Патент USA US2112392код для вставки
March 29, 1938. 2,112,392 F. R. BlcHowsKY AIR CONDITIONING Filed Nov. 7, 1934 // É/ w, w, ¿b M U zfw d? „M fí _,„ya . W „W l// w f . /aï„M ß vf z2, N/ È Míß ///, f/ ß í fr., z „M_„,ÃfVWd „W /ü Ã; M6 .œ M W15 /_ 7. f , Í.A /WMM yA / E.W E adW op”C . MM yV a0_ M 7»W W M ß „i / _M N„ad , /k N/ „M7 fm . . if 0 .MU a, w je? AW 3 m.. Patented Mar. 29, 1938 2,112,392 UNITED ysTATlazs PAENT OFFICE 2,112,392 AIR. CONDITIONING Francis R. Bichowsky, Toledo, 0o Application November 7, 1934, Serial No. "151,958 'i claim. (Cl. QSI-lil.) This inventionl relates to air conditioning of enclosures or places of occupancy such as public buildings, houses, theatres, and the like, wherein outside. The remaining portion of heat and moisture is removed by passing a large portion of the air through the vents t, 5 and 6, the ducts it is desired to obtain and maintain a predeter ‘l and 2t, through a chamber t, in which it is mined condition of the air.I One of the objects' cooled but in which, according to the mode of 5 of this invention is to provide a method> and means of producing more comfortableconditions in places of occupancy and of reducing the cost of air conditioning in such places. 10 Another object of this invention is to provide methods and apparatus for conditioning air „jointly by means of dehydrating .apparatus and by means of cooling apparatus, both of which may be automatically controlled to produce the 15 desired conditions. ` Further objects and advantages will be appar ‘ent from the full disclosure of the following speci iication and the drawing forming a part thereof, wherein, Fig. 1 represents, in somewhat dia 20 grammatic form, a preferred embodiment of the invention; and Fig. 2 shows a psychrometric chart illustrating one mode of operation oi the invention. The usual mode of air conditioning buildings 25 involves circulation of the air from the space to be occupied into a chamber where the airis contacted with a cold media of suiiìciently low temperature to condense a portion of the water on the cold media. This cold and partially dry operation of my invention, no moisture 'is re moved. This cooled air is returned by fan IG or other means through the ducts i2 and i3 into the spaces to be cooled and air conditioned. It constitutes the main stream of circulating air. 10 In order to balance the quantity of air introduced into the room and the quantity of air leaving the room, there is provided a third passage for air il, iii, 20, adapted to lead in. fresh air from the outside and after treating it to mix it with 15 air entering through the duct 2i in the mixing space Id. The ducts entering into the mixing space ld, namely, the entrance 2t for the outside air and the entrance 2i for the recirculating air may be provided with dampers 22 and 23 to con- 2o trol the proportion of -air entering by these two paths. As has been heretofore described, the cooling surfaces in the space t, namely, the iin type coolers 3l, 32 are at all times maintained above the dew point oi the air entering the chamber t, and for this pur a device Vl5 sensitive to changes in dew point may be provided » adapted, through connection with the means Mi, to control the temperature of the cooling agent 30 air is then tempered by mixing with a portion ' entering the coolers 3i, d2. .ln order to reduce a@ of the air which is circulated and which has not been refrigerated and reintroduced into the building. Such a system has the disadvantage that by it it is only possible to control the humid 35 ity of the space conditioned within a limited degree and it’ has the further disadvantage that since the use of refrigeration is a relatively ex pensive way of removing water from air the operating cost of the system is unduly high. In accordance with my invention, the cooling 40 and drying of the air are accomplished separately in such a manner as to reduce the total cooling load and to- allow a more comfortable ñnal con dition of temperature ‘and humidity and to simpli 45 fy construction. » - In >‘the drawing, the spaces l and 2 are spaces of occupancy to be conditioned. Conditioned air enters these spaces through the openings i0 and Il which are connected to the ducts i2 and 50 I3. In the spaces l and 2, due to the heat of occupancy and due to heat gains and other causes, the air in _the space picks up heat and 65 the humidity of the air in the space, and to remove the water taken up in that space, I introduce in the passage id through which air enters the cooling space itl by the passage it, a zone tt in which the air is dried by being con- 35 tacted with a liquid drying agent in accordance with the method and principle set forth in my U. S. Patent 1,992,177. For cple, the air is contacted' with a drying solution of lithium chlo ride introduced in the form of spray through the M, nozzles di and 52. 