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Патент USA US2111752

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March 22, 1938.
A, C. ¿ATLAND
2,111,752
yROLLER ROCK BIT
.
I
Filed July 6, 1936
2 Sheets-Sheet l
m
11
March 22, 1938.
` A. c. CATLAND
2,111,752
lROLLER ROCK BIT
Filed July 6, 1936
2 Sheets-Sheet 2
2,111,752
Patented Mar. 22, 1938
UNITED STATESPATENT OFFICE
2,111,752
ROLLER ROCK BIT
AlfredÀ C. Catland, Alhambra, Calif., assignor to
Globe Oil Tools Company, Los Nietos, Calif.,
a corporation of California
Applicationy July 6, 1936, Serial No. 88,989
1?. Claims. (Cl. Z55-71)
This invention relates to a well drilling tool ters I4, and means I6 for ñushing the cutters II,
I2 and I4.
t and relates more particularly to a roller rock bit
The shank or body III is provided to carry the
for use in the rotary method of well drilling. A
general object of thisinvention is 4to provide a cutters and the various other parts of the tool.
5 practical, improved and particularly effective The body I0 is adapted to be connected with the 5
roller rock bit.
'
Another object of this invention is to provide a
roller rock bit embodying a novel and simplified
arrangement of parts which promotes the general
10 eiliciency of the tool and makes it inexpensive
and easy to service.
»
Another object of this invention is to provide
In the particular case illustrated a ta
pered screw threaded socket I ‘I is provided in the
upper end of the body III to receive the threaded
pin I8 of a drill collar or the like. 'I'he body I0
is an integral member having a cylindrical up
per part through which the socket Ilextends.
The lower portion of the body I0 is preferably of
ported intermediate its ends by a novel remov
enlarged diameter and is open at its lower end. 15
Depending parts or wings are provided on the
lower,end of the body I0 to carry the cutter
mounting means I3 and I5. Legs or wings I9
project downwardly from the body Ill at dia
body.
4
.
l
"o
Another object of this invention is to provide a
roller rock bit of the character mentioned in
which the shafts or pins supporting the outer
cutter bushings are subjected to little or no shear
strain
and, therefore, are not liable to fail when
IS "ai
the tool is in operation.
_
y
Another object of this invention is to provide
a roller rock bit in which the removable parts
are securely and dependably locked against loss
l 30
means.
a roller rock bit embodying sets of inner cutters
rotatably supported on a single angular pin sup
able stud.
Another object of this invention is to provide a
roller rock bit in which the several cutter sup
porting legs or shanks are integral parts íof the
„u
lower end of a well drilling string and is pro
vided at its upper end with suitable connecting
and displacement when the tool is in operation
and yet may be easily removed for replacement,
etc.
-
Another object of this invention is to provide
a rollerV rock bit embodying improved means for
„, flushing the several roller cutters.
The various objects and features of my inven
tion will be fully understood from the following
detailed description of a typical preferred form
and application of the invention, throughout
which description reference is made to the ac
companying drawings, in which:
Fig. 1 is'a central longitudinal detailed secf
tional view of the bitprovided by this invention,
being a view taken as indicated by line I-I on
Fig. 2. Fig. 2 is a fragmentary vertical detailed
sectional view taken substantially as indicated
by line- 2-2 on Fig. 3. Fig. 3 is a reduced side
’elevation of the blt and Fig. 4 is a fragmentary
transverse detailedV sectional view taken as ln
i to, .dicated by line df-l on Fig. 1..
