showing the
attachment of one of the ceiling carlines to the
upper side belt rail. ,y
Fig. 61s a horizontal section of one end portion
of the car.
Fig. '7 is a verticalsectional detail of the roof
_and side wall lining, taken on- the line ï-‘i of
Fig. 1.
`er of Ablanket insulation, and in which said lin
:In the drawings the reference numeral 8 des
iw ing, although independent, asv respects its load
carrying function, of the outer walls of the car, ignates the longitudinal central member of the
and supported entirely by the Vunder-frame and ' under-frame of the canand da are the trans
floor structure. is sufficiently attached to said ‘verse members thereof'. At the outer ends of said
transverse members 8a are longitudinal side angle
_outer walls to be adequately braced thereby.
A further object is to providey a construction in members thextending theiull length of the car,_
which the blanket insulation is compressed and to winch the lower edges- of» the steel side sheath
supported at as few points as are Vnecessary to
keep Iit from shifting, and in whiclr- a minimum
-number/of connecting members. such as bolts,
.screws and nails, extend'between the lining and
the outer frame„such connecting members as
are ._ necessarily employed terminating- short oi
the inner and -outer surfaces and their >endsibe
ing Plates t lare _ riveted.
angle '
members il' are supported by suitably spaced
brackets il. The angle members i0 and wooden
stringere l2, resting upon the transverse mem 40
bers 8a, support the wooden sub-floor i3. Longi--tudinal wooden spacers It are laid upon the sub
ñoor, some distancev in from its side edges, and
down vto the angle members I0 by
ing insulated to prevent conduction >of heat. ’
Still further objects are to provide a car hav -bolts IE, ¿one-of which is shown at the left in 45
ing a wooden 'lining and a steel outer shell. which i' Fig.` 1. The heads of these bolts are deeply _
is' so _well insulated as to be superior in-efüc'iency » countersunk,- as shown.
tothe more usual al1-wood structure; to provide
improved construction whereby the inside lining
. supports the inner ceiling and> its insulation, en
tirely free from the loute‘r steel roof; and to pro
vide for extending the blanket insulation around
the upper corners of the car, vwhere the roof
ÍTwc or more layers it of blanket insulation of
any suitable iand well known'type are laid upon
the sub-floor i3, between the >spacers it, with 50
their _edges turned up against »said spacers, as
vshown at i1. Wooden nailing ’cleats i8 are laid
at >suitable intervals above eachJayer >to keep
meets the walls, without interruption and with ' them from shifting and to Asupport the inner wood__
1 out joints at said corners.
floor i9. which is laid across on top of the spacers f
I4 andk nailing cleats I9, and is covered, as usual,
with a waterproof lining 20.
- The steel side sheathing plates 9 extend up
ward almost to the roof of the car, and are re
inforced by vertical Z bars 9a. secured to their
inner faces as shown in Fig. 6. Fig. 1 shows, at
the left, a section of the solid portion of the side
wall, whereas at the right is shown a door to
be described later. Outer horizontal belt rails
10 2l, 22 and 23 are secured, by any means not
shown, to the inside of the side plates 9, and ex
tend between the vertical Z bars 9a, except
where the door interrupts them. A plurality of
layers, preferably three, of blanket insulation 24
15 are positioned vertically against the outer belt
rails, and are clamped between them and inner
belt rails 25, 26 and 21 for support and to pre
'vent shifting. Bolts 28 extend through both in
ner and outerbelt rails to clamp them upon the
20 insulation.
Both ends of these bolts aredeeply
countersunk, and the sockets in which their heads
and nuts rest should be filled with some plastic
insulating material. The inner lining 29 of the
wall consists of wooden boards, preferably with
25 tongue and groove joints, set vertically, as shown
in Fig. 7, instead of horizontally as is the usual
practice. The lining 29 is nailed to the inner
belt rails. The bottom inner belt rail 25 rests
upon the inner floor I9, and is preferably cham
30 fered, as at 39, to receive the ends of the lining
29. Ply-wood sheets may be used for the lining
29 instead of tongue and groovev boards, the es
The upper edges of the steel side sheathing
plates 9 have longitudinal stiffening Z-bar mem
bers 4| secured to them, and to these is secured
the steel roof 40 by means of intervening angle
members 42. The roof 49 is of ordinary con
struction, reinforced by transverse ribs, one of
which is shown at 43.
