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March 22, 1938. A, C. ¿ATLAND 2,111,752 yROLLER ROCK BIT . I Filed July 6, 1936 2 Sheets-Sheet l m 11 March 22, 1938. ` A. c. CATLAND 2,111,752 lROLLER ROCK BIT Filed July 6, 1936 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 2,111,752 Patented Mar. 22, 1938 UNITED STATESPATENT OFFICE 2,111,752 ROLLER ROCK BIT AlfredÀ C. Catland, Alhambra, Calif., assignor to Globe Oil Tools Company, Los Nietos, Calif., a corporation of California Applicationy July 6, 1936, Serial No. 88,989 1?. Claims. (Cl. Z55-71) This invention relates to a well drilling tool ters I4, and means I6 for ñushing the cutters II, I2 and I4. t and relates more particularly to a roller rock bit The shank or body III is provided to carry the for use in the rotary method of well drilling. A general object of thisinvention is 4to provide a cutters and the various other parts of the tool. 5 practical, improved and particularly effective The body I0 is adapted to be connected with the 5 roller rock bit. ' Another object of this invention is to provide a roller rock bit embodying a novel and simplified arrangement of parts which promotes the general 10 eiliciency of the tool and makes it inexpensive and easy to service. » Another object of this invention is to provide In the particular case illustrated a ta pered screw threaded socket I ‘I is provided in the upper end of the body III to receive the threaded pin I8 of a drill collar or the like. 'I'he body I0 is an integral member having a cylindrical up per part through which the socket Ilextends. The lower portion of the body I0 is preferably of ported intermediate its ends by a novel remov enlarged diameter and is open at its lower end. 15 Depending parts or wings are provided on the lower,end of the body I0 to carry the cutter mounting means I3 and I5. Legs or wings I9 project downwardly from the body Ill at dia body. 4 . l "o Another object of this invention is to provide a roller rock bit of the character mentioned in which the shafts or pins supporting the outer cutter bushings are subjected to little or no shear strain and, therefore, are not liable to fail when IS "ai the tool is in operation. _ y Another object of this invention is to provide a roller rock bit in which the removable parts are securely and dependably locked against loss l 30 means. a roller rock bit embodying sets of inner cutters rotatably supported on a single angular pin sup able stud. Another object of this invention is to provide a roller rock bit in which the several cutter sup porting legs or shanks are integral parts íof the „u lower end of a well drilling string and is pro vided at its upper end with suitable connecting and displacement when the tool is in operation and yet may be easily removed for replacement, etc. - Another object of this invention is to provide a rollerV rock bit embodying improved means for „, flushing the several roller cutters. The various objects and features of my inven tion will be fully understood from the following detailed description of a typical preferred form and application of the invention, throughout which description reference is made to the ac companying drawings, in which: Fig. 1 is'a central longitudinal detailed secf tional view of the bitprovided by this invention, being a view taken as indicated by line I-I on Fig. 2. Fig. 2 is a fragmentary vertical detailed sectional view taken substantially as indicated by line- 2-2 on Fig. 3. Fig. 3 is a reduced side ’elevation of the blt and Fig. 4 is a fragmentary transverse detailedV sectional view taken as ln i to, .dicated by line df-l on Fig. 1.. ` The improved roller bit of the present invention '_-jinc1udes, generally, a‘body III, two sets of inner --'roller cutters II and I2, means I3 rotatably sup ‘ porting the cutters II and I2, two outer cutters .n 55 I4, means I5 ‘rotatably mounting the outer cut metrlcally opposite points. The wings I9 pro ject downwardly and slightly outwardly. Raised 20 or inwardly projecting parts are provided on the inner sides of the wings I9 adjacent their lower ends and present ,substantially vertical thrust surfaces 2li. A ilat downwardly facing shoulder 2| is provided at the lower end of each thrust surface 2li.q The lower ends or wings I9 are pref f erably bevelled downwardly and inwardly as clearly illustrated in Fig. 2; ' The invention includes ‘wings 22 projecting downwardly and