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Патент USA US2112363

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March 29, 1938.
2,112,363 .
. \
Filed Oct. 25, 1933
Patented Mar. 29, 1938
Fritz Gotthardt, Ridgewood, N. Y.
Application October 25, 1933, Serial No. 695,088
2 Claims.
This invention relates to thermostatically con
trolled radiator-valves for steam heat and is
adapted for use in connection with the one-pipe
system. A liquid~?lled vessel acts as a thermo
stat, being installed in the room the temperature
of which is to be regulated; the expansion due
to temperature undergone by this liquid, com
presses a bellows which closes the valve when the
desired temperature has been reached. Use may
10 be made of the thermostat described in Patent
No. 1,925,530, September 5, 1933. Thermostats
of this design work satisfactorily in steam-heat
ing‘systems in which the water of condensation is
returned to the boiler by a separate pipe. In the
case of one-pipe systems, the water of condensa
tion is returned to the boiler by the same pipe
by which the steam is supplied to the radiator.
If a thermostatically controlled valveis installed
in a one-pipe system it must not reduce the pas
sage to such an extent that the velocity of the
steam will prevent the return of the water of
condensation. All known valves controlled by
liquid-?lled thermostats close slowly, in accord
ance with the heat-expansion of the liquid, and
are therefore not suitable for one-pipe systems.
In the case of the present invention, this .ob
jection is avoided. When the desired room-tem
perature has been reached, the thermostat closes
the valve instantaneously thereby preventing fur
30 ther accumulation of steam in the radiator which
ordinarily would result in the accumulation of
condensed water. When the room temperature
falls below the desired point the valve is instan
taneously opened wide. The complete closing of
the valve prevents leakage of steam into the
radiator, and the complete opening of the valve
assists in draining the condensed water. A par
tially open valve would prevent such drainage of
water and cause radiator trouble.
The water
40 condensed from the steam fed into the radiator,
has therefore the opportunity of flowing back
through a valve that is wide open. A further
improvement lies in the fact that the closed Valve
is mechanically locked against being opened by
Another improvement is provided by the use of
a resilient, liquid-?lled container, which is in
heat-contact with the valve ‘and acts as a motor,
and which makes use‘of the difference in tem
perature with the valve open or closed, in order
to perform a part of the work required for open
ing or closing the valve.
Another improvement is. that the valve-seat
(01. 236-536)
housing will not a?ect the valve-seat, a tight
closing of the valve being thus at all times
Fig. 1 is a vertical view of an ordinary ther
Fig. 2 is a vertical cross-sectional view of a pos
sible design using a ?at spring coup-ling between.
the valve and the thermostatic operating-device.
Fig. 3 is a vertical cross-sectional view-of a
Fig. 4 is a vertical cross sectional view of a
complete valve, in the open position.
part of the valve shown in Fig. 3, but in, the
closed position.
Fig. 5 is ‘a vertical cross-sectional ,view of an-'
other modi?cation of a part of the valve.
Fig. 1 shows a thermostat which can be used.
The container I0 is completely ?lled with aliquid
and is connected by means of the small pipe II
with the, valve-operating vessel. The container
I0 is held in place by the clamp I2, which may, 20
for example, be fastened to the wall. The hand-7
wheel [3 is provided in front with a-scale, By
turning the hand-wheel It the capacity of‘ the
container H1 is. altered, and thus the desired tem
perature is set. The position‘ of the hand-wheel
I3 can be read by the pointer l4-
Fig. 2 shows a possible design of the radiator
valve. The valve-housing l5 has ‘an ‘inlet l6
and an outlet I 8.
The inlet l6 can be closed
tightly by the valve-disc H. The thermostatic
valve-operating vessel I9 is connected by the pipe
II with the container Hl (Fig. 1), and transmits
its movement through the stem 26 to an inter
mediate, resilient, liquid-?lled container 2 I, which
in turn exerts pressure on the ?at ‘spring 22.
The stem 23 of the valve-disc is coupled at 24,
with the flat spring 22. If the room temperature
rises, the liquid in the container l0 expands, the
stem 20 presses against the intermediate con
tainer 2!, and the latter in turn presses against 40
the ?at spring 22, which is distorted until. it
assumes the position indicated by the broken line
25. A somewhat greater distortion causes it to
snap to the position indicated by the brokenv line
26. This closes the valve instantaneously, and
the steam is cut off. As the room temperature
falls, the same process takes place in the reverse
order. The spring 21 keeps the flat spring con
stantly in contact with the vessels l9 and 2|.
Since considerable power is required to openand
shut the valve, the thermostat I0 used would
have to be of a large size.