'The liquid may be collected in the sump dt and be recirculated from the sump to the nozzles 5l and t2 by means oi a pump 5t' and the piping 55. The concentration of the solution in the sump t3 may be controlled from 45 time to time by withdrawing a portion of the liquid in the sump to the regenerating boiler Si where the accumulated water 5ls‘ßlboiled off in the form of steam through the pipe 5t, the heat necessary for this operation being supplied 50 through the burner 59. The concentrated solu- ~ moisture which must b_e removed. This heat and moisture is in part removed by venting a tion so produced by boiling oil water may be returned to the sump through the pipe 60. Cool ing and interchange means may be provided at >portion of the air through the _Vent M t0 the 6| to conserve sensible heat of the boiled liquid. u 2,112,392 2 heat and moisture by means of refrigeration The latent heat taken up by condensation of water in the liquid may be removed from the cir culating liquid in the main circulating stream by means of the cooler 1I, which may be cooled by alone, it can be shown that it is necessary to cool a portion of the air, approximately 60% of the air, to 40 degrees F., and return that portion of the air to the main circulating stream so that the Ul air entering the place of occupancy will have the necessary temperature of 65 degrees and a relative water or other cooling media the supply of which to the cooler may be controlled in any suitable 'mannen Means may be provided to control the Ul humidity of 65%. It can be shown that if this is supply of liquid from sump 53 to the regenerat 10 done, approximately 35% of the refrigeration is ing boiler 51 where water is removed by evapo ration. This means may consist of a density used to condense the water content of the air. 10 If now instead of using refrigeration alone, a com- f control unit 80 in the chamber 50 connected by connections 8l with valve 62 to operate the valve bination of refrigeration and drying is employed in response to changes’ in density of the liquid. Other connections may be provided to control the 15 regenerating rate, that is, the rate in which con densed water is removed through the vent 58 so in accordance with my invention, and if the dry ing is applied to the intake air alone, and if we that the density of the circulated liquid inthe main stream remains constant. The drying unit 50 is operated in such a way as to reduce the relative humidity of the air leaving the unit 20 to a low value as will be more clearly speciñed hereafter. A duct or connection 63 leads from the space of occupancy i and 2, to the entrance of the drying chamber 50, and dampers 64, 65 allow for the regulation of the proportion of air 25 drawn from the space of occupancy through the duct 63 and the proportion of air drawn from the outside through the duct I1 which enters the drying space 50. . A thermostatic control 90 responsive to the 30 assume that the temperature of cooling water 15 available is such that it is practical to dry the air at 90 degrees F., the temperature of the mixture of air obtained in the mixing chamber I9 by mixing r10% of air at 80 degrees and 20% of air at 90 de grees will be 82 degrees. Since no moisture is re 20 moved by the refrigerating- portion of the appa ratus when working in accordance with my inven tion, the moisture content of the mixed air must be retained as the moisture content of the air de sired, namely, at the temperature of 82, the mixed air will have a relative humidity of 35%, and will have the state E. To obtain this relative humidity, the air leaving the drying chamber will be on the line BE where that line extended cuts the line of 90° F. It therefore must have a relative humidity 30 temperature of the air in the space to be condi tioned may be connected with the source of ,cool of approximately 21% which relative humidity it is practical to obtain in an apparatus of this kind. The air of this composition is represented by the ing to control the temperature on the cooling coils ' point F on the psychrometric chart and the mixed 3 i, The cooling source is shown as a refriger- ' air containing air of the composition F and air 35 ating machine 9|, but any form of cooling device may be used, including cooling by cold water. A humidostat S00 may be connected with the dry ing apparatus so as to controi the humidity in the space by controlling either the density of the circulated brine or by shutting off the brine 40 when. the humidity in the space I is less than is desired and by turning on the brine when the humidity in space I is greater than is desired; or 35 it is possible to control the dampers in such a way as to proportion the amount of air which passes 45 through the drying chamber so as to maintain the humidity in the space I at the desired condi tion. The foregoing constitutes a description of a pre ferred form of apparatus andthe following de 50 scription serves as an example illustrating its mode of operation. This mode of operation to gether with the result is most convenientlyset forth by following through the changes in condition of the air in the various parts of the apparatus on 55 a