outwardly from the lower por tion of the body I0 at points substantially 90° from the above described legs I9. Raised sur faces 23 are provided on the inner sides of the legs 22. The surfaces 23 are inclined down- 35 wardly and outwardly relative to the central longitudinal axis of the bit. Flat faces or shoulders 24 are provided on the lower ends of the wings 22 and are normal tothe thrust sur faces 23. The spaced legs I9 and 22 surround 40 or define a relatively large socket-like space at the lower end of the body I0. An integral par tition or wall 25 separates the socket I1 from the space or opening in the lower end of thc body I0. In accordance with the inventionl a web 26 45 depends from the wall 25. The web 26 is an in~ teg‘ral part of the body Ill and lies in and adjacent the central vertical plane ol thi; body. The web . 26 is relatively thin and its opposite side edges which oppose the wings 22 slope downwardly and outwardly. Inner wings 2l form integral -con tinuations oi‘ the web 26. The wings 21 are in clined downwardly and outwardly relative to the central vertical axis of thc tool and present raised thrust surfaces 28 which are spaced from and 55 2 animee parallel with the surfaces 23. Flat shoulders 29 Si occur on the lower ends of the wings 2l. The shoulders 29 are preferably normal to the thrust surfaces «8. The cutters ll and I2 are rotatably supported in the open lower end of the body l0 to act on the inner portion of the bottom wall of the well bore. The inner cutters are arranged in sets or pairs each pair comprising a relatively 10 small cutter II and a larger cutter l2. The cut ters II and l2 are in the nature of roller cutters, the cutters I I being cylindrical cutters and the cutters i2 being frusto-conical cutters. The re1 15 atively small cutters Il havecentral longitudinal openings 30 and peripheral cutting teeth 3 I. The cutting teeth 3I may be straight and axial. lin the preferred construction the inner ends of the teeth 3| project beyond or overhang the inner ends of the cutters II. The opposite ends of 20 the cutters II may be flat and normal. frusto-conical inner cutters I2 have central gitudinal openings 32 and flat normal ends. ripheral cutting teeth 33 are provided on cutters l2. The teeth 33 may be straight 25 axial or may be spiralled if desired. The lon Pe the and The teeth 33 project beyond or overhang the large ends of the frusta-conical cutters I2. The cutters l2 are considerably larger than the cutters ll, their small ends being larger in diameter than the cut 30 ters il. . The means I3 operates to dependably sup port the sets of inner cutters I I and l2 for ro tation about downwardly and outwardly inclined axes. The cutter mounting means I3 includes 35 a substantially transverse shaft or pin 34. The pin 313 is angular having its major end portions inclined downwardly and outwardly. ‘The inter mediate portion 34a of the pin 34 is substantially horizontal. The opposite extremities 35 of the pin 34 are reduced in diameter. It is to be un derstood that the pin 34 may be cylindrical in transverse cross section. The pin 34 extends transversely between" the two opposite wings I 9 and its intermediate portion 34n is at the vertl 45 cal center of the tool. Studs or screws 36 are passed inwardly through downwardly and out wardly inclined openings 3'I in the legs I9 and are threaded in openings 38 in the opposite ends of the pin I3 to connect- the ends of the pin with 50 the legs i9. The screws 36 have heads 36a coun tersunk. or recessed in the outer ends of the open ings 31. The invention provides means for de pendably securing the screws 36 against un threading. Edge or corner portions 39 of the 55 heads 36a are peened into notches in the outer sides of the legs I9 to lock the screws 36 against rotation and unthreading. jecting upper end. A washer 41 is provided un der the nut 46. The nut 46 may be locked in place by a cotter key, or the like. The nut 46 urges the stud 42 upwardly so that its shoulder 43 is clamped against the shoulder 4I. The stud 42 serves to rigidly and dependably support the pin 34 between its ends. Thus the pin 3,4 is sup ported at its opposite ends and at its middle por tion. The cutters II are rotatable on the pin 34 ad jacent the opposite sides of the stud 42. In practice the inner cutters II may be directly rotatably supported on the pin 34. The stud 42 is preferably provided with downwardly con vergent thrust surfaces 48 against which the 15 inner ends of the cutters Il may bear. The pro jecting inner ends of the teeth 3| overhang a substantial portion of the lower end of the stud 42 to prevent the engagement of the earth forma tion with the stud. The teeth 3l projecting in 20 wardly below the end of the stud 42 act on the earth formation immediately adjacent the center of the well bore. The cutters I2 are rotatably supported on the pin 34 between the cutters ll and the wings i9. Roller bearings 49 may be provided to rotatably support the cutters I2 on the pin 34. 