` The improved roller bit of the present invention
'_-jinc1udes, generally, a‘body III, two sets of inner
--'roller cutters II and I2, means I3 rotatably sup
‘ porting the cutters II and I2, two outer cutters
.n 55 I4, means I5 ‘rotatably mounting the outer cut
metrlcally opposite points. The wings I9 pro
ject downwardly and slightly outwardly. Raised
20
or inwardly projecting parts are provided on the
inner sides of the wings I9 adjacent their lower
ends and present ,substantially vertical thrust
surfaces 2li. A ilat downwardly facing shoulder
2| is provided at the lower end of each thrust
surface 2li.q The lower ends or wings I9 are pref
f
erably bevelled downwardly and inwardly as
clearly illustrated in Fig. 2;
'
The invention includes ‘wings 22 projecting
downwardly and outwardly from the lower por
tion of the body I0 at points substantially 90°
from the above described legs I9. Raised sur
faces 23 are provided on the inner sides of the
legs 22. The surfaces 23 are inclined down- 35
wardly and outwardly relative to the central
longitudinal axis of the bit. Flat faces or
shoulders 24 are provided on the lower ends of
the wings 22 and are normal tothe thrust sur
faces 23. The spaced legs I9 and 22 surround 40
or define a relatively large socket-like space at
the lower end of the body I0. An integral par
tition or wall 25 separates the socket I1 from
the space or opening in the lower end of thc body
I0. In accordance with the inventionl a web 26 45
depends from the wall 25. The web 26 is an in~
teg‘ral part of the body Ill and lies in and adjacent
the central vertical plane ol thi; body.
The web .
26 is relatively thin and its opposite side edges
which oppose the wings 22 slope downwardly and
outwardly. Inner wings 2l form integral -con
tinuations oi‘ the web 26. The wings 21 are in
clined downwardly and outwardly relative to the
central vertical axis of thc tool and present raised
thrust surfaces 28 which are spaced from and 55
2
animee
parallel with the surfaces 23. Flat shoulders 29
Si
occur on the lower ends of the wings 2l. The
shoulders 29 are preferably normal to the thrust
surfaces «8.
The cutters ll and I2 are rotatably supported
in the open lower end of the body l0 to act on
the inner portion of the bottom wall of the
well bore. The inner cutters are arranged in
sets or pairs each pair comprising a relatively
10 small cutter II and a larger cutter l2. The cut
ters II and l2 are in the nature of roller cutters,
the cutters I I being cylindrical cutters and the
cutters i2 being frusto-conical cutters. The re1
15
atively small cutters Il havecentral longitudinal
openings 30 and peripheral cutting teeth 3 I. The
cutting teeth 3I may be straight and axial. lin
the preferred construction the inner ends of the
teeth 3| project beyond or overhang the inner
ends of the cutters II. The opposite ends of
20 the cutters II may be flat and normal.
frusto-conical inner cutters I2 have central
gitudinal openings 32 and flat normal ends.
ripheral cutting teeth 33 are provided on
cutters l2. The teeth 33 may be straight
25 axial or may be spiralled if desired.
The
lon
Pe
the
and
The teeth
33 project beyond or overhang the large ends
of the frusta-conical cutters I2. The cutters l2
are considerably larger than the cutters ll, their
small ends being larger in diameter than the cut
30 ters il.
.
The means I3 operates to dependably sup
port the sets of inner cutters I I and l2 for ro
tation about downwardly and outwardly inclined
axes.
The cutter mounting means I3 includes
35 a substantially transverse shaft or pin 34.
The
pin 313 is angular having its major end portions
inclined downwardly and outwardly. ‘The inter
mediate portion 34a of the pin 34 is substantially
horizontal. The opposite extremities 35 of the
pin 34 are reduced in diameter.
It is to be un
derstood that the pin 34 may be cylindrical in
transverse cross section. The pin 34 extends
transversely between" the two opposite wings I 9
and its intermediate portion 34n is at the vertl
45 cal center of the tool.
Studs or screws 36 are
passed inwardly through downwardly and out
wardly inclined openings 3'I in the legs I9 and
are threaded in openings 38 in the opposite ends
of the pin I3 to connect- the ends of the pin with
50 the legs i9. The screws 36 have heads 36a coun
tersunk. or recessed in the outer ends of the open
ings 31. The invention provides means for de
pendably securing the screws 36 against un
threading. Edge or corner portions 39 of the
55 heads 36a are peened into notches in the outer
sides of the legs I9 to lock the screws 36 against
rotation and unthreading.
jecting upper end. A washer 41 is provided un
der the nut 46. The nut 46 may be locked in
place by a cotter key, or the like. The nut 46
urges the stud 42 upwardly so that its shoulder
43 is clamped against the shoulder 4I. The stud
42 serves to rigidly and dependably support the
pin 34 between its ends. Thus the pin 3,4 is sup
ported at its opposite ends and at its middle por
tion.
