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Патент USA US2112204

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March 22, 1938.
c. D. YOUNG'
2,112,204
STREAMER ADAPTED FOR TOWING BY AIRCRAFT
Filed May 11, 1933
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INVENTOR:
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dharw/sl). 16mg,
Patented Mar. 22, 1938
2,112,204
UNITED STATES PATENT
' FF 5
2,112,204
STREAMER ADAPTED FOR TOWING
BY AIRCRAFT
Charles D. Young, Haverford, Pa., assignor to
Kellett Autogiro Corporation, Philadelphia,
Pa., a corporation of Delaware
Application May 11, 1933, Serial No. 670,391
6 Claims. (Cl. 40-127)
‘
This invention relates to streamers adapted
'for towing, by aircraft, and more particularly to
streamers bearing words or symbols displayed
thereon in such manner as to constitute a sign
5
jclearly legible from the ground and therefore
‘useful for the purpose of advertising. The
streamer of this invention may also be used
to advantage in aerial signalling, as an aerial
target for anti-aircraft ?re, and for other pur
10 poses, wherever it is desired to- make an an
nouncement to the ground quickly over a large
area.
Generally stated the object of my invention
is to provide a streamer of simple and inexpen
' sive construction so designed that when towed
behind an aeroplane or other aircraft it will
assume a position in a substantially vertical plane
At the forward or leading end of the streamer
I employ a loop bridle 6 joining the upper and
lower ends of the foremost vertical member I
and forming therewith a triangular connection
between the tow line ‘i and the framework of
the streamer. The tow line ‘i terminates in an
eye or thimble 8 surrounding the bridle 6 and
slidable thereon. In order to give adequate 10
strength to the foremost vertical member i with
out unduly increasing its weight, a strut 9 is
positioned behind the member bracing it at its
medial portion. The strut 9 is held in place by
a stay wire l0 including a turnbuckle H by
means of which the wire may be tautened to the
desired degree.
with its longitudinal axis substantially parallel
ing level ground. More speci?cally the streamer
.is characterized by a particular form ‘of bridle
While the streamer is illustrated in the draw
ing with a longitudinal axis assuming a horizon
tal position, it is to be understood that under
at its leading edge and a flexible connection
actual ?ying conditions the longitudinal axis may
be inclined to an angle of twenty degrees or
thereabouts with the horizontal, and the words
“horizontal” and “vertical” are therefore used
between the tow line and bridle, whereby under
different conditions of ?ying speed and wind
the streamer has capacity for self-adjustment
iand'“ tends to maintain the desired position of
“?ight.
‘
_
Other objects and advantages characterizing
my present invention will become ‘more fully
‘apparent from the description of certain ex~
amples or embodiments thereof which are here
‘inafter‘set forth with reference to the accom
‘panying drawing. Of the drawing:
Fig. I represents a side elevation of a streamer
of my invention with the tow line substantially
taut.
.
»
Fig. 11 represents a similar view of the same,
with slack in the tow line showing how the
‘streamer adapts itself to changed. conditions;
and,
40
tion not being concerned with the mode of at
tachment of the display sign to the framework.
Fig. III represents a side elevation of a por
tion of a. modi?ed streamer in which the bridle
is differently constructed.
With reference to the streamer illustrated in
Figs. I and II, it will be observed that the same
45 comprises a rectangular skeleton framework in~
eluding rigid vertical members I disposed in
spaced parallel relation and longitudinal non
rigid members 2, 3 and 4, disposed at right angles
to the vertical members I and parallel to each
other. Preferably the vertical members I may
take the form of bamboo poles, whereas the upper
and lower longitudinal members 2, 3 are. desirably
made of stout cord, and the intermediate longi
cu Li tudinal members 4 of ?ner cord; The letters or
symbols 5 to be displayed on the framework of
the streamer are secured by any suitable means
to the intermediate longitudinal members 4, or
they may extend from the upper longitudinal 2
to the lower longitudinal 3, the present inven
herein in a general sense. Moreover, the streamer
may be of considerably greater length in pro
portion to height than represented in the par
ticular illustrated embodiment of the invention.
Throughout the framework of the streamer I
preferably employ diagonal members l2, one for
each panel of the framework, the diagonals join~ ‘
ling the upper end of veach vertical member I
with the lower end of the next vertical member
to the rear thereof.
At the rear end of the streamer there is pro
vided a trailing loop M in the form of a line
joining the upper and lower ends of the rear
most vertical member I.
The trailing loop I 4
‘constitutes a counterpart of the bridle 6 at the
‘forward end of the streamer. To the trailing
‘loop hi there is slidably connected a drag ele
ment I5 which may take the form of the well
known “wind sock”, and which offers su?icient
resistance to maintain the stability of the
streamer during flight. The drag element l5
preferably is attached to the trailing loop [4
by means of an eye or thimble it, or alterna
tively ?xed wind socks are attached to the ends
of the rearmost vertical member 5.
By the construction described above, the
framework of the streamer is in effect pivoted
for revolution about a longitudinal towing axis
:c-a: which varies in its position according to
the speed of the towing vehicle, wind conditions
and other factors. In order to maintain the
streamer in substantially vertical plane and With
out causing it to sag intermediate its forward
and rear ends, the framework is weighted at.
the two lower corners, the weights being at
tached to the foremost and rearmost vertical 60
2
2,112,204.
member as indicated at l1, l8, thus placing
the center of gravity of the framework near its
lower edge and well below the lowest position of
the towing axis.