'I'hrust washers 50 are interposed between the outer ends of the cutters I2 and the wings I9. The washers 50 are arranged on the reduced end portions 35 of the pin 34 30 and their inner surfaces are engaged by the outer ends of the cutters I2. The outer sides of the washers 5D cooperate with the thrust surfaces 20. Extensions or lugs 5I are provided on the washers 50 and cooperate with the shoul ders ZI to hold the washers against rotation and to transmit the operating thrusts directly to the wings I9. The lower ends of the washers 50 and their lugs 5I may be bevelled oiîffiush with the lower ends of the wings I9. ` - In assembling the inner cuttersv II and I2 on 40 the body I0, the pin 34 is first entered in the opening 44 and is secured to the stud 42 by the pin 45. The cutters II and I2 are then properly arranged on the pin 34 and the washers 50 are placed on the end portions 35 of the pin. The Washers 50 may be force-fitted or press ñtted on the end portions 35 to retain the cut ters II and I2 on the pin 34 and thus facilitate the handling of the assembly. The stud 42 is then passed upwardly through the opening 40 at which time the lugs 5I are brought against the shoulders 2| . The screws 36 are then threaded in place and the nut 46 is threaded on the stud 42 to secure the cutter supporting assembly to the body l0. . . The outer cutters I4 are in the nature of frus The invention provides means for supportingv to-conical roller cutters. Each cutter I4 has a the pin 34 intermediate its ends. A central ver .central longitudinal opening 52. -The opposite 60 tical opening 40 is provided in the body web 26. ends of the cutters i4 are preferably «flat and The opening 40 extends downwardly from the normal. Suitable peripheral cutting teeth 53 are socket I‘I to the lower end of the web 26. A downwardly facing annular shoulder 4I is pro vided on the wall of the, opening 40. The cutter 65 mounting means I3 includes a stud 42 arranged longitudinally in the opening 40. The stud »42 has a shoulder 43 adapted to bear upwardly against the shoulder 4 I. A transverse opening 44 is provided in the lower portion of the'stud 42 70 and receives the straight intermediate portion 34a of the pin 34. A lock pin 45 ls arranged provided on the outer cutters I4. 'I'he teeth 53 may be straight or spiralled, as desired. The outer corners of‘the teeth 53 are preferably bev elled off while the inner ends of the teeth 53 pref through transverse openings in the pin 34 and the stud 42 to >secure the pin to the stud. The ' supporting lstud 42 projects upwardly into the 75 socket I‘I and a nut 46 is threaded on its pro erably overhang or project inwardly from the inner ends of the cutters I4. The means I5 rotatably support the inner cut ters I4 between the opposed Wings 22 and 21. The cutter supporting means I5 include bushings 70 54. The bushings 54 are arranged between the I adjacent opposed wings 22 and 2`I and are in clined downwardly and inwardly, having their longitudinal axes normal to the surfaces 23 and 28. The cutters I4 may be rotatably supported on 75 3 2,111,752 the bushings 54 through suitable roller bearings 55. The cutters I4 lare arranged with their large ends outermost and being rotatable about in clined axes the bcvelled- outer ends _of their teeth 53 are substantially vertical when the teeth come « into engagement with the formation. Thrust flanges 56 are provided on the inner ends of the bushings 54. The flanges 56 constitute thrust i I ~washers for transmitting operating thrusts from l0 the inner ends of the cutters I4 to the wings 21. are positioned so that one opening is above each outer cutter I4 and so that an opening 10 is above each pair of inner cutters II and I2. . The means I5 further includes ñow nipples or chokes 12 arranged in the openings 10. The chokes 12 are cylindrical