The cutters II are rotatable on the pin 34 ad
jacent the opposite sides of the stud 42. In
practice the inner cutters II may be directly
rotatably supported on the pin 34. The stud 42
is preferably provided with downwardly con
vergent thrust surfaces 48 against which the 15
inner ends of the cutters Il may bear. The pro
jecting inner ends of the teeth 3| overhang a
substantial portion of the lower end of the stud
42 to prevent the engagement of the earth forma
tion with the stud. The teeth 3l projecting in 20
wardly below the end of the stud 42 act on the
earth formation immediately adjacent the center
of the well bore. The cutters I2 are rotatably
supported on the pin 34 between the cutters ll
and the wings i9. Roller bearings 49 may be
provided to rotatably support the cutters I2 on
the pin 34. 'I'hrust washers 50 are interposed
between the outer ends of the cutters I2 and
the wings I9. The washers 50 are arranged
on the reduced end portions 35 of the pin 34 30
and their inner surfaces are engaged by the
outer ends of the cutters I2. The outer sides
of the washers 5D cooperate with the thrust
surfaces 20. Extensions or lugs 5I are provided
on the washers 50 and cooperate with the shoul
ders ZI to hold the washers against rotation and
to transmit the operating thrusts directly to the
wings I9. The lower ends of the washers 50
and their lugs 5I may be bevelled oiîffiush with
the lower ends of the wings I9. `
-
In assembling the inner cuttersv II and I2 on 40
the body I0, the pin 34 is first entered in the
opening 44 and is secured to the stud 42 by
the pin 45. The cutters II and I2 are then
properly arranged on the pin 34 and the washers
50 are placed on the end portions 35 of the pin.
The Washers 50 may be force-fitted or press
ñtted on the end portions 35 to retain the cut
ters II and I2 on the pin 34 and thus facilitate
the handling of the assembly. The stud 42 is
then passed upwardly through the opening 40
at which time the lugs 5I are brought against the
shoulders 2| .
The screws 36 are then threaded
in place and the nut 46 is threaded on the stud
42 to secure the cutter supporting assembly to
the body l0.
.
.
The outer cutters I4 are in the nature of frus
The invention provides means for supportingv to-conical roller cutters. Each cutter I4 has a
the pin 34 intermediate its ends. A central ver .central longitudinal opening 52. -The opposite
60 tical opening 40 is provided in the body web 26. ends of the cutters i4 are preferably «flat and
The opening 40 extends downwardly from the
normal. Suitable peripheral cutting teeth 53 are
socket I‘I to the lower end of the web 26. A
downwardly facing annular shoulder 4I is pro
vided on the wall of the, opening 40. The cutter
65 mounting means I3 includes a stud 42 arranged
longitudinally in the opening 40. The stud »42
has a shoulder 43 adapted to bear upwardly
against the shoulder 4 I. A transverse opening 44
is provided in the lower portion of the'stud 42
70 and receives the straight intermediate portion
34a of the pin 34. A lock pin 45 ls arranged
provided on the outer cutters I4. 'I'he teeth 53
may be straight or spiralled, as desired. The
outer corners of‘the teeth 53 are preferably bev
elled off while the inner ends of the teeth 53 pref
through transverse openings in the pin 34 and
the stud 42 to >secure the pin to the stud.
The '
supporting lstud 42 projects upwardly into the
75 socket I‘I and a nut 46 is threaded on its pro
erably overhang or project inwardly from the
inner ends of the cutters I4.
The means I5 rotatably support the inner cut
ters I4 between the opposed Wings 22 and 21.
The cutter supporting means I5 include bushings 70
54.
The bushings 54 are arranged between the I
adjacent opposed wings 22 and 2`I and are in
clined downwardly and inwardly, having their
longitudinal axes normal to the surfaces 23 and
28. The cutters I4 may be rotatably supported on
75
3
2,111,752
the bushings 54 through suitable roller bearings
55. The cutters I4 lare arranged with their large
ends outermost and being rotatable about in
clined axes the bcvelled- outer ends _of their teeth
53 are substantially vertical when the teeth come
« into engagement with the formation.