For this reason the
is connected with the valve-housing by a thin
resilient, liquid ?lled vessel 2| has been inter~
posed. This vessel is in heat-contact withthe
membrane, so that‘ deformation of the valve
valve-housingj The temperature of the valve; 55
housing is nearly that of the steam while the
valve is open, and falls considerably below that
point when the valve is closed. The intermediate
vessel experiences this same ?uctuation of tem
perature. Whenever the valve is opened, the tem
perature rises, the intermediate vessel expands
and forces the ?at spring almost into the posi
tion of snapping over. The actual snapping-over
takes place due to a ?nal push exerted by the
thermostatic operating vessel |3, caused by the
thermostat H].
The intermediate vessel 2| therefore acts as a
motor which performs a part of the work required
to open and shut the valve. When the valve is
closed and the room temperature falls, the fore
going operations take place in reverse order. The
intermediate vessel 2| may be omitted if the ther
mostatic operating vessel I9 is brought into heat
contact with the valve-housing and if the liquid
contents of the said vessel are correspondingly
increased. This has been done in the design
shown in Fig. 3. Since, after the valve has been
closed, a large difference in pressure develops and
tends to open the valve, there being steam-pres
25 sure on one side and a vacuum on the other,
the valve-disc must be locked against undesired
Figs. 3 and 4 show a radiator valve locked with
the aid of the toggle-joints 28 and 29. The valve
30 housing l5 had an inlet l6’ and an outlet l8’.
The cover 35 is seated on the housing l5’ by
means of a ring 34 provided with a right and left
hand thread. The stem 23' of the valve-disc I1
is guided by a recess in the cover 35’ and by a
35 brace 33 which is rigidly attached to the cover
35’. The pivot 36 of one arm of the toggle-joint
28 is rigidly attached to the cover 35', and pivot
3| of the other arm. 29 is rigidly attached to the
stem 23’. Pivot 32 connects the two arms of the
40 toggle-joints 28 and 29, and is guided in a slot of
the lever 36. Fig. 4 shows the valve in the closed
position, with the pivots 30, 3| and 32 of the toggle
joints 28 and 29 lying nearly in a straight line. A
forcible opening of the valve by steam-pressure is
impossible. In Fig. 3 the thermostatic vessel 31
is secured by the nut 38 to the cover 35'. The
pipe H is connected with the thermostat ID. If
the temperature of the liquid in the thermostat ID
or in the thermostatic vessel 31 rises, said liquid
expands and compresses the bellows 39, which
exerts pressure through its rod 40 upon the lever
4|. The lever 4| has its fulcrum 42 rigidly
fastened to the brace 33. This lever 4| partici
pates in all of the slow motions of the bellows 39,
transmitted to it by the rod 40 and is held
securely in contact with the same by the spring
21. The lever 4| is prolonged by the lever 36, the
fulcrum 43 of which, is ?xed to the lever 4|. A
tension-spring 44, is attached at one end to the
60 pin 45 in lever 4|, and at the‘ other end to the
pin 46 in the lever 36. If in Fig. 3 the liquid
in the vessel expands, the bellows is compressed,
the rod 40 is thrust downward and fulcrum 43 of
the lever 4| moves from left to right until it has
passed the straight line connecting the pins 45
and 46. At this instant the tension spring 44
throws the lever 36 from‘ right to left, closing the
valve by means of the toggle-joints 28 and 29, as
shown in Fig. 4. This shuts off the steam; the
vessel 31 cools off, and the process described above
takes place in a reverse order. The quantity of
liquid in the vessel 31 is so chosen, that as the
vessel 31 cools to the temperature of the closed
valve, the lever 4| is brought into such a position
75 that the fulcrum 43 and the two pins 45 and 46
come almost into a straight line.
If the room
temperature falls, the liquid in the thermostat
l0 contracts, and produces a still further move
ment of the lever 4|. The lever 36 snaps over
to the other side, and re-opens the valve. The
thermostat l0 furnishes the ?nal amount of power
necessary to throw the lever 36. The larger
movements which the lever 4| is called upon to
make, are produced by the liquid in the vessel 31,
which is affected by the great fluctuations of the
temperature of the valve-housing, resulting from
the opening and closing of the valve. Vessel 31
therefore acts as a motor. The locking of the
closed valve can be effected in any other desired
manner, as for instance, in that shown in Fig. 5. 15
Within the housing l5 and cover 35 (Fig. 5),
is provided the roller 50. The axle 5| of roll 52
is secured to the valve-stemt 23. The lever 36
forces a shape 53 between the two rolls, whereby
the valve is opened or closed. Fig. 5 shows the
valve in the closed position. Undesired opening
by steam-pressure is impossible. When, the tem
perature falls the lever 36 assumes the position
shown by the broken outline. The spring 54 keeps
the roller 52 in contact with the shape 53.
