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Патент USA US2111792

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2,111,792
Patented Mar. Z2, 1938
‘ Eugène Laugaudin, Paris, VFrance
1v, 1935', serial Nb. 3119,12
Application July
France July-18, `1934! f
In
\
6 claims.
, The presentinvention relates to improvements
in shock absorbers constituted by a cylinder con
taining a fluid, preferably a compressed gaseous
fluid; air `for example, lnwhich moves by trans
lation or rotation, a main piston, which, under
(o1. 1267-65)
of the cylinder II `and Ila into communication
with each other.
the actionof the shocks which it receives,I further
compresses the air in the cylinder: this com
pressed air (and f further `compressed, under the
piston which transmits the pressure it receives to
a liquid fluid interposed between the cylinder and
the piston which, in its turn,yacts on one or more
scraper cups :of` flexible `material or elastic metal
latter transmits to the oil'the pressure which it
receives and, throughtheholes 2B of the sleeve I9,
transmits thispressure to the scraper cups il
and 22 `the tapered edges of which are thus
`liquid fluid pressing the tapered edge of the cups
on thepiston and ensuring perfect fluid-tightness
`
\
pressedv accurately lagainst the piston `It thus
ensuring perfect fluid-tightness.
2
„
~
,
,
s
1
I
f
y
‘ Figure 2 lsya modification of the invention.
Figure 3 shows "another modification of the
t , invention, .and Figure ,4 shows a furtherl modifi
cation of the invention.
y
\ As‘willbeseen from Figure 1 the apparatus is
composed of a cylinder >Il the lower part IIa of
which is oflargerdiameter than the upper part
I I ; the piston I4 is terminated by a head I5 form
ing a guide, lodged in the part II oi the cylinder;
this head is provided with `holes I6.
.
1 l
‘f A scraper ‘cup` I‘I` of flexible material or elastic
metal «with a tapered edge for example, is `en-gaged upon the piston I4 and itsbase rests on a
, p ‘shoulder ofv theY cylinder and with its tapered
edge pressing on the periphery of the piston, a
"35 sleeve -I 9, pierced with’holes 2,0, Y, at its lower I part,
presses upon the base of the cup Il and holds it
4
.in In
place
theasannular
`willbe explained
space formed
hereinafter.
between the wall
of the’ part I la of the cylinder and the said sleeve
is housed an annular cup 2 I l constituting a ,loose
pistonf"`
`
A
,
f
Y
`1
`
The constructional form shown in Figure 2 is 15
a modification ofthe device illustrated _in Fig
Figure. 1 is a vertical section of the shock ab
sorber.
`
on the annularl cup, or the loose piston 2l and the
having a tapered edge arranged between the pis
ton‘and the cylinder; the pressure `exerted on this
of the joint thus formed.->
,
moves `in the cylinderiurther compressing the 6
compressed airwhich it contains; this‘latter com
pressed air, in passing` through the holes i6, acts
‘ action `oi the shocks), acts on a second or loose
is
`
The working operation will easily‘be under
stood; under the action of the shocks, the piston
fg'
A second cupl‘having a tapered edge 22, of the
same typev as theoup I1, is engaged on the ypiston
‘ H‘änd its‘base presses against the‘loweiipart of
the ,sleeve I9; thus as will be seen, the tapered
edges of these two cups are facing one another;
a plug 23 screwed on to the lower parti la holds
`
s
`
rn this
modification
A
provided with
va _head
the piston I4
before,
I5 provided with conduits
I6; the annular cup 2l forming the‘loose piston
of Figure V1 is combined with the scraper cup I1
of Figure 1; thus a free cup 21 is obtained in the
form of an annular cup which is engaged on the
piston I4 and its stroke is limited in one direction
by the shoulder II'b of the cylinder; the `internal
wall of this cup which is in contact with the pis
ton has a tapered edge‘as »in Figure l and its ex
ternai wall in Contact with the cylinder »serves as
a guide; on the piston Ill` is engaged another cup
28 similar to the previousone and ñxed by screw
ing or the like; on the lower part of the cylinder,
the tapered edges of the two cups are arranged
face to face asalready mentioned; I2 is the oriiice
for the introduction Vof the oil; I3 is theQvalve
forv the introduction of the compressed air ‘intoA
` the cylinder II .
The operation is similar to ‘that‘according to
Figure 1. The compressed air contained in tbc
topof the cylinder and further compressed by the
shocks, passes through the holes I6 of the head
I5 and this pressurel is exerted directlyon the
member 21 forming the loose piston and scraper
cup tending` to move -the said member 21 towards
themember 28; under this pressure the oil presses
the tapered edges of the,` parts 21-(28 accurately
against the piston in order to ensure perfect fluid
tightness.
y
‘
,
i
FigureB shows‘another constructional variation
of the example illustrated' in Figure 1, but in `this
the cups I'l and 22 in' pla`ce„th'e fixed spacing modification the cup 2|, instead‘of being annular 50
between which is ensured by the sleeve I9. Ele land-,surrounding the whole of the piston, is ar
ment I2‘se`rves 'forthe introduction of the' oil
intended to obtain fluid-tightness. I3 is the
valve for` -the introduction of the air compressed
in cylinder II.l `(londuits 24 place the two parts
55
ranged in a small auxiliary cylinder V29 and con
stitutes a small piston 30 on which the pressure
of the :further compressed air is exerted; the ref- 55
2
2,111,792
erence numerals of Figure 1 are used to indicate
the same parts in this modification.
The operation is the same as in Figure 1, 20a
being an opening on the auxiliary cylinder for
the passage of the oil.
