Патент USA US2112494код для вставки
March 29, 1938. c_ G, OLSON LOCKING MEANS FOR SCREW THREADED FASTENERS Filed NOV. 2, 1937 - "2,112,494 ' Patented Mar. 29, 1938 2,112,494’ . ‘ UNITED STATES A’ PATENT OFFICE 2,112,494 LOCKING MEANS FOR SCREW THREADED FASTENERS Carl G. Olson, Chicago, 111., assignor to Illinois Tool Works, Chicago, 111., a corporation or Illi nois - Application November 2, 1937, Serial No. 172,430 6 Claims. (Cl. 151-32) This invention relates generally to locking de vices, and more particularly to self-locking screws and nuts. > . It is an object of the present invention to provide locking devices such as self-locking screws and self-locking nuts having means in as sociation with the clamping surfaces thereof for cutting and subsequently crowding into the con ?nes of the clamping side of such devices mate 10 rial of the work so as to positively secure against inadvertent loosening. ' ' More speci?cally, the inventiori contemplates locking devices, as set forth above, wherein the clamping side thereof is provided with a rela 15 tively shallow indentation or pocket in operative a'ssociationwith a cutting edge adaptedto cut and subsequently crowd material into said recess or pocket during the ?nal tightening of the screw head or nut. 20 ' Another object of the present‘invention is to I the semi-cylindrical cross-sectional contour of the indentations or pockets; _ ' Figure 6 discloses the locking sections shown in Figures 1 to 4, inclusive, associated with the clamping side of a screw which is adapted to 5 form its own thread when turned within an un t'hreaded aperture of the work; _ _ Figure '7 is a view similar to Figure 3 disclos ing a locking section having a slightly modi?ed shallow recess or indentation, the dot-and-dash 10 line indicating the manner in which the cutting edge may be rendered more acute in instances where such cutting edges are required; and Figure 8 is a fragmentary sectional view dis closing a locking device having means in the form 15 of protuberances associated with the locking sec; tions for preventing the cutting edge of said locking sections from partially severing the work piecev until a predetermined clamping pressure provide locking devices of the type referred to has been exerted against the work. ’ '20 Referring now to the drawing more in detail above, wherein a cutting edge and abutment sec tion have in association therewith means for designate similar parts throughout the various preventing the cutting edge from partially sev 25 ering the work vuntil a predetermined clamping pressure is exerted against the work. The foregoing and numerous other objects and advantages will be more apparent from the fol» lowing detailed description when considered in 30 connection with the accompanying drawing, wherein— - Figure 1 is a side elevational view of a screw in which the clamping side thereof is equipped with‘ looking sections of the type contemplated 35 herein, a portion of the screw shank being broken away; - I Figure 2 is a transverse sectional view of the screw head shown in Figure 1, said view being taken substantially along the line 2-2 of Fig 40 ure 1; wherein like numerals have‘ been employed to ?gures, it will be seen that, for the purpose of illustrating one embodiment of the invention, I 25 have shown in Figures 1 to 3, inclusive, a lock- , ing device or screw designated generally by the numeral ID. The screw I 0 includes a threaded ' shank l2 and a hexagon head l4 formed inte gral therewith. The usual annular clamping 30 surface I 6 extends laterally outward from the threaded shank l2 and is adapted tovbe clamped against the complementary surface of a work piece (not shown). I ‘ - Spaced along the clamping side of the head 35 I4 is a plurality of locking sections, each desig nated generally by the numeral [8. Each of these locking sections l8 includes a locking or abutment section 20 associated with and de?ning a relatively shallow recess or depression 22, said 40 Figure 3 is an 'enlarged fragmentary sectional . recess in the disclosed embodiment being sub view of one of the locking sections shown in Fig stantially semi-spherical in cross-sectional con ures l and 2; tour. Each locking section l8 also includes a Figure 4 discloses the locking‘ sections contem work shifting element 2_4 having a cutting edge 45 plated by the present invention in operative as 26. These cutting edges 26 serve to partially 45 sociation with the clamping side of an inter sever a section of the work piece when the nut nally, threaded clamping member or nut, a por or screw head is tightened thereagainst, and ‘to ' tion of the nut being broken away to more clear crowd said partially severed stock into the con ly illustrate'the structural detail of one of the 50 locking sections, the depression or indentation of said locking section differing slightly from the semi-spherical indentation shown in Figures 1 to 3, inclusive; ?nes of recess 22 on the clamping side thereof. By thus crowding the partially severed stock 50 into the recess, an effective locking abutment is presented which cooperates with the'abutment section or surface 20 in securing the clamping Figure 5 is a view of the'underside of the device against inadvertent loosening. 