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Патент USA US2111908

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March 22, 1938.
L. v. ANDREWS
2,111,908
COMBUSTION APPARATUS
Filed Oct. 4, '1933
_ L. VANDREWs
‘ 2,111,908
Patented Mar. 22, 1938
PATENT OFFICE
UNITED STATES
2411.908
COMBUSTION APPARATUS
L. V.-Andrews, Worcester, Mass., assignor to
Riley Stoker Corporation, Worcester, Mass‘,
a corporation of Massachusetts
Application October 4, 1933, Serial No. 692,162
(Cl. 110-—22)
5 Claims.
_
Referring to the drawing illustrating one em
bodiment of the invention, and in which like
This invention relates to combustion appara
tus, and more particularly to an apparatus suit
reference numerals indicate like parts,
able for burning pulverized fuel and oil either
alone or simultaneously.
5
_
Que form of burner commonly utilized for
burning pulverized fuel comprises a burner pipe
arranged to discharge a jet of fuel and primary
air through an openingin a furnace wall, the
secondary air being introduced into the furnace
10 in a stream annular in cross-section and sur
rounding the fuel jet. It has been proposed here
tofore to mount an oil atomizing nozzle or “gun”
inside of the fuel pipe in a ‘burner of this type,
but various difficulties have been encountered
15 when burning oil alone ‘with such an arrange
ment. Certain parts of the burner become over
heated and hence require frequent replacement,
and neither the capacity nor the combustion effi
ciency is so great as would ordinarily be expected
20 from a burner designed for burning oil and hav
ing no provision for the burning of pulverized
fuel.
-
It is accordingly one object of the invention
to overcome these difficulties and to provide an
25 apparatus which will burn pulverized fuel and
oil, either alone or simultaneously, with high effi
ciency and at high combustion rates when desired.
.
Fig. 1 is an elevation of combustion apparatus
for burning pulverized fuel or oil under forced 6
draft, certain parts being shown in section;
Fig. 2 is an enlarged view on the line 2-2 of
Fig. 1; and
‘
Fig. 3 is a view similar to Fig. 1 but showing
a natural draft installation.
The embodiment illustrated in Fig. 1 comprises
a vertical furnace wall Ill having an opening
I l therein which is preferably circular and ?ares
outwardly toward the rear or furnace side of
the wall. A horizontal cylindrical burner pipe 15
I2 is mounted in front of the opening H and
arranged to discharge pulverized fuel rearwardly
and centrally through the opening. This pipe 12
is connected by means of a conduit M to a pul
verizer l5 which may be of any suitable type, 20
one particularly satisfactory apparatus being dis
closed in the patent to Riley et al. No. 1,759,134,
At the rear or discharge end of the burner pipe
I! I preferably mount a spreading device com
prising a number of vanes H which extend‘radi- 25
ally across the path of the pulverized fuel stream.
These vanes are arranged at an angle to the
burner axis so that they de?ect the fuel and
I
It is a further object of the invention to pro
throw it outwardly as it leaves the pipe l2. In
vide a combination oil and pulverized fuel burner the preferred construction the vanes l1 are 30
30 and associated parts so constructed and arranged 7 mounted on the rear end of a small tube l8
that either fuel may be burned alone for long
periods without damage to the burner.
With these and other objects in view, as will
be ‘apparent to those skilled in the art, the inven
35 tion resides in the combination of parts set forth
in the speci?cation and covered by the claims
appended hereto.
. In accordance with my invention I provide a
burner having a pipe for the delivery of pulver
40 ized fuel to a furnace, and. means to introduce
secondary air around the outside of the fuel jet.
An oil atomizing nozzle isrmounted within the
pipe. The pipe is supplied with pulverized fuel
through a conduit leading preferably from a suit
45 able pulverizer. Manually operable valve means
is provided whereby air can be admitted to the
conduit when burning oil alone. In case the
burner is of the forced draft type, this air may
be withdrawn’ from the forced draft duct. Other
50 wise, the air may be admitted under the influ
ence of the natural draft of the furnace. In a
forced draft installation, the valve means is
preferably arranged to prevent blowing of the
high pressure air in a reverse direction through
55 the pulverizer.