Thrust
flanges 56 are provided on the inner ends of the
bushings 54. The flanges 56 constitute thrust
i
I ~washers for transmitting operating thrusts from
l0 the inner ends of the cutters I4 to the wings 21.
are positioned so that one opening is above each
outer cutter I4 and so that an opening 10 is above
each pair of inner cutters II and I2.
.
The means I5 further includes ñow nipples or
chokes 12 arranged in the openings 10. The
chokes 12 are cylindrical members entered in the
openings 10 from their upper ends. The chokes
12 closely'flt the openings 1liì and their lower ends
bear on the shoulders 1I.
Each choke 12 has a
longitudinal fluid discharge opening 13. The 10
openings 13 are cylindrical at their upper ends
and are transversely elongated at their lower
ends. The walls of the openings 13 are smooth
«and gradually rounded to provide for the ready
discharge of the circulation fluid. The chokes 15
The outer sides of the flanges 55 are adapted to
bear on the surfaces 28 while the inner ends of
the cutters I4 and the bearings 55 bear on the
inner surfaces of the flanges. Each flange 55 has
15 a lug 51 cooperating with a shoulder 29 to prevent
12 are positioned so that the lower ends of their
rotation of its bushing 54 and to transmit up
ward thrusts directly to the wings 21. The outer openings 13 are radially elongated and have their
end portions 54u of the bushings 54 are reduced , major transverse axes substantially vertically
`in diameter and thrust washers 58 are provided aligned with the axes of the cutters I4 and the ^
20 on the reduced portions 54a. The washers 58 may axes of rotation of the cutters II and I2. Thus 20
be pressed or force-fitted on the reduced bushing the ñuid discharge openings 13 direct trans
portions 54EL to retain the cutters I4 and the roller versely elongated streams of circulation fluid
against the cutters, which streams extend
bearings 55 on the bushings to facilitate the han
dling and transporting of the cutter assemblies. throughout the lengths of the cutters to effect the
25
The washers 58 are engageable by the outer ends full flushing of the cutters.
of the rollers 55 and the cutters I4 and bear on the
surfaces 23 to transmit the end thrusts directly
to the body wings 22. Extensions or lugs 5B are
provided on the washers 5B and cooperate with
the shoulders 24 to prevent rotation of the wash
ers and to transmit upward thrusts to the wings
22. The lower outer corners of the washers 58
and their lugs 59 are bevelled off so that they do
not contact the side wall ofthe well bore.
The cutter supporting means I5. includes pins
5I! for holding the bushings 54 in place and for
tying together the adjacent legs 22 ‘and 21.
Aligned downwardly and inwardly inclined open
ings ßI and 6I“ are provided in the legs 21 and 22
40 respectively. The pins 60 are passed outwardly
through the openings 6I in the legs 21 and are
threaded in the openings (iln in> the legs 22.
Suitable heads 62 are provided on the inner ends
of the pins 60 and are countersunk in the inner
Means are provided to
45 ends of the openings 6l.
prevent rotation and unthreading of the pins 60.
'I'he outer end parts of the pins 60 are reduced
The washer 41 constitutes a means for holding'
the chokes 12 in place. The washer 41 contacts
the inclined upper surfaces of the chokes 12 ad
jacent their peripheral edges to hold the chokes
down and prevent their rotation. The lower ends
of the body socket I1 is open and receives the cir
culation fluid from the well drilling string S.
This circulation fluid passes from the socket I1
through the openings 13 at an increased velocity.
The openings 13 direct the circulation ñuid 35
downwardly against the teeth of the cutters II,
I2 and Ill to clear them of mud and cuttings.
It is believed that the operation ofthe improved
roller bit provided by this invention will bc readi
ly apparent from the foregoing detailed descrip 40
tion. In operation the tool is connected with
the lower end of the drilling string S which is
rotated and fed downwardly. During rotation
of the string S the cutters I I, I2 and I4 act or
roll on the formation at the bottom of the well 45
a
bore to crush or cut away th'e same.