In Fig. III there is represented a modi?ed
form of streamer of my invention in which the
loop bridle 6a includes stays 2i‘,- extending diago
nally upward and downward from the center
of the leading vertical member l and joining
10 the loop bridle So at points designated at 2| and
22. With this construction the stays 28 reinforce
the leading vertical member I against bending
at its medial portion and thus perform a func
tion equivalent to that of the strut 9 described
with reference to the structure of Figs. I and II.
The tow line i is slidably connected to the loop
bridle (id, but its movement is con?ned within
that portion of the bridle in advance of the
points 2!, 22.
It is to be especially noted that in both forms
of my invention the tow line i is'not fastened
to any particular point of the bridle 6, but is free
to move therealong. Heretofore it has been
proposed to employ a ?xed connection between
the tow line and bridle and to utilize a number
of auxiliary bridle lines leading from the inner
section of the tow line and bridle to the medial
portion of the foremost vertical member of the
streamer. An example of such practice is illus
30 trated in the patent to M. S. DuPont No. 1,901,
855, issued March 14, 1933. By the provision of
a loop bridle and flexible connection between the
tow line and the same, the framework of the
streamer has capacity for self-adjustment with
respect to the tow line and hence tends to assume
a position in which its longitudinal axis is sub
stantially level irrespective of the degree of taut
ness of the tow line 1. This ?exibility or capacity
for adjustment is likewise characteristic of the
40 drag element 15. In effect the streamer is sup
ported ?exibly between two movable points, and
incident to changes in the speed of the towing
vehicle or other conditions will tend to maintain
the desired position. Moreover, the ?exibility or
capacity for self-adjustment is obtained in such
departing from the spirit of the invention as
de?ned in the annexed claims.
Having thus described my invention, ‘I claim:
1. A streamer adapted for towing by aircraft
comprising a. substantially rectangular skeleton
framework including vertical and longitudinal
members, the vertical members being rigid and
the framework having a center of gravity nearer
its lower edge, a loop bridle joining the upper and
lower ends of the foremost vertical member, a tow 10
line slidably connected to said loop bridle, and
a drag element connected to the rear end of said
framework.
2. A streamer adapted for towing by aircraft
comprising a substantially rectangular skeleton
framework including vertical and longitudinal
members, the vertical members being rigid and
the framework having a center of gravity nearer
its lower edge, a loop bridle joining the upper
and lower ends of the foremost vertical member,
said foremost vertical member being reinforced
against bending at its medial portion, a tow line
slidably connected to said loop bridle, and a drag
element connected to the rear end-of said frame
IO $1
work.
3. A streamer adapted for towing by aircraft
comprising a substantially rectangular skeleton
framework including vertical and longitudinal
members, the vertical members being rigid and
the framework having a center of gravity near
its lower edge, a loop bridle joining the upper
and lower ends of the foremost vertical member,
a strut reinforcing said foremost vertical mem
ber against bending at its medial portion, a tow
line terminating in a thimble slidably mounted
on said loop bridle, and a drag element connected
to the rear end of said framework.
4. A streamer adapted for towing by aircraft
comprising a substantially rectangular skeleton
framework including vertical and longitudinal 40
members, the vertical members being rigid and
the framework having a center of gravity near
its lower edge, a loop bridle joining the upper
and lower ends of the foremost vertical member,
stays extending diagonally upward-and downward
manner as not to place undue strain. upon the
from the center of said foremost vertical mem
leading vertical member of the streamer, this
member being adequately reinforced against
bending at its medial portion.
In Fig. I the streamer is represented with the
tow line ‘I relatively taut. When the speed of
ber, stays extending diagonally upward and
the towing vehicle is decreased momentarily or
‘when for other reason the tow line 1 becomes
slackened, as represented with some exagggera
tion in Fig. II, the towing axis will assume‘ a
position more near the center line of the stream
er. Under this condition the weights l1, ill will
maintain the streamer in a substantially vertical
plane and the towing bridle 6 will assume a dif
ferently shaped triangle. With a ?xed connec
tion between the tow line and bridle there is
between said stays, and a drag element con
nected to the rear end of said framework.
necessarily a tendency for the leading vertical
member to assume a position substantially at
right angles to the tow‘ line. With the streamer
constructed in the manner of my invention, the
leading vertical member will tend to retain its
vertical position with relation to the ground, ir
respective of whether the tow line is relatively
taut or relatively slack.
While I have described certain speci?c exam
ples of the practice of my invention, it will be
apparent, especially to those skilled in the art,
that various changes may be made in the par
ticular form of the streamer, its framework,
75 bridle lines and reinforcing elements, all without
45
downward from the center of said foremost ver
tical member and joining said loop bridle there
by reinforcing the same against bending, a tow
line slidably connected. to the bight of the bridle
5. A streamer adapted for towing by aircraft
comprising a substantially rectangular skeleton
framework including vertical and longitudinal
members, the vertical members being rigid and
the framework having a center of gravity near
its lower edge, a loop bridle joining the upper
and lower ends of the foremost vertical mem
ber, a tow line slidably connected to said loop
bridle, a line joining the upper and lower ends
of the rearmost vertical member, and a drag ele
ment slidably connected to said line.
6. A streamer adapted for towing by aircraft
comprising a substantially rectangular skeleton
framework including vertical and longitudinal
members, the vertical members being rigid and
the framework being weighted at its two lower
corners, a loop bridle joining the upper and 70
lower ends of the foremost vertical member, a
tow line slidably connected to said loop bridle,
and a drag element connected to the rear of said
framework.
CHARLES D. YOUNG.
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