It rests entirely on the
steel side sheathing plates 9, and is independent
of the ceiling carlines 33 and insulation 39.
If the particular blanket vinsulation used is 10
heavy and thick, it must be mitered at the cor
ners of the ceiling where it is folded over, as
shown at 44 in Fig. 2. If it is thinner, and space
will permit, it can be folded over in square cor
ners, as shown at 44a in Fig. 3. The effect is the 15
same in either case, vizt-'that the side insulation
is carried continuously up and around the angle
between the wall and the ceiling, so that such
joints as are unavoidable, as shown at 24b in
Fig. 1, occur in 4the horizontal ceiling portion, 20
where they are less .likely to spread apart than if
they were located at the corner or in the vertical
Moreover, these joints 24h are -stag
gered as between the several layers, so that there
can be no direct opening through the entire body 25
of insulation at any point;
The wall insulation is continuous also at the
vertical corners of the car, as shown in Fig. 6.
Each layer 24 is a continuous blanket extending
from ther door post 45 on one side of the car, 30
to and around the end and back to the door post
45a on the other side, the ends of said blankets
sential feature being that said lining'must have " being clamped between nailing cleats 45h at said
sufficient compressive strength, in the vertical door posts. Thus there are no joints in the side
35 direction, to support the weight of the ceiling
structure, as described hereinafter.
It should be noted that the bolts 28 do not ex
wall insulation, except where necessitated by the 35
framing of the doors. Moreover, there are very
few vertical «clamping or nailing strips in the
side walls' between the insulation 24 and the lin
plate 9 or the lining 29, and do not even contact -ing 29, the only such strips being the cleats 45h
at the door posts and similar cleats 45e at the 40
40 the surfaces thereof, so that Vthere is no direct
metallic path from outside to inside- through corners of the car andat the ends of the ice
tank bulkhead 29a. The necessity for more fre
which heat might enter by conduction.
The usual floor racks 3|, for supporting the quent vertical nailing cleats is obviated by the
lading, are provided with hinged brackets, one of -solici steel outside plates 9 and the vertical ar
45 which is shown at 32, bolted to the bottom belt rangement of the lining boards 29. 'I'herefore the 45
rails. These bolts, like the bolts 28, do not extend insulation is compressed only >along the three
horizontal‘belt rails and the few vertical cleats
either to or through the -outer plate 9.
tend through either the outside steel sheathing
The ceiling structure, which is independent of
the outer steel roof and is supported entirely by
45h and 45e, thus providing maximum effective
The construction of the end' walls, shown in 50
Fig. 6 and in part in Fig. 4, is substantially the
same as that of the side walls, and need not be
described in detail. Horizontal nailing cleats 23a
and 21a correspond in function and approximate
brackets 34 and bolts 35 (seev Fig. 5) . These car
lines 33 also rest upon the upper edge of the side . position to the side belt rails 23 and 21. The 55
lining 29. 'I'he wooden ceiling lining 36, Figs. l outside end shell is a steel plate 9b. Roof hatches
50 the wall lining 29, comprises spaced transverse
carlines 33, preferably wood, extending across be
tween the upper inside belt rails 21, resting in
notches 33a therein, and secured thereto by angle
and 7, is nailed to the under sides of the oar
f lines 33, and a layer of rigid insulating board 31
is laid upon and nailed to their upper sides.
Molding strips 39 may be used if desired, atthe
corners between the wall and ceiling lining.
The wall insulation 24 is extended up about a
the foot above the upper belt rails 21, and its free
upper edges are bent over horizontally, as shown
at 24a, on top of the rigid ceiling insulation v31,
so that no joint occurs in said blanket insulation
at the upper corner-of the car. Moreover, the
several layers of said blanket insulation are ex
tended to different heights, so that, when bent
70 over, their edges are staggered, as shown at 24h,
in Fig. 1. Between the edges of the bent over
portions 24a of the side insulation are laid hori
zontal layers 390i similar blanket insulation,
resting upon the rigid insulation 31 and held be
75 tween it and the steel roof 40 to prevent shifting.
