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Патент USA US2112494

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March 29, 1938.
c_ G, OLSON
LOCKING MEANS FOR SCREW THREADED FASTENERS
Filed NOV. 2, 1937
- "2,112,494 '
Patented Mar. 29, 1938
2,112,494’ . ‘
UNITED STATES A’ PATENT OFFICE
2,112,494
LOCKING MEANS FOR SCREW THREADED
FASTENERS
Carl G. Olson, Chicago, 111., assignor to Illinois
Tool Works, Chicago, 111., a corporation or Illi
nois
-
Application November 2, 1937, Serial No. 172,430
6 Claims. (Cl. 151-32)
This invention relates generally to locking de
vices, and more particularly to self-locking screws
and nuts.
>
.
It is an object of the present invention to
provide locking devices such as self-locking
screws and self-locking nuts having means in as
sociation with the clamping surfaces thereof for
cutting and subsequently crowding into the con
?nes of the clamping side of such devices mate
10 rial of the work so as to positively secure against
inadvertent loosening.
'
'
More speci?cally, the inventiori contemplates
locking devices, as set forth above, wherein the
clamping side thereof is provided with a rela
15 tively shallow indentation or pocket in operative
a'ssociationwith a cutting edge adaptedto cut
and subsequently crowd material into said recess
or pocket during the ?nal tightening of the
screw head or nut.
20
'
Another object of the present‘invention is to
I
the semi-cylindrical cross-sectional contour of
the indentations or pockets;
_
'
Figure 6 discloses the locking sections shown in
Figures 1 to 4, inclusive, associated with the
clamping side of a screw which is adapted to 5
form its own thread when turned within an un
t'hreaded aperture of the work;
_
_
Figure '7 is a view similar to Figure 3 disclos
ing a locking section having a slightly modi?ed
shallow recess or indentation, the dot-and-dash 10
line indicating the manner in which the cutting
edge may be rendered more acute in instances
where such cutting edges are required; and
Figure 8 is a fragmentary sectional view dis
closing a locking device having means in the form 15
of protuberances associated with the locking sec;
tions for preventing the cutting edge of said
locking sections from partially severing the work
piecev until a predetermined clamping pressure
provide locking devices of the type referred to
has been exerted against the work.
’ '20
Referring now to the drawing more in detail
above, wherein a cutting edge and abutment sec
tion have in association therewith means for
designate similar parts throughout the various
preventing the cutting edge from partially sev
25 ering the work vuntil a predetermined clamping
pressure is exerted against the work.
The foregoing and numerous other objects and
advantages will be more apparent from the fol»
lowing detailed description when considered in
30 connection with the accompanying drawing,
wherein—
-
Figure 1 is a side elevational view of a screw
in which the clamping side thereof is equipped
with‘ looking sections of the type contemplated
35 herein, a portion of the screw shank being broken
away;
-
I
Figure 2 is a transverse sectional view of the
screw head shown in Figure 1, said view being
taken substantially along the line 2-2 of Fig
40 ure 1;
wherein like numerals have‘ been employed to
?gures, it will be seen that, for the purpose of
illustrating one embodiment of the invention, I 25
have shown in Figures 1 to 3, inclusive, a lock-
,
ing device or screw designated generally by the
numeral ID.
The screw I 0 includes a threaded '
shank l2 and a hexagon head l4 formed inte
gral therewith. The usual annular clamping 30
surface I 6 extends laterally outward from the
threaded shank l2 and is adapted tovbe clamped
against the complementary surface of a work
piece (not shown).
