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Патент USA US2112301

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March 29, 1938.
w. MOSER
2,112,301
RADIANT ENERGY GUIDE CHANNEL
Filed Feb. l, 1935
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INVENTOR.
WILHELM MOSER
ATTORNEY.
2,112,301
Patented Mar. 29, 1938
i UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE
2,112,301
RADIANT ENERGY GUIDE’CHANNEL
Wilhelm Moser, Berlin, Germany, assignor to
Telefunken Gesellschaft fur Drahtlose Tele~
graphie m. b. H., Berlin, Germany, a corpo~
,
ration of Germany
Application-‘February 1, 1935, Serial No. 4,466
In Germany January 31, 1934
8 Claims.
(Cl. Z50-11)
This invention relates to an arrangement'for
radiation guide channels. This invention will
best be understood by referringv to the accom
panying drawing, in’which: Fig. 1 shows a cir
cuit diagram of a system of radiation guide
channels; Fig. 2 is a cardioid diagram of radia
tion guide channels; Fig. 3 is a preferred circuit
diagram of radiation guide channels of _this in
vention; andFig. 4 is another preferred circuit
i diagram of radiation‘guide channels of this in
Vention. Figure 1 shows a known arrangement
for the production of radiation guide channels,
i. e., more or less narrow space zones destined to
“a
guide crafts in' particular sea vessels and air
i crafts, and which _are -rendered recognizable in
radio apparatus, for instance, in that 'within the
said zones the receiving intensities of two radia
tions having differently directed axes are the
same, or that these intensities have a definite
l constant relationship. The antenna A formed as
vertical double dipole is fed, for instance, in the
center thereof across energy lines B by a high
frequency generator C. The reiiector antennae
D and E constituted as in the case of the antenna
5 A by vertical double dipoles of suitable length,
have a place for separation in the center thereof
whereby in the state of interruption of the said
place by means of remotely controlled switches
F and G the said reflector antenna can be made
l inoperative. Switches F and G are provided with
a magnet M comprising two coils joined together
at the center.
A common armature N, shown
by the dash lines, passes through the center of
both coils of magnet M and is linked to the
5 blades of switches F and G. Magnet M is elec
trically connected to a remote control station S
having the well-known means for energizing the
coil on the left to close switch G and then en
ergizing the coil on the right to close switch F
D in alternate sequence. By means of such an ar
rangement, two directional diagrams alternating
in time intervals, for instance, the two cardioids
shown in Figure 2 can be obtained. Each of
these cardioids can be produced by means of the
5 central antenna A in combination with one of
the respectively operating reñector antennae E
or D.
lNow it has been found that with such an
arrangement the expected well defined shape of
0 the characteristic of the directive radiation can
be very rarely obtained. This can be explained
by the fact that a complete inoperativeness of
the respective reflector by opening its switch is
not possibly attainable, since the radiation cou
5 pled wires, although detuned, radiate progress
ing, as well as standing waves, hence they con
tinue to radiate perpendicular to the direction
of- the wire thereof, i. e., they distort in an un
desirable and concealed manner the radiation
diagram, in particular, also the horizontal radia- 5
tion diagram of the antennae. The theoretical
ideal would be to completely lremove out of space
the- reflectorl antenna to be rendered inoperative.
Since, however, thel shutting off of the reflector
antennae is desired in the rhythm of the keying 10
of the signals, theV theoretical ideal cannot be
fulfilled.
In accordance with the invention, the theoreti
cal ideal can be approached if, instead of simply
interrupting or short-circuiting the antenna 15
parts to be rendered inoperative, they are
switched to resistances which are equal to the
wave resistance of the said antenna parts. It is
well known that an electrical wave passing across
a wire will be reflected at the open or short-cir
20
cuited end of the said wire. If, however, the end
of the wire is connected to a resistor equal tov the
wave resistance of the wire, reflection does not
occur.