55 nut shown in Figure 4 to more clearly illustrate The recess or indentation 22 disclosed in Fig- 55 9,112,494“ ures 1 .to 3, inclusive, is substantially semi-spheri cal in shape. Other'shapes of indentations or recesses may be employed-for example, the semi-cylindrical recesses 22a disclosed in Fig ures 4 and 5. These recesses'22a are disclosed in association .with the clamping side of a nut Ilia. Elements 24:; present cutting edges 26a which, when the nutis finally tightened against the work, cause sections thereof to be partially 10 vide a structure, as shown in Figure 8. The. clamping device is indicated generally by the nu‘ meral "id and includes on the clamping side thereof a plurality of locking sections Rd, in be tween which are provided pressureresisting sec- 5 tions 32. These pressure resisting sections 32 are preferably provided with bent or rounded work engaging extremities 34, which will resist the clamping reaction between the device Ind and the severed and crowded into the‘ semi-cylindrical work 36 so as to prevent the cutting edges 26d of, 10 recesses or indentations 22a and thereby secure the locking sections "id to cut into the work sur- ' the nut against loosening. If‘ the nut Illa is .face until a predetermined pressureresistance completely tightened against a work piece, its has been set up when the clamping device is clamping surface Ilia. will clampingly bear against tightened. In other words, due to the presence of the work. Each recess 22a and companion ‘work the pressure resisting elements 32, no cutting ac- 15 shifting element 24a constitute a locking section tion of the edges 26d will take place until an 2. -~ which is designated generally by. the numeral Ha. - In Figure 6 a slightly modi?ed locldng section, 20 designated generally by the numeral H2), is shown. This locking section includes an abut ment surface or section 20b de?ning ‘a recess or indentation 221), slightly differing in cross sectional shape from the previously described recesses 22 and 22a. A locking section 24b presents a cutting edge 261). This cutting edge serves to partially sever and crowd material of the work into complementary con?nes or recesses 22b of the clamping device. The dct-and-dash 30 line shownin Figure 6 indicates the manner in ' which the cutting edge 26b may be rendered more . preciable pressure has been developed between the work and the clamping device. Thus, if the clamping device is tightened against a work sur face which must yield before a ?rm clamping 20 I’ action takes'place, this initial yielding or re-' siliency‘ will be taken up bythe pressure resisting elements 32. Continued rotation of the clamping device beyond this point will cause the elements 32, as well as the cutting edges 26d, to enter the 25 work, and in this manner "the cutting edges 26d are rendered functionally operative. ,Su?icient rotation of the clamping device 10d will take place to insure crowding of partially severed work ma terial into recesses 2211 in the manner described '30 in connection with Figures 1 to 7, inclusive. . acute, if desired. 'Figure 7 discloses the application of the locking sections III of Figures 1 to 3, inclusive, to the It is not necessary in all instances to employ the separate pressure resisting elements 32. clamping side of a thread cutting screw desig 24 is 'conflgurated, as indicated by the dot-and dash lines of Figure 3, a blunt surface portion 38 nated generally by the numeral [00. Screws of this type are usually hardened so as to enable the cutting edge 23, extending along a slot or‘ recess 30, to cut a complementary thread in the 40 unthreaded aperture of a work piece. " threaded shank l2c of the screw lllc, when turned within the self-formed thread, draws the clamp-' ing side of the screw head Ilc toward the work and the locking sections l8 function to secure the 45 'screw against loosening, as previously described in connection with Figures 1 to 3, inclusive. The cutting action of the edges 26 should be completed by the time the recess or indentation 22 has been crowded to capacity with the partial ly severed work. Should rotation of the nut or screw head continue beyond this point, this par tiallysevered stock will be completely severed and the locking effectiveness thereof destroyed. Thus, for example, if the work shifting element 35 is presented, which corresponds with the blunt portion 34 of the pressure resisting elements 32 of Figure 8. Thus cutting action of the edges 26 40 will not take place until considerable pressure has been established or built up between the‘work and the clamping device; that is, until the work offers rigid resistance. From the foregoing it will be apparent that ‘the invention contemplates 45 means associated with the cutting edges to render said edges functionally operative only after a pre-' determined clamping pressure has been built up ‘ between the clamping device and the work. From the foregoing description it will be under stood that the invention contemplates an im proved locking device of the type employing cut-4 ting edges for partially severing sections of the work. In instances where it is found desirable, these cutting edges may be associated with 55 Where the nut or screw head is tightened against 55 a ?rm work surface, the clamping action will be means, such as the pressure resisting elements 32 or the blunt surfaces 38, to control the point at ' completed during a movement which is substan tially not in excess of one-quarter rotation of the , which the cutting action occurs, and thus preclude clamping surface. Under such circumstances there i‘s'no danger of shearing off or fracturing 00 the partially severed work edges crowded into the recesses. However, should the device be clamped againstva work surface which is somewhat re silient or yieldable, the cutting action of the edges 26 should not take place immediately upon the 65 engagement thereof with the work. In other words, should the edges‘ 26 begin to cut into the work upon the initial engagement thereof with the work, the stock crowded into the recesses may 70 be completely severed from the work due to the amount of rotation required to take up the re siliency or yieldability presented by the work. To meet the above mentioned circumstances wherein the clamping device must be tightened 75 against a resilient or yieldable work piece, I pro the possibility of shearing off a partially severed section of the work. Also, the invention contem- 60 plates directing the partially severed stock into a crowded mass within a shallow con?ne or recess, and thereby effectively secure the clamping device against movement. , . ~ It will be noted that, for purposes of illus- 65 