The cutters
II and I2 being rotatable about downwardly and
and unthreaded. Extreme end or corner portions outwardly inclined axes act on the upper surface
53 of the pins 60 are peened into notches vin the y of a central conicalmound on the bottom wall of
legs 22 to prevent unthreading of the pins. 'I'he ' the well bore. The cutters Il being smaller in 50
cutters I4 rotatably mounted as just described
project downwardly beyond the lower ends of the
legs 22 and 21 to act on the outer portion of the
bottom wall of the well bore and to cut the well
55 bore to gauge. The inclination of the cutters I4
diameter than the cutters I2 provide a step or
`‘inclined downwardly and inwardly as the teeth
come into contact with the earth formation. The
substantially the entire inner portion of the well
. is such that the lower edges of their teeth 53 are
cutters I2 and I4 are related so that they overlap
60 one another in their action on the earth forma
' tion and the lower ends of the legs 21 and the
washers 56 do not come into contact with the
earth formation.
„
The means I6 for flushing the cutters II, I2
65 and I4 provides for the full effective flushing of
the several cutters.
The ñushing means I6 in
shoulder on this conical mound. The inner cut
ters II and I2 acting on the stepped conical
mound in the center of the well bore act to center
and stabilize the rotating bit. It will be noted 55
that the cutters II and I2 areadapted to engage
bore. The outer cutters I4 pursue an annular
course surrounding and overlapping the course of
the cutters I2 to cut away the outer portion of 60
the well bore. The cutters I4 also operate to en
gage the side wall of the well to cut the well to
gauge. Circulation fluid is pumped downwardly
through the string S and discharges from the'
choke openings 13. As described above, the ñuid 65
is discharged from the openings 13 in inclined
transversely elongated streams which flush the
cludes'or provides a plurality of circumferentially
spaced openings 10 in the ybody wall 25. The ' cutters II, I2 and I4 throughout their lengths.
The cutters and the other replaceable parts are
openings 10 extend downwardly from the bottom
securely
and dependably connected _with the body 70
oi’
the
socketr
I1
to
the
lower
Surface
of
the
wall
70
25. The openings 10 are cylindrical and each has I0 so that they cannot become displaced during
an upwardly facing annular shoulder 1I adjacent operation of the tool. The pin 34 .supporting
its lower end.
The longitudinal axes of the open
ings 10 are inclined downwardly and outwardly.
kIn
accordance with the invention the openings 10
.75
the inner cutters is secured to the wings I9 at its
outer end and is supported intermediate its ends
by the stud 42. The screws 35 securing the ends 75
arranca
of the pin 36 to the legs i9 tie the legs to the pin
and lend rigidity to the assembly. The pins 6U
hold the bushings 54 in their proper inclined po
sitions and ‘serve to tie the legs 22 to the legs
21. The bushings 54 and the washers 58 receive
the thrusts from the cutters i4 so that the pins
60 are subjected to very little Wear and pressure.
The various Wear receiving parts of the tool may
be easily and quickly replaced to recondition the
tool for further use.
`
Having described only a typical preferred form
and application of my invention, I do not wish
to be limited or restricted to the specific details
herein set forth, but wish to reserve to myself any
35 variations or modifications that may appear to
those skilled in the art or fall within the scope
of the following claims:
,
Having described my invention, I claim:
l. A roller bit including, a body having wings
20 projecting from its lower end, a shaft extending
between the wings and having oppositely in
_clined end portions, means securing the ends of
the` shaft to the wings, a depending stud remov
ably carried by the body and having an opening
25 carrying the intermediate portion of the shaft,
and roller cutters on the inclined portions of the
shaft.
2. A roller bit including, a body having wings
projecting from its lower end, a shaft extending
30 between the wings and having oppositely inclined
end portions, screws securing the ends of the
shaft to the wings, a depending stud on the body
having an opening carrying the intermediate por
tion of the shaft and cutters rotatable on the in
clined portions of the shaft.
’ 3. A roller bit including, a body having wings
projecting from its lower end, a shaft extending
between the wings and having oppositely in
clined end portions, means securing the ends of
the shaft to the wings, a removable stud depend
ing from the body and having an opening carry
ing the intermediate portion of the shaft, down
wardly convergent bearing surfaces on the stud
'at the ends of the opening, and roller cutters ro
45 tatable on the inclined portions of the shaft and
bearing on said surfaces.