46 may be constructed in any desired manner,
preferably with awoodframe 46a supported by the
carlines 33, and a steel flange 40a secured to the
roof 40 and extending into the wood frame 46a 60
as shown.
The framing of the door openings-require the
interruption of the insulation. At said doors, as
shown at the right in Fig. 1, the three outer belt
rails 2l, 22 and 23 are interrupted, and also the 65
lower and middle inside belt rails 25 and 26. The
upperinside belt rail 21, however,- runs through
above the door framing, thus providing continuous
support for the ceiling carlines 33. The doorframe comprisesan outer wooden sill 41 which
fills the space between the side sheathing plate 9
and the spacer I4, and which is rabbeted to re
ceive a reinforcing angle member 48 attached to
said side sheathing plate 9, which is itself formed
with a ñange 49 „extending over said sill 41. A
3 ,
composition threshold plate 50, ofusual'type,
the outside shell or inside lining, or both, thereby
overlies the sill 41 and the edge- of the floor. i9, -' minimizing conduction of heat. Finally, the use
and an inner sill 5i overlaps the inner edge of of a steel shell and roof, with a wood lining and
said'plate. A gasket 52 is provided between the blanket insulation, permits thinner walls for
inner sill 5| and the door. ‘
At the top of _ the door opening is a wooden
equivalent insulating eifect, thereby saving space
. " and weight.
I claim:
lintel 53 secured to the side plate 9 by an angle
1. In a refrigerator car, an outer' shell hav
member 54 and bolts 55. The lintel lies imme
diateiy under the belt rail 21 and reinforces it ing walls and a roof supported therebyya lining
spaced within said shell and having walls and a 10
10 across the door'y opening, and also provides sup
port for the lining 29 at this point. 'I'he blanket ceiling supported by said lining walls; blanket
insulation above the door opening consists of three insulation within the spaces betweemthe shell
strips 24e, matching the ceiling blankets 39 with walls and the lining walls, said -insulation extend
staggered joints 2lb. These strips 24e extend _ ing continuously without horizontal joints from
15 around the horizontal corner-between the ceiling the iioor of the car to and above said ceiling and
and the side wall over the door opening, as shown, being folded over horizontally to li'e on top of
and have their lower edges clamped between a said ceiling; and additional blanket insulation in
the space between said ceiling and said roof, ex- `
flange of the lintel 53 and the belt rail 2l. .
The door itself, which is hung in any suitable
20 manner, not shown, comprises a rectangular wood
frame ,56 to which an outside steel plate 51 is
secured by means of angle members 5B and bolts
59, saidfbolts` preferably extending through the
frame 5B in a direction parallel to the surface of
25 the plate 5l, as shown, rather than perpendicular
to it, in order to minimize conduction of heat.
The heads of all bolts used around the door are
deeply countersunk andshould be covered with
plastic insulation. A plurality of' layers of blan
ket insulation 80 are laid inside the steel plate 5l!
tending between the folded edges of said wall
insulation, the joints between said wall insula 20
tion?'and said ceiling insulation being inthe hori
zontal space'between the ceiling and the roof.
’ 2. In a refrigerator car, an outer shell hav
ing 4.walls and .a' roof supported thereby; `a lin
ing spaced within said shell and having walls 25
and a ceiling, supported by said lining walls; a
plurality of insulating blankets within the spaces
between the shell walls andthe lining walls, said
blankets extending continuously without hori
zontal `ioints from the floor of the car to and 30
of the door, and their edges are turned inwardly, > abovel said ceiling and being .folded horizontally
as at 6i, land, clamped against the frame ‘55 by over said ceiling; and additional insulating
nailing cleats B2. The wood lining 63 is nailed blankets resting upon said' ceiling and filling ‘
to the inside of the frame 56.
It will be seen from the foregoing that the con
struction described provides a continuous blan
ket insulation around‘the entire car, interrupted
only at >the door frames and at the lower corners
the space between the'folded edges of said wall
blankets, said blankets being of different widths
whereby the `ioints between the 'wall blankets and
the ceiling blankets are staggered, _all said joints
being between the ceiling and the roof.