The apparatus could also operate with a vac~uum in the cylinder, in which case the piston
moves outwardly under the action of shocks.
This would require certain slight modiñcations,
10 which are indicated in Figure 4, it being under
stood that the valve Il is replaced by tubing with
a closing member which may be connected with
a vacuum pump in such a manner as to complete
the vacuum in the cylinder upon placing the
15 members into position or where on account of
prolonged use a small quantity of air may acci
dentally be introduced into the cylinder.
There is no longer any necessity to provide a
communication between the cylinder and the
20 auxiliary cylinder. The ducts 24 are omitted and
also the ducts I 5 in the piston head. As liquid.
use will be made of a tluld having a high surface
tension, forexample mercury.
Finally, atmospheric pressure acts upon the
25 piston 30a of the sma'll auxiliary piston. in order
to obtain the necessary pressure to apply the
tapered edge of the cups against the piston.
This small piston 30a may also be subjected to
the action of a spring 3|, tending to press it
30 against the liquid fluid, which acts upon the cups,
through the duct 32 and the corresponding aper
tures in the sleeve i9.
It should be pointed out that in all these con
structional forms the tapered edges ot the- cups
35 form scrapers for the oil which may adhere to
the piston.
Each of the iluids used in the apparatus may be
liquid or gaseous; preferably the duid having the
highest surface viscosity or tension being placed
in the part forming the seal or joint.
Having now described my invention, what I
claim as new and desire to secure by Letters Pat
ent is:
1. A shock absorber comprising a cylinder, a
main piston ln said cylinder having a non-fluid
tight guiding head, a second piston freely dis
placeable within said cylinder~ and adapted to
separate a mass of liquid iluid and a mass of
gaseous fluid contained outside said main piston
and in said cylinder, and sealing means formed of
at least one ilexible cup washer having a taper
ing skirt interposed between the cylinder and the
main piston whereby as the result of> pressure
exerted on the second piston and transmitted to
55 the liquid ñuid the said tapering skirt of said
sealing means is pressed closely against the main
piston.
2. A shock absorber comprising a cylinder, a
main piston in said cylinder having a non-duid
60 tight guiding head, a second piston freely dis~
placeable within said cylinder and adapted to
separate a mass 0I liquid ñuid and a mass of
gaseous fluid contained outside said main pis
ton and in said cylinder, and sealing means
65 formed of at least one ñexible cup washer mount
ed on said cylinder, said iiexible cup washer in
terposed between the cylinder and the main pis
ton and having a tapering skirt whereby as the
result of pressure exerted on the second piston
and transmitted to the liquid fluid the said taper
ing skirt is pressed closely against the main pis
ton.
3. A shock absorber comprising a cylinder, a
main piston including a guiding head dividing the
cylinder into an upper and a lower chamber and
having communication between said chambers,
an auxiliary chamber contained in said cylinder
and having communication with said lower
chamber, said auxiliary chamber containing a
second piston adapted to separate a mass of liq
uid fluid and a mass of gaseous iiuid contained in
said latter chamber, and opposed ñexible cup
washers between said cylinder and piston each 10
having a tapering skirt spacedly arranged to
form a space therebetween having communica
tion with said mass of liquid duid in said auxiliary
chamber whereby _as the result of pressure ex
erted on the second piston and transmitted to
said mass of liquid ñuid the tapering skirts of
said opposed iiexible cup washers are pressed
closely against the piston.
4. A shock absorber comprising a cylinder, a
main piston including a guiding head dividing the 20
cylinder into an upper and a lower chamber and
having communication -between said chambers.
an auxiliary chamber contained in said cylinder
and having vcommunication with said lower
chamber, said auxiliary chamber containing a
second piston adapted to separate a mass of liquid
ñuid and a mass of gaseous iiuid contained in
said latter chamber, and opposed ilexible cup
washers on said cylinder, each formed by an an 30
nular member having a tapering skirt spacedly
arranged to form a space therebetween having
communication with said mass of liquid fluid in
said auxiliary chamber whereby as the result of
pressure exerted on said second piston and trans
mitted to said mass of liquid duid the tapering
skirts of said opposed flexible cup washers are
pressed closely against the piston.
5. A shock absorber comprising a cylinder, a
main piston including a guiding head having 40
communication between both sides thereof, a sec
ond piston displaceable within said cylinder and
adapted to separate a mass of liquid ñuid and
a mass of gaseous iluid contained in Isaid cylin
der, said second piston having a tapering ñexible 45
skirt in contact with said piston, and a ilexible
cup washer secured on said cylinder below said
mass of liquid fluid and having a tapering skirt
in' contact with said piston, whereby as the result
of pressure exerted on the second piston and
transmitted to the liquid fluid, said tapering 50
skirts are pressed closely against _the piston.
6. A shock absorber comprising a cylinder, a
main piston having a non-ñuid` tight guiding
head, an ‘auxiliary chamber contained in said 55
cylinder and containing a’ second piston adapted
to separate a mass of liquidv fluid and air con
tained in said chamber, said second piston having
spring means acting against said ‘liquid iiuld in
said auxiliary chamber, and opposed ilexible cup
washers on said cylinder, each formed by an an
nular member having a tapering skirt spacedly
arranged to form a space therebetween having
communication with said mass of liquid iluid
in said auxiliary chamber whereby as the result 65
of pressure exerted on said second piston and
transmitted to said mass of liquid ñuid the taper
ing skirts of said opposed flexible cup washers are
pressed closely against the piston.
EUGENE LAUGAUDm.
70
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