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Патент USA US2112392

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March 29, 1938.
F. R. BlcHowsKY
Filed Nov. 7, 1934
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Patented Mar. 29, 1938
Francis R. Bichowsky, Toledo, 0o
Application November 7, 1934, Serial No. "151,958
'i claim. (Cl. QSI-lil.)
This inventionl relates to air conditioning of
enclosures or places of occupancy such as public
buildings, houses, theatres, and the like, wherein
outside. The remaining portion of heat and
moisture is removed by passing a large portion
of the air through the vents t, 5 and 6, the ducts
it is desired to obtain and maintain a predeter
‘l and 2t, through a chamber t, in which it is
mined condition of the air.I One of the objects' cooled but in which, according to the mode of 5
of this invention is to provide a method> and
means of producing more comfortableconditions
in places of occupancy and of reducing the cost
of air conditioning in such places.
Another object of this invention is to provide
methods and apparatus for conditioning air
„jointly by means of dehydrating .apparatus and
by means of cooling apparatus, both of which
may be automatically controlled to produce the
15 desired conditions.
Further objects and advantages will be appar
‘ent from the full disclosure of the following speci
iication and the drawing forming a part thereof,
wherein, Fig. 1 represents, in somewhat dia
20 grammatic form, a preferred embodiment of
the invention; and Fig. 2 shows a psychrometric
chart illustrating one mode of operation oi the
The usual mode of air conditioning buildings
25 involves circulation of the air from the space
to be occupied into a chamber where the airis
contacted with a cold media of suiiìciently low
temperature to condense a portion of the water
on the cold media. This cold and partially dry
operation of my invention, no moisture 'is re
moved. This cooled air is returned by fan IG
or other means through the ducts i2 and i3 into
the spaces to be cooled and air conditioned. It
constitutes the main stream of circulating air. 10
In order to balance the quantity of air introduced
into the room and the quantity of air leaving
the room, there is provided a third passage for
air il, iii, 20, adapted to lead in. fresh air from
the outside and after treating it to mix it with 15
air entering through the duct 2i in the mixing
space Id. The ducts entering into the mixing
space ld, namely, the entrance 2t for the outside
air and the entrance 2i for the recirculating air
may be provided with dampers 22 and 23 to con- 2o
trol the proportion of -air entering by these two
paths. As has been heretofore described, the
cooling surfaces in the space t, namely, the iin
type coolers 3l, 32 are at all times maintained
above the dew point oi the air entering the
chamber t, and for this pur
a device Vl5
sensitive to changes in dew point may be provided »
adapted, through connection with the means Mi,
to control the temperature of the cooling agent
30 air is then tempered by mixing with a portion ' entering the coolers 3i, d2. .ln order to reduce a@
of the air which is circulated and which has
not been refrigerated and reintroduced into the
building. Such a system has the disadvantage
that by it it is only possible to control the humid
35 ity of the space conditioned within a limited
degree and it’ has the further disadvantage that
since the use of refrigeration is a relatively ex
pensive way of removing water from air the
operating cost of the system is unduly high.
In accordance with my invention, the cooling
and drying of the air are accomplished separately
in such a manner as to reduce the total cooling
load and to- allow a more comfortable ñnal con
dition of temperature ‘and humidity and to simpli
fy construction.