members entered in the openings 10 from their upper ends. The chokes 12 closely'flt the openings 1liì and their lower ends bear on the shoulders 1I. Each choke 12 has a longitudinal fluid discharge opening 13. The 10 openings 13 are cylindrical at their upper ends and are transversely elongated at their lower ends. The walls of the openings 13 are smooth «and gradually rounded to provide for the ready discharge of the circulation fluid. The chokes 15 The outer sides of the flanges 55 are adapted to bear on the surfaces 28 while the inner ends of the cutters I4 and the bearings 55 bear on the inner surfaces of the flanges. Each flange 55 has 15 a lug 51 cooperating with a shoulder 29 to prevent 12 are positioned so that the lower ends of their rotation of its bushing 54 and to transmit up ward thrusts directly to the wings 21. The outer openings 13 are radially elongated and have their end portions 54u of the bushings 54 are reduced , major transverse axes substantially vertically `in diameter and thrust washers 58 are provided aligned with the axes of the cutters I4 and the ^ 20 on the reduced portions 54a. The washers 58 may axes of rotation of the cutters II and I2. Thus 20 be pressed or force-fitted on the reduced bushing the ñuid discharge openings 13 direct trans portions 54EL to retain the cutters I4 and the roller versely elongated streams of circulation fluid against the cutters, which streams extend bearings 55 on the bushings to facilitate the han dling and transporting of the cutter assemblies. throughout the lengths of the cutters to effect the 25 The washers 58 are engageable by the outer ends full flushing of the cutters. of the rollers 55 and the cutters I4 and bear on the surfaces 23 to transmit the end thrusts directly to the body wings 22. Extensions or lugs 5B are provided on the washers 5B and cooperate with the shoulders 24 to prevent rotation of the wash ers and to transmit upward thrusts to the wings 22. The lower outer corners of the washers 58 and their lugs 59 are bevelled off so that they do not contact the side wall ofthe well bore. The cutter supporting means I5. includes pins 5I! for holding the bushings 54 in place and for tying together the adjacent legs 22 ‘and 21. Aligned downwardly and inwardly inclined open ings ßI and 6I“ are provided in the legs 21 and 22 40 respectively. The pins 60 are passed outwardly through the openings 6I in the legs 21 and are threaded in the openings (iln in> the legs 22. Suitable heads 62 are provided on the inner ends of the pins 60 and are countersunk in the inner Means are provided to 45 ends of the openings 6l. prevent rotation and unthreading of the pins 60. 'I'he outer end parts of the pins 60 are reduced The washer 41 constitutes a means for holding' the chokes 12 in place. The washer 41 contacts the inclined upper surfaces of the chokes 12 ad jacent their peripheral edges to hold the chokes down and prevent their rotation. The lower ends of the body socket I1 is open and receives the cir culation fluid from the well drilling string S. This circulation fluid passes from the socket I1 through the openings 13 at an increased velocity. The openings 13 direct the circulation ñuid 35 downwardly against the teeth of the cutters II, I2 and Ill to clear them of mud and cuttings. It is believed that the operation ofthe improved roller bit provided by this invention will bc readi ly apparent from the foregoing detailed descrip 40 tion. In operation the tool is connected with the lower end of the drilling string S which is rotated and fed downwardly. During rotation of the string S the cutters I I, I2 and I4 act or roll on the formation at the bottom of the well 45 a bore to crush or cut away th'e same. The cutters II and I2 being rotatable about downwardly and and unthreaded. Extreme end or corner portions outwardly inclined axes act on the upper surface 53 of the pins 60 are peened into notches vin the y of a central conicalmound on the bottom wall of legs 22 to prevent unthreading of the pins. 