O'nly progressing waves pass across the
wire and which do not radiate perpendicularly
but under a more or less steep angle to the direc
tion of the wire. Hereby is the energy of the
radiation produced by the progressing waves
small in comparison with the radiation of stand
ing waves.
`
30
Figure 3 shows, by way of example, an embodi~
ment in accordance with the invention for the
case in which each reñector consists' of two M2
dipoles arranged abo-ve each other, which, for the
purpose of carrying out the inoperativeness, are
connected to each other. The reflectors D and
E are co'nnected to the switches F and G with
their inner free ends and across the resistors
H1, H2, H3, H4. The resistors are so dimensioned
40
as to obtain the equation
wherein Z is the resistance of each dipole.
Figure 4 shows, by way of example, a corre
sponding construction for the case in which each 45
reflector consists of a single dipole only and
which will be interrupted when placed out of
operation. The resistors to be inserted, namely,
H5 and Hs are here suitably placed in parallel
to the switches G and F and the size thereof is
to be chosen equal to Z/2.
I claim:
1. A radio directional system having, in com
bination, an antenna, a high frequency generator
for feeding energy to said antenna, a reflecting
2
2,112,301
antenna parallel to said antenna, and means for
switchingr in and out of circuit a resistance unit
which is connected to said reflector antenna, said
resistance being equal to the wave resistance of
the antenna.
2. A radio Ydirectional channel system having,
in combination, an antenna, a high frequency
generator for feeding energy to said antenna, a
pair of reflecting antennae arranged parallel to
said antenna, each reilecting antenna having an
individual resistance unit connected therewith,
and means for switching in and out of circuit the
individual resistance unit which is connected to
each reflecting antenna, each resistance unit be
15 ing equal to the wave resistance of the antenna.
3. A radio directional system having, in com
bination, a plurality of antennae parallel ar
ranged, at least one of said antennae being con
nected to a high frequency generator for feeding
20 energy thereto, and means for switching in and
out of circuit a resistance which is connected to
the other o-f said antennae not connected to said
high frequency generator, said resistance being
equal to the wave resistance of the antenna.
25
4. A radio directional system having in com
bination three antennae at least one of which is
connected to a high frequency generator, the
other two antennae acting as reñectors, and
means for switching in and out of circuit a
30 resistance unit which is individually connected
to each reflector, each resistance unit having a
resistance value substantially equal to the wave
resistance of the reflector to which it is con
nected.
5. A radio directional system having in com
35
bination, three antennae, said antennae being in
the form of vertical dipoles parallel arranged to
each other, at least one of said dipoles located
in the center of the other two and connected
to a high frequency generator for feeding energy
to said one dipole, the other two dipoles having
means for switching in and out of circuit a re
sistance, said resistance being equal to the wave
resistance of said antenna.
6. A radio directional channel system having in
combination, an antenna, a high frequency gen
erator for feeding energy to said antenna, two
half-wave dipole reflectors havin'g inner free
ends, said dipole reflectors arranged parallel to
said antenna, means including a switch for a1-ternately switching in and out of circuit a re
sistance which is in series with each of said inner
free ends o-f the half-wave dipoles and said switch,
said resistance being equal to the wave resistance
of said antenna.
'7. A radio directional channel system having in
combination, an antenna, a high frequency gen
erator for feeding energy to said antenna, two
single dipole reflectors having inner free ends,
said dipole reflectors arranged parallel to said
antenna, a switch connected in series with each
inner free end of said single-dipole for alternate
ly switching in and out of circuit a resistance
which is connected in parallel with said switch,
the value of said resistance being equal to one
half the resistance of said single dipole.
_
8. A radio directional system having in com
bination, an antenna, a high frequency genera
tor for feeding energy to said antenna, a reflect
ing antenna having inner free ends arranged par
allel to said antenna, and means for alternately
switching in and out of circuit said reñecting an
tenna, said means comprising a switch and a re
sistance having a value equal to 4the wave resist
ance of said reflecting antenna, said switch and
resistance connected with the inner free ends of
the reflector.
WILHELM MOSER.
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