psychrometric chart, marked in accordance of the composition B will have the composition E as shown in the psychrometric chart. If the air of the composition E is then cooled without re moval of moisture, its state will change from the state »E to the state C, which is the desired state 40 for air entering the chamber in order to maintain the condition B in the chamber. Operating in this manner, the total refrigeration load will be approximately 65% of the total refrigeration load in this example Where refrigeration alone is used. 45 ` In order to obtain these results with an auto matic apparatus, it is suflicient to connect the thermostat 90 so that it controls the amount of refrigeration supplied to the ‘air in accordance with demands in the usual manner except that it is desir-able to set the refrigerating apparatus so that the temperature can never fall below the dew point, or the device I5 responsive to dew point of the air can be employed to keep the temperature of the coils 3|, ‘32 above the dew 55 point. In order to obtain the desired humidity, the density of the circulating liquid may be set at a constant value suilicient to obtain air of with the example shown. Reference is here had to Fig. 2 of the accompanying drawing illustrating the expected minimum humidity required. The such a chart. In the example chosen for illustra temperature of the circulating drying liquid may tion, the outside air has a relative humidity of then be allowed to vary responsive to the indi 60 45% and a temperature of 90 degrees, this state of cations of a humidostat |00 placed in the place the outside air vbeing illustrated on the chart by of occupancy so that when the humidity falls the point A. The desired inside air involves a below the desired value, the temperature of the temperature of 80 degrees and a relative humidity circulating liquid in 1I will rise and so that when 65 of 40% and the point on the chart corresponding 65 to these conditions is marked B. A calculation of the humidity rises above the desired value, the temperature of the drying liquid will fall. the heat and moisture load shows that with the From the foregoing description of the method, desired amount of circulating air the necessary apparatus and mode of operation of the inven conditions of temperature and humidity for the tion, it will be observed that provision is made 70 air entering the place of occupancy was 65 degrees 70 and a relative humidity of 60%. The point in the for discharging into the atmosphere outside of the enclosure a portion of the air from the en chart corresponding to this condition is marked closure or place of occupancy, whereas the re C. It was considered desirable to introduce into mainder of the air from the enclosure supplies the air stream 30% fresh air. If this problem is an air stream passing from the enclosure and 75 worked out on the usual basis of removing the 3 aliases through the conditioning apparatus before it is out departing from the true scope and spirit of returned to the enclosure or place of occupancy. In its passage, this »air stream is cooled in a the invention in all of its aspects. cooling space wherein the-cooling is automati cally controlled in accordance with the desired condition. Fresh make-up air is taken from out side the enclosure, is dried to a predetermined condition, and is then added to the air stream i replacing the air discharged from the enclosure 10 to the atmosphere. This fresh make-up air is dried in drying apparatus controlled in accord-` I claim: _ i l ' In combination apparatus for air conditioning an enclosure comprising; drying means for con tacting controlled quantities of fresh outside air and air from the enclosure with a liquid drying solution, means _for uniting- and refrigerating without drying a controlled stream of air from the enclosure and the mixed air from the drying means, means for returning the air from the refrigerating means to the enclosure, means in cluding a thermostat responsive to temperature ance with the conditioning desired and may form all of the dried air- added in the cooled recircu lating air stream, or it may be commingled in` within- the enclosure for controlling the refriger-_ controlled proportion with a certain amount of ating means,_means including a humidostat re air passed from the enclosure through the dry sponsive to humidity in the enclosure for main~ ing apparatus before such air is returned to the taining a predetermined drying effect by the liq cooled recirculating air stream. uid drying solution in the drying means, -and means responsive tothe dew point of the air leaving the refrigerating means for controlling 20 v ' While the invention is hereinabove described in connection with the preferred embodiment, it is to be understood that the words which have been used are words of description rather than of limitation and that changes within the pur , view of the appended claims may be made with the minimum temperature _of the refrigerating means. A L, FRANCIS R. BICHOWSKY.