'
i
which is supported centrally within the pipe l2.
' Secondary air is introduced into the furnace
through the opening Ii around the outside of [the
fuel stream. For this purpose I provide walls 35 '
20 forming an air chamber 2| located outside
the wall l0 and communicating with the open
ing ll. Air is supplied to the chamber 2i through
a forced draft duct 22 which is connected to a
suitable forced draft fan (not shown). Dampers 40
24 serve to control the ?ow of air from the duct
22 to the chamber 2]. The air entering the open
ing I l is preferably given a. whirling motion about '
thev pipe I2 by means of vanes 25 mounted in the
chamber 2|, these vanes being constructed and 45
arranged in the manner disclosed in the patent
to Craig et al. No. 1,843,662.
In order that oil may be burned when desired,
an oil atomizing nozzle or “gun” 26 is mounted
within the tube l8 with its rear or discharge end 50
adjacent the rear end of the burner pipe l2. Oil
is supplied to the nozzle 26 through a pipe 21.
When pulverized fuel alone is to be burned, the
oil nozzle 26 may be removed if desired.
.When burning oil alone with the apparatus as 55
2
2,111,908
so far described. there is a tendency for certain
parts of the burner to overheat; Moreover, the
oil burning capacity is limited, and the e?lciency
of combustion is less than would normally be
expected. These di?iculties have been overcome
by providing means for introducing air into the
furnace through the burner pipe l2. For this
purpose I provide a passage 29 leading from
the forced draft duct 22 to the conduit H, the
10 ?ow in this passage being controlled by a valve
39. A second valve 3| is provided in the conduit
I 4 between the pulverizer l5 and the junction
of the passage 29 with the conduit, this valve
serving to prevent air from blowing back into
15 the pulverizer when the latter is shut down. The
valves 60 and 3| are preferably‘ of the quarter
turn plug type, one suitable construction being
disclosed in my prior Patent No. 1,849,395.
The operation of this embodiment will now
When
burning pulverized fuel, either alone or in com
20 be apparent from the above disclosure.
bination with oil, valve 30 will be closed and
valve 9| open. Pulverized fuel and primary air
will ?ow from the pulverizer I6 through the con
"25 duit I 4 to the burner pipe I2, and the stream as
it issues from the pipe will be de?ected by the
vanes l1 outwardly into the surrounding whirling
stream of secondary air supplied from the cham
ber 2| and duct 22. When oil alone is to be
30 burned, the pulverizer will be shut down, valve 3|
will be closed, and valve 30 will be opened to
allow air to ?ow from the duct 22 through the
passage 29 to the burner pipe l2. This air will
be de?ected by the vanes l1 and hence will be
35 whirling‘rapidly as it strikes the atomized oil
immediately after the latter leaves the nozzle
26. The air is thus mixed with the oil almost
instantly, and the combustion is extremely rapid
and e?lcient. Moreover, the air ?owing through
40 the pipe l2 will cool this pipe and also the tube
l8 and the vanes l'l, thus protecting these parts
from overheating and ensuring a long ‘life of
service.
In Fig. 3 I have shown apparatus similar to that
45 already described, but arranged for use in an in
stallation having natural or induced draft. This
embodiment comprises a furnace wall 96 hav
ing an opening 26 therein, and a burner pipe 31
in front of the opening to discharge pulverized
50 fuel therethrough. The pipe 31 is connected by
means of a conduit 39 to a pulverizer“. De
?ecting vanes 42 are mounted at the rear of the
pipe 31, these vanes being mounted on a tube 43
combustion of the oil.
The secondary air is
drawn inwardly through the opening 36 by the
furnace draft.
It will be apparent that the air can be in
troduced into the pipe 31 in the manner dis
closed in Fig. 3 even though the secondary air
be supplied under pressure, but in such cases I
prefer to utilize the construction shown in Fig. 1.