4. A roller bit including, a body, wings pro
jecting from the lower end of the body and hav
ing substantially vertical inner sides, a shaft ex
tending between the wings and having oppositely
jecting portion of the stud having a horizontal
opening, a pin having a horizontal portion. car
ried in said horizontal opening and downwardly
and outwardly inclined portions extending to
ward the legs, means tying the ends of the pin
to the legs, and roller cutters rotatable on the
inclined portions of the pin.
7.' A roller bit including, a body having wings n
projecting from its lower end, a shaft extending
between the wings and having oppositely in
clined end portions, means securing the ends of
the shaft to the wings, a depending stud remov
ably carried by the body and having an opening
carrying the intermediate portion of the shaft,
and roller cutters on the inclined portion of the 15
shaft having cutting teeth extending inwardly
at the lower end of the stud.
8. A well bit including, a body having diametri
cally opposite depending wings, a web on. the
body projecting downwardly between the wings, 20
inner wings on the web spaced from and opposing
the iirst mentioned wings, roller cutters sup
ported between the adjacent opposed wings for
rotation about inclined axes, parts integral with
the body and projecting downwardly from the 25
body at points spaced from the first mentioned
wings, there being an opening in the web, a re
movable stud carried in the opening, a transverse
pin l supported between its ends by the stud,
means tying the ends of the pin to the said parts, 30
and roller cutters on the pin.
9. A well bit including, a body having diametri
cally opposite depending wings, a web on the
body projecting downwardly between the wings,
inner wings on the web spaced from and oppos
35
ing the first mentioned wings, roller cutters sup
ported between the adjacent opposed wings for
rotation about inclined axes, parts projecting
downwardly from the body at points spaced from
the first mentioned wings, there being an opening 40
in the web, a removable stud carried 1n the open
ing, the stud having a transverse opening, a
transverse pin having its intermediatey portion
carried in the opening of the stud and being in
clined downwardly and outwardly from the stud, 45
cutters rotatable on the pin, and means tying
ends of the pin to the said parts.
,
10. A well bit including, a body having a ñuid
chamber and spaced openings extending from
said chamber to an external surface, roller cutters
inclined end portions, means connecting the ends rotatably supported by the body, chokes in said 50
of the shaft to the Wings, means supporting the openings having transversely elongate openings
shaft intermediate its ends, roller cutters ro
discharging correspondingly shaped streams
tatable on said inclined portions of the shaft, and against the cutters, and a single means retaining
55 thrust washers between the inner sides of the
@the several said chokes in the openings.
55
legs and the ends of the adjacent cutters, each
11. A well bit including, a body having a fluid
washer having convergent sides, one bearing on chamber and spaced openings extending from
the inner side of a leg, the other .engageable by said> chamber to an external surface, roller cut
a cutter.
'
ters, means supporting the cutters on the body
60
5. A roller bit including, a body having wings including, a part projecting into said chamber,
projecting from its lower end, a shaft extending chokes in said openings discharging streams of 60
between the wings andgiaving oppositely inclined ñuid against the cutters, and a member on said
end portions, means‘ securing the ends of the part retaining the chokes in the openings.
shaft to the Wings, a depending stud removably
12. A well bit including, a body having a fluid
85 carried by the body and having an opening car
chamber and spaced openings extending from
rying the intermediate portion of the shaft, a
chamber to an external surface, roller cut
lock pin arranged through transverse openings said
ters, means supporting the cutters on the body
in the stud and shaft, and roller cutters on the including, a part projecting into said chamber,
inclined portions of the shaft.
chokes in said openings discharging streams of
6. A roller bit including, a body having a socket fluid against the cutters, and a retaining nut on
70
j. ,
in its upper ,end and an opening extending down
said partl securing the same to the body. and
. ward from 'the socket, legs depending from the holding the chokes in the openings.
¿.body, a stud arranged in said opening and pro
' jecting from-the lower end of the body, the pro
ALFRED c. CA'I'LAND.
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