I
‘
-
Spaced along the clamping side of the head 35
I4 is a plurality of locking sections, each desig
nated generally by the numeral [8. Each of
these locking sections l8 includes a locking or
abutment section 20 associated with and de?ning
a relatively shallow recess or depression 22, said 40
Figure 3 is an 'enlarged fragmentary sectional . recess in the disclosed embodiment being sub
view of one of the locking sections shown in Fig
stantially semi-spherical in cross-sectional con
ures l and 2;
tour. Each locking section l8 also includes a
Figure 4 discloses the locking‘ sections contem
work shifting element 2_4 having a cutting edge
45 plated by the present invention in operative as
26. These cutting edges 26 serve to partially 45
sociation with the clamping side of an inter
sever a section of the work piece when the nut
nally, threaded clamping member or nut, a por
or screw head is tightened thereagainst, and ‘to
' tion of the nut being broken away to more clear
crowd said partially severed stock into the con
ly illustrate'the structural detail of one of the
50 locking sections, the depression or indentation
of said locking section differing slightly from the
semi-spherical indentation shown in Figures 1 to
3, inclusive;
?nes of recess 22 on the clamping side thereof.
By thus crowding the partially severed stock 50
into the recess, an effective locking abutment is
presented which cooperates with the'abutment
section or surface 20 in securing the clamping
Figure 5 is a view of the'underside of the device against inadvertent loosening.
55 nut shown in Figure 4 to more clearly illustrate
The recess or indentation 22 disclosed in Fig- 55
9,112,494“
ures 1 .to 3, inclusive, is substantially semi-spheri
cal in shape. Other'shapes of indentations or
recesses may be employed-for example, the
semi-cylindrical recesses 22a disclosed in Fig
ures 4 and 5.
These recesses'22a are disclosed
in association .with the clamping side of a nut
Ilia. Elements 24:; present cutting edges 26a
which, when the nutis finally tightened against
the work, cause sections thereof to be partially
10
vide a structure, as shown in Figure 8.
The.
clamping device is indicated generally by the nu‘
meral "id and includes on the clamping side
thereof a plurality of locking sections Rd, in be
tween which are provided pressureresisting sec- 5
tions 32. These pressure resisting sections 32 are
preferably provided with bent or rounded work
engaging extremities 34, which will resist the
clamping reaction between the device Ind and the
severed and crowded into the‘ semi-cylindrical work 36 so as to prevent the cutting edges 26d of, 10
recesses or indentations 22a and thereby secure the locking sections "id to cut into the work sur- '
the nut against loosening. If‘ the nut Illa is .face until a predetermined pressureresistance
completely tightened against a work piece, its has been set up when the clamping device is
clamping surface Ilia. will clampingly bear against tightened. In other words, due to the presence of
the work. Each recess 22a and companion ‘work
the pressure resisting elements 32, no cutting ac- 15
shifting element 24a constitute a locking section
tion of the edges 26d will take place until an 2. -~
which is designated generally by. the numeral
Ha.
-
In Figure 6 a slightly modi?ed locldng section,
20 designated generally by the
numeral H2), is
shown. This locking section includes an abut
ment surface or section 20b de?ning ‘a recess
or indentation 221), slightly differing in cross
sectional shape from the previously described
recesses 22 and 22a. A locking section 24b
presents a cutting edge 261). This cutting edge
serves to partially sever and crowd material of
the work into complementary con?nes or recesses
22b of the clamping device. The dct-and-dash
30 line shownin Figure 6 indicates the manner in
' which the cutting edge 26b may be rendered more
. preciable pressure has been developed between
the work and the clamping device. Thus, if the
clamping device is tightened against a work sur
face which must yield before a ?rm clamping 20 I’
action takes'place, this initial yielding or re-'
siliency‘ will be taken up bythe pressure resisting
elements 32. Continued rotation of the clamping
device beyond this point will cause the elements
32, as well as the cutting edges 26d, to enter the 25
work, and in this manner "the cutting edges 26d
are rendered functionally operative. ,Su?icient
rotation of the clamping device 10d will take place
to insure crowding of partially severed work ma
terial into recesses 2211 in the manner described '30
in connection with Figures 1 to 7, inclusive. .
acute, if desired.