In >‘the drawing, the spaces l and 2 are spaces
of occupancy to be conditioned. Conditioned
air enters these spaces through the openings i0
and Il which are connected to the ducts i2 and
50 I3. In the spaces l and 2, due to the heat of
occupancy and due to heat gains and other
causes, the air in _the space picks up heat and
the humidity of the air in the space, and to
remove the water taken up in that space, I
introduce in the passage id through which air
enters the cooling space itl by the passage it,
a zone tt in which the air is dried by being con- 35
tacted with a liquid drying agent in accordance
with the method and principle set forth in my
U. S. Patent 1,992,177. For cple, the air is
contacted' with a drying solution of lithium chlo
ride introduced in the form of spray through the M,
nozzles di and 52. 'The liquid may be collected
in the sump dt and be recirculated from the sump
to the nozzles 5l and t2 by means oi a pump 5t'
and the piping 55. The concentration of the
solution in the sump t3 may be controlled from 45
time to time by withdrawing a portion of the
liquid in the sump to the regenerating boiler
Si where the accumulated water 5ls‘ßlboiled off
in the form of steam through the pipe 5t, the
heat necessary for this operation being supplied 50
through the burner 59. The concentrated solu-
moisture which must b_e removed. This heat
and moisture is in part removed by venting a
tion so produced by boiling oil water may be
returned to the sump through the pipe 60. Cool
ing and interchange means may be provided at
>portion of the air through the _Vent M t0 the
6| to conserve sensible heat of the boiled liquid. u
heat and moisture by means of refrigeration
The latent heat taken up by condensation of
water in the liquid may be removed from the cir
culating liquid in the main circulating stream by
means of the cooler 1I, which may be cooled by
alone, it can be shown that it is necessary to cool
a portion of the air, approximately 60% of the
air, to 40 degrees F., and return that portion of
the air to the main circulating stream so that the Ul
air entering the place of occupancy will have the
necessary temperature of 65 degrees and a relative
water or other cooling media the supply of which
to the cooler may be controlled in any suitable
'mannen Means may be provided to control the
humidity of 65%. It can be shown that if this is
supply of liquid from sump 53 to the regenerat
done, approximately 35% of the refrigeration is
ing boiler 51 where water is removed by evapo
ration. This means may consist of a density
used to condense the water content of the air. 10
If now instead of using refrigeration alone, a com- f
control unit 80 in the chamber 50 connected by
connections 8l with valve 62 to operate the valve
bination of refrigeration and drying is employed
in response to changes’ in density of the liquid.
Other connections may be provided to control the
15 regenerating rate, that is, the rate in which con
densed water is removed through the vent 58 so
in accordance with my invention, and if the dry
ing is applied to the intake air alone, and if we
that the density of the circulated liquid inthe
main stream remains constant. The drying unit
50 is operated in such a way as to reduce the
relative humidity of the air leaving the unit
20 to a low value as will be more clearly speciñed
hereafter. A duct or connection 63 leads from
the space of occupancy i and 2, to the entrance
of the drying chamber 50, and dampers 64, 65
allow for the regulation of the proportion of air
drawn from the space of occupancy through the
duct 63 and the proportion of air drawn from
the outside through the duct I1 which enters
the drying space 50.
A thermostatic control 90 responsive to the
assume that the temperature of cooling water 15
available is such that it is practical to dry the air
at 90 degrees F., the temperature of the mixture of
air obtained in the mixing chamber I9 by mixing
r10% of air at 80 degrees and 20% of air at 90 de
grees will be 82 degrees. Since no moisture is re
moved by the refrigerating- portion of the appa
ratus when working in accordance with my inven
tion, the moisture content of the mixed air must
be retained as the moisture content of the air de
sired, namely, at the temperature of 82, the mixed
air will have a relative humidity of 35%, and will
have the state E. To obtain this relative humidity,
the air leaving the drying chamber will be on the
line BE where that line extended cuts the line of
90° F. It therefore must have a relative humidity 30
temperature of the air in the space to be condi
tioned may be connected with the source of ,cool
of approximately 21% which relative humidity it
is practical to obtain in an apparatus of this kind.