'I'he ' the well bore. The cutters Il being smaller in 50 cutters I4 rotatably mounted as just described project downwardly beyond the lower ends of the legs 22 and 21 to act on the outer portion of the bottom wall of the well bore and to cut the well 55 bore to gauge. The inclination of the cutters I4 diameter than the cutters I2 provide a step or `‘inclined downwardly and inwardly as the teeth come into contact with the earth formation. The substantially the entire inner portion of the well . is such that the lower edges of their teeth 53 are cutters I2 and I4 are related so that they overlap 60 one another in their action on the earth forma ' tion and the lower ends of the legs 21 and the washers 56 do not come into contact with the earth formation. „ The means I6 for flushing the cutters II, I2 65 and I4 provides for the full effective flushing of the several cutters. The ñushing means I6 in shoulder on this conical mound. The inner cut ters II and I2 acting on the stepped conical mound in the center of the well bore act to center and stabilize the rotating bit. It will be noted 55 that the cutters II and I2 areadapted to engage bore. The outer cutters I4 pursue an annular course surrounding and overlapping the course of the cutters I2 to cut away the outer portion of 60 the well bore. The cutters I4 also operate to en gage the side wall of the well to cut the well to gauge. Circulation fluid is pumped downwardly through the string S and discharges from the' choke openings 13. As described above, the ñuid 65 is discharged from the openings 13 in inclined transversely elongated streams which flush the cludes'or provides a plurality of circumferentially spaced openings 10 in the ybody wall 25. The ' cutters II, I2 and I4 throughout their lengths. The cutters and the other replaceable parts are openings 10 extend downwardly from the bottom securely and dependably connected _with the body 70 oi’ the socketr I1 to the lower Surface of the wall 70 25. The openings 10 are cylindrical and each has I0 so that they cannot become displaced during an upwardly facing annular shoulder 1I adjacent operation of the tool. The pin 34 .supporting its lower end. The longitudinal axes of the open ings 10 are inclined downwardly and outwardly. kIn accordance with the invention the openings 10 .75 the inner cutters is secured to the wings I9 at its outer end and is supported intermediate its ends by the stud 42. The screws 35 securing the ends 75 arranca of the pin 36 to the legs i9 tie the legs to the pin and lend rigidity to the assembly. The pins 6U hold the bushings 54 in their proper inclined po sitions and ‘serve to tie the legs 22 to the legs 21. The bushings 54 and the washers 58 receive the thrusts from the cutters i4 so that the pins 60 are subjected to very little Wear and pressure. The various Wear receiving parts of the tool may be easily and quickly replaced to recondition the tool for further use. ` Having described only a typical preferred form and application of my invention, I do not wish to be limited or restricted to the specific details herein set forth, but wish to reserve to myself any 35 variations or modifications that may appear to those skilled in the art or fall within the scope of the following claims: , Having described my invention, I claim: l. A roller bit including, a body having wings 20 projecting from its lower end, a shaft extending between the wings and having oppositely in _clined end portions, means securing the ends of the` shaft to the wings, a depending stud remov ably carried by the body and having an opening 25 carrying the intermediate portion of the shaft, and roller cutters on the inclined portions of the shaft. 2. A roller bit including, a body having wings projecting from its lower end, a shaft extending 30 between the wings and having oppositely inclined end portions, screws securing the ends of the shaft to the wings, a depending stud on the body having an opening carrying the intermediate por tion of the shaft and cutters rotatable on the in clined portions of the shaft. ’ 3. A roller bit including, a body having wings projecting from its lower end, a shaft extending between the wings and having oppositely in clined end portions, means securing the ends of the shaft to the wings, a removable stud depend ing from the body and having an opening carry ing the intermediate portion of the shaft, down wardly convergent bearing surfaces on the stud 'at the ends of the opening, and roller cutters ro 45 tatable on the inclined portions of the shaft and bearing on said surfaces. 