One of the difficulties connected with large
valves when used with the one-pipe system lies
in the fact that during their installation, their
housing is likely to be sprung out of true. This
is detrimental to their tightness. For this reason 30
in my design the valve-seat 56 is provided with a
thin membrane 51, which in turn is held to the
housing l5 by the ring 58. Any distortion of the
housing |5 will distort the thin membrane- 51, but
will not affect the heavy ring 56, which serves as 35
a valve-seat.
To sum up, in my invention a liquid ?lled ther
mostat is connected with the valve by a coupling
having a collapsing articulation, which provides
for a complete and instantaneous opening and 4.0
shutting of the valve at the desired temperature,
in order that the dif?culties of removing the Water
of condensation may be avoided. The motion of
the levers is rendered more perfect by the in
sertion of a vessel which acts as a motor.
The 45
valve when closed is mechanically locked against
forcible opening by the pressure of the steam. It
is to be noted that the volume of chamber 31 is
actually several times smaller than that of ther
mostatic vessel I0, although the drawings are not 50
held in proportion. In order not to confuse the
various expressions employed in the foregoing
descriptions and the following claims, it is to be
noted that the operating mechanisms connecting
elements 2| and 31 with the valve stems are to be 55
distinguished according to their respective func
tions. Thus in Fig. 2 is shown nothing more than
what I shall term a “snap joint” consisting of
spring 22 which is ?exed to either right or left,
thereby opening or closing disc |1, respectively. 60
In Figures 3, 4 and 5 are shown besides “snap
joints” also means for locking the valve stems in
their closed position. These means I shall term
“lock joints”. Thus in Figures 3, 4 and 5 the
snap joints consist of levers 36 and 4|, connected 65
by spring 44, whereas the lock joint in Figures 3
and 4 consist of double levers or link-joints 28
and 29, and in Fig. 5 of roller 52 and bar 53.
Another important feature of my invention is
to be carefully considered. It relates to the valve 70
seat 56 and its integral part 51, which latter
constitutes in effect a membrane or resilient sus
pension, upon the function of which the proper
seating contact between disc I1 and seat 56 en
tirely depends. In hand-operated valves a tight 75
seating of the disc against the seat may be easily
forced, particularly when the disc is made of rel
atively soft or resilient material, whereas in auto
matically operated devices of the kind described,
a true seating function depends upon accurate
from one radiator to the other may be provided.
I claim:
1. In a temperature-governed radiator valve
including a housing and a closure member opera 5
tively mounted therein, an exterior completely
Inasmuch as valves are often handled by care
less workmen, it quite often happens that when
applying heavy wrenches in tightening the valve
10 to steam pipes, the valve, portion containing the
valve seat becomes distorted and consequently
precludes proper seating of the disc.
plication a by-passing arrangement for water
For that
very reason I have so designed the valve seat as to
be independent of the valve housing. This I ac
15 complish by resiliently suspending the seat.
the structure illustrated in Fig. 3, the seat body is
annularly undercut to- form an annular resilient
support in the form of annular membrane 51,
which in itself may become distorted without
20 influencing the upper portion of the seat, which
is spaced from the housing body.
While the above is only one of the possible con
structions of resiliently suspending a seat, similar
ways of accomplishing the same results may be
25 readily devised, and I reserve for myself the right
to make changes in that particular construction
within the broad scope of my claims.
The present invention is primarily designed for
single-pipe steam heat radiators. It may, how
liquid ?lled thermostatic vessel exposed to room
temperature, a single and completely liquid ?lled
closure acting element associated with said hous
ing and in?uenced by the steam, which passes the 10
open valve and a liquid conduit connecting said
thermostatic vessel and said closure acting ele
ment, a snap-joint operatively connecting said
element with said closure member and adapted to
instantaneously either fully open or fully close 15
the latter and a lock-joint provided for said clo
sure member and adapted to forcibly retain said
closure member in its. closed position, when
brought to that position by the snap-joint actu
ated by said element.
2. The device de?ned in claim 1: Said element
being adapted to gradually bring said snap-joint
to almost its snap movement position for either
closing or opening said closure member, when
said element is subjected to changes in tempera 25
ture within said housing; the function of the
room thermostat being to complete the snap
movement of said snap-joint by adding impetus
to movement of said element.
30 ever, be adapted for use in connection with vac
uum and hot water systems, in which latter ap
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