Having thus described my invention, what I
claim as new and desire to secure by Letters Pat
ent is:
‘
10
1. Combustion apparatus comprising a burner
pipe adapted to discharge a jet of pulverized fuel
and primary air, means .to supply secondary air
around the outside of the fuel jet, means adjacent 15
the discharge end of the pipe to de?ect the issu
ing fuel outwardly into the secondary air, a fuel
pulverizer arranged to supply the pulverized fuel
and primary air, a conduit connecting the pul
verizer with the burner pipe, an oil atomizing 20
nozzle mounted within the burner pipe, a passage
to supply air to the conduit at a point between
the pulverizer and the burner pipe, and a valve
to control the flow in the passage.
2. Combustion apparatus comprising a burner
pipe adapted todischarge a jet of pulverized fuel
and primary air, means to supply secondary air
around the outside of the fuel jet, vanes adja
cent the discharge end of the pipe and extending
across the path of the fuel, said vanes being ar 30
ranged at an angle to the burner pipe axis so
that they de?ect the fuel outwardly into the
secondary air, a fuel pulverizer arranged to sup-v
ply the pulverized fuel and primary air, a conduit
connecting the pulverizer with the burner pipe,
an oil atomizing nozzle mounted within the burn
er pipe with its discharge end adjacent to said
vanes, a passage to supply air to the conduit‘ at
a point between the pulverizer and the burner
pipe, and a valve to control the flow in the pas 40
sage.
3. Combustion apparatus comprising a burner
pipe adapted to discharge a jet of pulverized fuel
and primary air, means to' supply secondary air
around the outside of the fuel jet, a tube mount
ed within the burner pipe, vanes mounted on
the tube adjacent ‘the discharge end of the pipe
and extending radially across the path of the fuel,
said vanes being arranged at an angle to the
burner‘ axis so that they de?ect the fuel out 50
wardly into the secondary air, a fuel pulverizer
arranged to supply the pulverized fuel and pri
mary air, a conduit connecting the pulverizer
with the burner pipe, an oil atomizing nozzle
mounted within the tube with its discharge end 55
adjacent to said vanes, a passage to supply air
to the conduit at a point between the pulverizer
and the burner pipe, and a valve to control the
?ow in the passage.
supported centrally within the pipe. An oil
atomizing nozzle 44 is mounted within the tube
43, and an oil supply pipe 45 is connected to the
nozzle. Vanes 41 are arranged around the out
side of the wall opening 36 to whirl the sec
ondary air which enters the opening under the
in?uence of the furnace draft or suction.
4. Combustion apparatus comprising a burner 60
In order to admit air to the pipe 21 when burn
ing oil alone, I provide a passage 49 which es— pipe adapted to discharge a jet of pulverized fuel
tablishes communication between the conduit 39 and primary air, means including a forced draft
and the atmosphere. The ?ow in this passage is duct- to supply secondary air around the outside
of the fuel jet, means adjacent the discharge
65 controlled by a valve 50 similar to the valves
end of the pipe to de?ect the issuing fuel out 65
30 and 3|.
wardly
into the secondary air, a fuel pulveriz~
The operation of this embodiment is similar to
that of the Fig. 1 arrangement. When burning er arranged to supply the pulverized fuel and
pulverized fuel either alone or‘ in combination primary air, a conduit connecting the pulverizer
70 with oil, valve 50 will be closed. when burning with the burner pipe, an oil atcmizing nozzle
oil alone, the pulverizer will be shut down and mounted within the burner pipe, a passage con
valve 50 will be opened, thus allowing the furnace necting the forced draft duct with the conduit
draft to draw air inwardly through the passage at a point between the pulverizer and the burner
pipe, and a valve to control the ?ow in the
49 and pipe 31. This air will cool the burner passage.
_
75 parts and aid in obtaining rapid and efficient
5. Combustion apparatus comprising a burner
3 .
2,111,908
pipe adapted to discharge a jet of pulverized fuel
and primary air, means to supply secondary air
around the outside of the fuel Jet, means adja
cent the discharge end of the pipe to de?ect the
issuing fuel outwardly into the secondary air,
a fuel pulverizer arranged to supply the pulver
-.ized fuel and primary air, a conduit connecting
the pulverizer with the burner pipe, an oil atom-‘
izing nozzle mounted within the burner pipe, and
valve controlled means to admit air directly from
the atmosphere into said conduit ‘at a point be
tween the pulverizer and the burner pipe.
L. v. ANDREWS.
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