4. A roller bit including, a body, wings pro jecting from the lower end of the body and hav ing substantially vertical inner sides, a shaft ex tending between the wings and having oppositely jecting portion of the stud having a horizontal opening, a pin having a horizontal portion. car ried in said horizontal opening and downwardly and outwardly inclined portions extending to ward the legs, means tying the ends of the pin to the legs, and roller cutters rotatable on the inclined portions of the pin. 7.' A roller bit including, a body having wings n projecting from its lower end, a shaft extending between the wings and having oppositely in clined end portions, means securing the ends of the shaft to the wings, a depending stud remov ably carried by the body and having an opening carrying the intermediate portion of the shaft, and roller cutters on the inclined portion of the 15 shaft having cutting teeth extending inwardly at the lower end of the stud. 8. A well bit including, a body having diametri cally opposite depending wings, a web on. the body projecting downwardly between the wings, 20 inner wings on the web spaced from and opposing the iirst mentioned wings, roller cutters sup ported between the adjacent opposed wings for rotation about inclined axes, parts integral with the body and projecting downwardly from the 25 body at points spaced from the first mentioned wings, there being an opening in the web, a re movable stud carried in the opening, a transverse pin l supported between its ends by the stud, means tying the ends of the pin to the said parts, 30 and roller cutters on the pin. 9. A well bit including, a body having diametri cally opposite depending wings, a web on the body projecting downwardly between the wings, inner wings on the web spaced from and oppos 35 ing the first mentioned wings, roller cutters sup ported between the adjacent opposed wings for rotation about inclined axes, parts projecting downwardly from the body at points spaced from the first mentioned wings, there being an opening 40 in the web, a removable stud carried 1n the open ing, the stud having a transverse opening, a transverse pin having its intermediatey portion carried in the opening of the stud and being in clined downwardly and outwardly from the stud, 45 cutters rotatable on the pin, and means tying ends of the pin to the said parts. , 10. A well bit including, a body having a ñuid chamber and spaced openings extending from said chamber to an external surface, roller cutters inclined end portions, means connecting the ends rotatably supported by the body, chokes in said 50 of the shaft to the Wings, means supporting the openings having transversely elongate openings shaft intermediate its ends, roller cutters ro discharging correspondingly shaped streams tatable on said inclined portions of the shaft, and against the cutters, and a single means retaining 55 thrust washers between the inner sides of the @the several said chokes in the openings. 55 legs and the ends of the adjacent cutters, each 11. A well bit including, a body having a fluid washer having convergent sides, one bearing on chamber and spaced openings extending from the inner side of a leg, the other .engageable by said> chamber to an external surface, roller cut a cutter. ' ters, means supporting the cutters on the body 60 5. A roller bit including, a body having wings including, a part projecting into said chamber, projecting from its lower end, a shaft extending chokes in said openings discharging streams of 60 between the wings andgiaving oppositely inclined ñuid against the cutters, and a member on said end portions, means‘ securing the ends of the part retaining the chokes in the openings. shaft to the Wings, a depending stud removably 12. A well bit including, a body having a fluid 85 carried by the body and having an opening car chamber and spaced openings extending from rying the intermediate portion of the shaft, a chamber to an external surface, roller cut lock pin arranged through transverse openings said ters, means supporting the cutters on the body in the stud and shaft, and roller cutters on the including, a part projecting into said chamber, inclined portions of the shaft. chokes in said openings discharging streams of 6. A roller bit including, a body having a socket fluid against the cutters, and a retaining nut on 70 j. , in its upper ,end and an opening extending down said partl securing the same to the body. and . ward from 'the socket, legs depending from the holding the chokes in the openings. ¿.body, a stud arranged in said opening and pro ' jecting from-the lower end of the body, the pro ALFRED c. CA'I'LAND.