'Figure 7 discloses the application of the locking
sections III of Figures 1 to 3, inclusive, to the
It is not necessary in all instances to employ
the separate pressure resisting elements 32.
clamping side of a thread cutting screw desig
24 is 'conflgurated, as indicated by the dot-and
dash lines of Figure 3, a blunt surface portion 38
nated generally by the numeral [00. Screws of
this type are usually hardened so as to enable
the cutting edge 23, extending along a slot or‘
recess 30, to cut a complementary thread in the
40 unthreaded aperture of a work piece. "
threaded shank l2c of the screw lllc, when turned
within the self-formed thread, draws the clamp-'
ing side of the screw head Ilc toward the work
and the locking sections l8 function to secure the
45 'screw against loosening, as previously described in
connection with Figures 1 to 3, inclusive.
The cutting action of the edges 26 should be
completed by the time the recess or indentation
22 has been crowded to capacity with the partial
ly severed work. Should rotation of the nut or
screw head continue beyond this point, this par
tiallysevered stock will be completely severed and
the locking effectiveness thereof destroyed.
Thus, for example, if the work shifting element 35
is presented, which corresponds with the blunt
portion 34 of the pressure resisting elements 32
of Figure 8. Thus cutting action of the edges 26 40
will not take place until considerable pressure has
been established or built up between the‘work
and the clamping device; that is, until the work
offers rigid resistance. From the foregoing it will
be apparent that ‘the invention contemplates 45
means associated with the cutting edges to render
said edges functionally operative only after a pre-'
determined clamping pressure has been built up ‘
between the clamping device and the work.
From the foregoing description it will be under
stood that the invention contemplates an im
proved locking device of the type employing cut-4
ting edges for partially severing sections of the
work. In instances where it is found desirable,
these cutting edges may be associated with 55
Where the nut or screw head is tightened against
55 a ?rm work surface, the clamping action will be means, such as the pressure resisting elements 32
or the blunt surfaces 38, to control the point at
' completed during a movement which is substan
tially not in excess of one-quarter rotation of the , which the cutting action occurs, and thus preclude
clamping surface. Under such circumstances
there i‘s'no danger of shearing off or fracturing
00 the partially severed work edges crowded into the
recesses. However, should the device be clamped
againstva work surface which is somewhat re
silient or yieldable, the cutting action of the edges
26 should not take place immediately upon the
65 engagement thereof with the work. In other
words, should the edges‘ 26 begin to cut into the
work upon the initial engagement thereof with
the work, the stock crowded into the recesses may
70 be completely severed from the work due to the
amount of rotation required to take up the re
siliency or yieldability presented by the work.
To meet the above mentioned circumstances
wherein the clamping device must be tightened
75 against a resilient or yieldable work piece, I pro
the possibility of shearing off a partially severed
section of the work. Also, the invention contem- 60
plates directing the partially severed stock into a
crowded mass within a shallow con?ne or recess,
and thereby effectively secure the clamping device
against movement.
,
.
~
It will be noted that, for purposes of illus- 65
tration, the extent to which the work shifting
or cutting elements project axially beyond the
clamping surface‘ is somewhat exaggerated in the
drawing. Obviously these elements must project
only a distance su?icient to cause the indenta- 70
tions or' recesses to receive the crowded material.
In other words, the extent to which'these ele
ments, such as the elements 24 project beyond
the clamping surface will be determined by the
degree of rotation experienced by the clamping- 75
3
2,112,494
10
device during the functioning of the cutting
ting edge adapted inresponse to rotary tighten
edges. In the present embodiment this degree
of rotation is substantially one-quarter turn. It
will also be apparent that looking sections may
be applied to both sides of a clamping device,
such as nuts. Nuts equipped with looking sec
tions on both sides facilitate the handling there
of, it being unnecessary for the user to inspect
the side of the nut which is being.»- applied to
ing movement experienced by the body to cause
a section of the work piece positioned laterally
outward from the threaded portion of the body
tobe partially severed and crowded into the
the work.