The air of this composition is represented by the
ing to control the temperature on the cooling coils ' point F on the psychrometric chart and the mixed
3 i,
The cooling source is shown as a refriger- ' air containing air of the composition F and air 35
ating machine 9|, but any form of cooling device
may be used, including cooling by cold water. A
humidostat S00 may be connected with the dry
ing apparatus so as to controi the humidity in the
space by controlling either the density of the
circulated brine or by shutting off the brine
40 when. the humidity in the space I is less than is
desired and by turning on the brine when the
humidity in space I is greater than is desired; or
it is possible to control the dampers in such a way
as to proportion the amount of air which passes
45 through the drying chamber so as to maintain
the humidity in the space I at the desired condi
The foregoing constitutes a description of a pre
ferred form of apparatus andthe following de
50 scription serves as an example illustrating its
mode of operation. This mode of operation to
gether with the result is most convenientlyset forth
by following through the changes in condition of
the air in the various parts of the apparatus on
55 a psychrometric chart, marked in accordance
of the composition B will have the composition E
as shown in the psychrometric chart. If the air
of the composition E is then cooled without re
moval of moisture, its state will change from the
state »E to the state C, which is the desired state 40
for air entering the chamber in order to maintain
the condition B in the chamber. Operating in
this manner, the total refrigeration load will be
approximately 65% of the total refrigeration load
in this example Where refrigeration alone is used. 45
` In order to obtain these results with an auto
matic apparatus, it is suflicient to connect the
thermostat 90 so that it controls the amount of
refrigeration supplied to the ‘air in accordance
with demands in the usual manner except that
it is desir-able to set the refrigerating apparatus
so that the temperature can never fall below the
dew point, or the device I5 responsive to dew
point of the air can be employed to keep the
temperature of the coils 3|, ‘32 above the dew 55
point. In order to obtain the desired humidity,
the density of the circulating liquid may be set
at a constant value suilicient to obtain air of
with the example shown. Reference is here had
to Fig. 2 of the accompanying drawing illustrating the expected minimum humidity required. The
such a chart. In the example chosen for illustra
temperature of the circulating drying liquid may
tion, the outside air has a relative humidity of then be allowed to vary responsive to the indi
60 45% and a temperature of 90 degrees, this state of
cations of a humidostat |00 placed in the place
the outside air vbeing illustrated on the chart by of occupancy so that when the humidity falls
the point A. The desired inside air involves a below the desired value, the temperature of the
temperature of 80 degrees and a relative humidity circulating liquid in 1I will rise and so that when 65
of 40% and the point on the chart corresponding
65 to these conditions is marked B. A calculation of the humidity rises above the desired value, the
temperature of the drying liquid will fall.
the heat and moisture load shows that with the
From the foregoing description of the method,
desired amount of circulating air the necessary apparatus and mode of operation of the inven
conditions of temperature and humidity for the tion, it will be observed that provision is made 70
air entering the place of occupancy was 65 degrees
70 and a relative humidity of 60%. The point in the for discharging into the atmosphere outside of
the enclosure a portion of the air from the en
chart corresponding to this condition is marked closure or place of occupancy, whereas the re
C. It was considered desirable to introduce into mainder of the air from the enclosure supplies
the air stream 30% fresh air. If this problem is an air stream passing from the enclosure and 75
worked out on the usual basis of removing the
through the conditioning apparatus before it is
out departing from the true scope and spirit of
returned to the enclosure or place of occupancy.
In its passage, this »air stream is cooled in a
the invention in all of its aspects.
cooling space wherein the-cooling is automati
cally controlled in accordance with the desired
condition. Fresh make-up air is taken from out
side the enclosure, is dried to a predetermined
condition, and is then added to the air stream
i replacing the air discharged from the enclosure
10 to the atmosphere.
This fresh make-up air is
dried in drying apparatus controlled in accord-`
In combination apparatus for air conditioning
an enclosure comprising; drying means for con
tacting controlled quantities of fresh outside air
and air from the enclosure with a liquid drying
solution, means _for uniting- and refrigerating
without drying a controlled stream of air from
the enclosure and the mixed air from the drying
means, means for returning the air from the
refrigerating means to the enclosure, means in
cluding a thermostat responsive to temperature
ance with the conditioning desired and may form
all of the dried air- added in the cooled recircu
lating air stream, or it may be commingled in` within- the enclosure for controlling the refriger-_
controlled proportion with a certain amount of ating means,_means including a humidostat re
air passed from the enclosure through the dry
sponsive to humidity in the enclosure for main~
ing apparatus before such air is returned to the
taining a predetermined drying effect by the liq
cooled recirculating air stream.
uid drying solution in the drying means, -and
means responsive tothe dew point of the air
leaving the refrigerating means for controlling 20
v '
While the invention is hereinabove described
in connection with the preferred embodiment, it
is to be understood that the words which have
been used are words of description rather than
of limitation and that changes within the pur
, view of the appended claims may be made with
the minimum temperature _of the refrigerating
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