3. In a refrigerator car having spaced inner
_ where the inner floor is supported -on the spacers „
and outer side and end walls, a roof supported
40 It. At these points the use of wooden framing
members reduces heat conduction to a minimum, - by the outer walls, land a ceilingsupported by
wood itself having good insulating properties.
the inner walls. and spaced `below said roof;
Moreover, the area of these regions where the insulation between said inner and outer walls
4blanket insulation is interrupted is reduced to a `and said ceiling and said roof, said insulation,
45 minimum, especially along the lower corners, by
extending said insulation down to the sub-ño'or i3,
as shown in Fig. l, causing it to overlap the edges
of the inner door.
The continuity of the _blanket insulation, par-`50 ticularly around the upper corners of the car, is
made possibi by the use of a’steel outer shell for
comprising a blanket extending- continuously
- from a point in one side' wall to and through one
lend wall to a point »in the other side wall, said
blanket also extending continuously- from the
' - bottoms of the walls to and around the corners
between said walls and the ceiling, the upper 60
edge portion of saidblariket vbeing folded over
the entire `c r, and by making the lining as a horizontally- to lie upon said ceiling, whereby
separate structure whose weight‘vis supported en
there are no'joints inj‘said blanket'at either the
tirely by the under-frame and door, and which vertical corners between the side and end walls
or the horizontal corners between the wallsjandl
55 carries the inner ceiling '_structure, and its> insu
lation independent of the outer roof. 'I'he con
the roof.
nections between the inner and outer belt rails
4. In a refrigerator car having` spaced ~inner
22 and 26, and 23 and 2l, are for insulation fas
and outer side and end walls, a roof supported
A tening purposes only. _The weight of the ceiling f by the outer walls, and a ceiling supported by the _
60 stnucture and its insulation is borne by the ver- ' - inner walls and spaced below..said roof; insula
tical compressive strength of lining boarding 29 tion between said inner and outer walls and said
directly from the lower belt rail 25, which rests f ceiling and said roof, said insulation comprising
upon the solid floor structure.
This construction
Y‘permits the blanket insulation to be carried
around ~thc upper corners and into thef ceiling
structure, which arrangement eliminates all joints
'a blanket extending continuously from a point
in one side wall to and through-one end wall to a
point in the other side wall, said blanket also
extending continuously from the bottoms of thev
walls,- and brings them into the ceiling where they
walls to andaround the upper corners of the car,
and another blanket lying upon said ceiling and
are less liable to spread apart. .
ñlling the space between the folded edges ofthe
in the insulation at the corners and in the vertical
The described construction also provides dead
air spaces in the walls’l floor, and ceiling, thereby
increasing'the insulating effect; permits the least
possible compression of the blanket insulation;
wall blanket, wherebythere are no horizontal
`ioints in the wail insulation, and no joints what
ever at eitherthe vertical or upper horizontal
_ "and enables all connecting bolts running through
5. In a refrigerator car, a metal outer shell
the insulation tobe terminated short of either
corners of the car.
having walls -and a roof supported thereby; n_on
metallic lining wa/lls spaced within said shell
walls; carlines extending across above .said lin
ing Walls and supported thereby in spaced rela
tion belowsaid roof; a ceiling lining secured to
the under sides of said carlines; a layer of rigid
insulation resting upon the upper sides of said
carlines; and blanket insulation within -the space
between the shell and the lining, said blanket
insulation extending around the corners between
10 the walls and the ceiling, and having a hori
zontal portion resting upon and wholly sup
ported by said rigid insulation.
6. In a refrigerator car, a metal outer shell
having walls and a roof supported thereby; non
15 metallic lining walls spaced within said shell
walls; carlines extending across above said lin
ing walls and supported thereby in spaced rela
tion below said roof; a ceiling lining secured to
the under sides of said carlines; a layer of rigid
insulation resting upon the upper‘sides of said.
carlines; insulating blankets Within the lspaces
between the shell walls and the lining walls, the
upper edge portions of` said blankets extending
around the corners between the walls and the
ceiling and being bent over the edge portions of
said rigid insulation; and another insulating
blanket lying upon said rigid insulation and 10
extending between the bent over edges of the
ñrst mentioned-blankets, whereby the entire lin
ing structure of the car is covered by blanket
insulation, and the only joints therein are posi
tioned in the horizontal portion thereof above the
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