tration, the extent to which the work shifting or cutting elements project axially beyond the clamping surface‘ is somewhat exaggerated in the drawing. Obviously these elements must project only a distance su?icient to cause the indenta- 70 tions or' recesses to receive the crowded material. In other words, the extent to which'these ele ments, such as the elements 24 project beyond the clamping surface will be determined by the degree of rotation experienced by the clamping- 75 3 2,112,494 10 device during the functioning of the cutting ting edge adapted inresponse to rotary tighten edges. In the present embodiment this degree of rotation is substantially one-quarter turn. It will also be apparent that looking sections may be applied to both sides of a clamping device, such as nuts. Nuts equipped with looking sec tions on both sides facilitate the handling there of, it being unnecessary for the user to inspect the side of the nut which is being.»- applied to ing movement experienced by the body to cause a section of the work piece positioned laterally outward from the threaded portion of the body tobe partially severed and crowded into the the work. I _ , While certain structural features have been illustrated and described herein,. obviously the invention is not limited to these speci?c struc tural details, but contemplates other modi?ca 15 tions and changes without departing from the spirit and scope of the appended claims. . Having thus described‘my invention, what I claim as new and desire to secure by Letters Pat ent is: 20 , 1. A- rotary fastener adapted to be clamped against the surface of a work piece, including a. con?nes of said recess and into locking associa~ _ tion with said abutment section whereby to pre vent loosening of the fastener. ' 4. A rotary fastener adapted to be clamped against the surface of a work piece, including 10 a rotary threaded body having a clamping sur face extending laterally outward from the thread- . ed portion thereof, and a plurality of locking sec tions spaced along the clamping side of said body, each locking section including an abutment 15 section associated with a relatively shallow re- ‘ cess and also including an element having a cut ting edge adapted in response to rotary tighten ing .movement experienced by the‘ body to cause a section of the work piece positioned laterally outward from the threaded portion of the body rotary threaded body having a clamping surface to be partially severed and crowded into the con extending laterally outward from the threaded ?nes of said recess and into locking association portion thereof, and a locking section on said ‘with said abutment ‘section whereby to prevent 25 body including an abutment section associated loosening of the fastener. . ' -25 with a relatively shallow recess and also includ 5. A rotaryv fastener adapted to be clamped ing an element having a cutting edge adapted againstthe surface of a work piece, including in response to rotary tightening movement ex a rotary threaded body having a clamping sur perienced by the body to cause a section of the' face extending laterally outward from the thread 30 work piece positioned laterally outward from the ed portion thereof, a locking section on said body 30 threaded portion of the body to be partially sev including an abutment section extending ‘in ered and crowded into the con?nes of said re wardly of said clamping surface and an element cess and into locking association with said abut having a cutting edge adapted in response to ment section whereby to prevent loosening of 35 the fastener. 2. A rotary fastener adapted to be clamped against the surface of a work piece, including ‘an internally threaded rotary body having a clamp ing surface extending laterally outward from the 40 threaded portion thereof, and a locking section on said body including an abutment section asso ciated with a relatively shallow recess and also 7 including anelement having a cutting edge adapt ed in response to rotary tightening movement ex 45 perienced by the body to cause a section of the work piece positioned laterally outward from the threaded portion of the body to be partially sev ered and crowded into the cones of said recess and into locking association with said abutment 50 section whereby to prevent loosening of the fas tener. 3. A rotary fastener adapted to be clamped against the surface of a work piece, including a rotary threaded body having a clamping surface 55 extending laterally outward from the threaded portion thereof, and a locking section on said body including an abutment section associated with a relatively shallow recess which increases in cross-sectional area toward said clamping sur 60 face andalso including an element having a cut rotary tightening movement experienced by the body to cause a section of the work piece to be 35 partially severed and shifted into locking asso ciation with said abutment section whereby to prevent loosening of the fastener, and pressure resisting means in association with said locking section to prevent cutting action of said edge un 40 til a predetermined clamping pressure has been established. 6. A rotary fastener adapted to be clamped» against the surface of a work piece, including a rotary threaded body having a clamping sur 45 face extending laterally outward from the thread ed portion thereof, a locking section on said body including an abutment section extending 'in-' wardly of said clamping surface and an element having a cutting edge adapted inresponse to the rotary tightening movement experienced by the body to cause a section of the work piece to be partially severed and shifted into locking asso ciation with‘said abutment section whereby to prevent loosening of the fastener, and pressure 55 resisting means including a protuberance extend ing axially beyond said clamping surface to pre vent cutting action of said edge until a prede termjned clamping pressure has been established. ‘ CARL G. OLSON.