I
_
,
While certain structural features have been
illustrated and described herein,. obviously the
invention is not limited to these speci?c struc
tural details, but contemplates other modi?ca
15 tions and changes without departing from the
spirit and scope of the appended claims.
.
Having thus described‘my invention, what I
claim as new and desire to secure by Letters Pat
ent is:
20
,
1. A- rotary fastener adapted to be clamped
against the surface of a work piece, including a.
con?nes of said recess and into locking associa~ _
tion with said abutment section whereby to pre
vent loosening of the fastener.
'
4. A rotary fastener adapted to be clamped
against the surface of a work piece, including 10
a rotary threaded body having a clamping sur
face extending laterally outward from the thread- .
ed portion thereof, and a plurality of locking sec
tions spaced along the clamping side of said
body, each locking section including an abutment 15
section associated with a relatively shallow re- ‘
cess and also including an element having a cut
ting edge adapted in response to rotary tighten
ing .movement experienced by the‘ body to cause
a section of the work piece positioned laterally
outward from the threaded portion of the body
rotary threaded body having a clamping surface
to be partially severed and crowded into the con
extending laterally outward from the threaded ?nes of said recess and into locking association
portion thereof, and a locking section on said ‘with said abutment ‘section whereby to prevent
25 body including an abutment section associated loosening of the fastener.
.
'
-25
with a relatively shallow recess and also includ
5. A rotaryv fastener adapted to be clamped
ing an element having a cutting edge adapted againstthe surface of a work piece, including
in response to rotary tightening movement ex
a rotary threaded body having a clamping sur
perienced by the body to cause a section of the' face extending laterally outward from the thread
30 work piece positioned laterally outward from the ed portion thereof, a locking section on said body 30
threaded portion of the body to be partially sev
including an abutment section extending ‘in
ered and crowded into the con?nes of said re
wardly of said clamping surface and an element
cess and into locking association with said abut
having a cutting edge adapted in response to
ment section whereby to prevent loosening of
35 the fastener.
2. A rotary fastener adapted to be clamped
against the surface of a work piece, including ‘an
internally threaded rotary body having a clamp
ing surface extending laterally outward from the
40 threaded portion thereof, and a locking section
on said body including an abutment section asso
ciated with a relatively shallow recess and also
7 including anelement having a cutting edge adapt
ed in response to rotary tightening movement ex
45 perienced by the body to cause a section of the
work piece positioned laterally outward from the
threaded portion of the body to be partially sev
ered and crowded into the cones of said recess
and into locking association with said abutment
50 section whereby to prevent loosening of the fas
tener.
3. A rotary fastener adapted to be clamped
against the surface of a work piece, including a
rotary threaded body having a clamping surface
55 extending laterally outward from the threaded
portion thereof, and a locking section on said
body including an abutment section associated
with a relatively shallow recess which increases
in cross-sectional area toward said clamping sur
60 face andalso including an element having a cut
rotary tightening movement experienced by the
body to cause a section of the work piece to be 35
partially severed and shifted into locking asso
ciation with said abutment section whereby to
prevent loosening of the fastener, and pressure
resisting means in association with said locking
section to prevent cutting action of said edge un 40
til a predetermined clamping pressure has been
established.
6. A rotary fastener adapted to be clamped»
against the surface of a work piece, including
a rotary threaded body having a clamping sur 45
face extending laterally outward from the thread
ed portion thereof, a locking section on said body
including an abutment section extending 'in-'
wardly of said clamping surface and an element
having a cutting edge adapted inresponse to the
rotary tightening movement experienced by the
body to cause a section of the work piece to be
partially severed and shifted into locking asso
ciation with‘said abutment section whereby to
prevent loosening of the fastener, and pressure 55
resisting means including a protuberance extend
ing axially beyond said clamping surface to pre
vent cutting action of said edge until a prede
termjned clamping pressure has been established.
‘
CARL G. OLSON.
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