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Патент USA US2112869

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April 5, 1938.
2,1 12,869
Filed Jan. l0 , 1933
13 Sheets«Sheet l
April 5, 1938.
Filed Jan. l0, 1935
13 Sheets-Sheet 2
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15 sheets-sheet 3'
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R. M. THoMPsoN
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13 »Sheets-Sheet 13
JV. Thompson
Patented Apr. 5, 1938
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ooN'rlNooUs rnEssÍmE" sEPARA'ÍriNG
Robert M. Thompson, Seattle, Wash., assignor to
Press Company, a corporation of Washington
Appiication January 1o, 1933, serial No. 650,990
30 Claims.
(Cl. 21o-197)
My invention relates to the art of devices de#
signed to separate fluids or liquids from `other
fluids or liquids of greater fluidity and iiuids
'I‘he invention in
the operation of the filter devices and to the
large amount of’r manual attention which is in
cident thereto. Moreover, in the iiltering process
there are points at which the expressed liquids
are more clear than at other points.V 'I‘he clearer
liquids are usually obtained during the later
stages of the separating process due to the fact
that these liquids pass through the iiltering me
dium after a deposit _of the retained solids on the
filtering mediumV has accumulated, which re- 10
tained solids usually form an important part of
the filtering medium. The early liquids ex
pressed before the deposit of said solids in the
form of ka filter on the filter cloth or medium may
15 general relates to the art of ,filtering or filtration
be cloudy. By separately drawing- off the cloudy 1,5
or liquids from solids.
More particularly, my invention relates to a
combined press and filter press or to a press
designed for continuous operation which is char
acterized by the development of extremely high
pressures and practical and efficient operation.
10 Particularly does my invention relate to simplify
ing and reducing the cost of the filtration or
filtration step in the industrial arts, which step
at present constitutes one of the expensive op
erations in manufacturing.
disclosed in Patent No. 1,778,342, issued to me
portion of the expressed liquid during the early
October 14, 1930 and in my application, Ser. No.
stages of the filtration process, a minimum quan
tity of the‘cloudy filtrate is retained with the
It is common practice in the art of filtration to
20 refer to devices designed for the separation of
materials by the application of force or pressure
to the materials from Without, as “presses”; while
devices designed for the separation of materials
by having the force or pressure transmitted
2 Ul through the materials themselves as “filter
presses.” “Filter presses” are usually used
where the amount of solids to be separatedl is
but a small proportion of the total mob~ilemass
composed of said solids and liquids in which
clear filtrate.
yObjection obtainsto the devices as heretofore 20
designed in the leakage that takes place by the
joints formed between the stationary parts and
moving parts of the device. Also serious objec
tion obtains to the friction developed between said
parts. ì This friction results in excessive wearing 25
awayfof the filter cloth as Well as other parts.
Furthermore, serious objection obtains in that the
great pressures developed are difficult of control
and when developed locally or are unevenly dis
30 said solids are disposed and hence the said ma
terials are pumped into the filter press.
“Presses” on the other hand, are used where the
tributed result in breaking the machine.
In connection with the filtration part of the
manufacturing process, it is frequently desirable
proportion of solid matter is much greater in
relation to that of the liquid composing said nia
35 terials to be filtered. The distinction between
the two devices will develop clearly in the fol
to have a device which may be employed both as
`a press and as a filter press. The filter devices
lowing paragraphs.
By rendering the filtering continuous, my de
vice herein disclosed provides for utilizing the
40 filter press principle with materials in which the
solids are the predominant percentage of the ma
terial being treated. This is just the reverse of
the common practice. Heretofore, the devices in
common use for materials having only a small
45 percentage of liquids, has been the press type
rather than the filter press type. By providing
for relatively excessively high pressures and fluid
tight chambers and continuous discharge of cake
as heretofore in common use are not capable of 35
this dual use. This involves the installation of
both devices which involves: great expense as well
as the loss of important floor space.
’I’he general objects of my present invention
are to' -overcome the objections to prior devices of 40
the nature hereinabove pointed out and to gen
erally improve and increase the efficiency of con
tinuous presses and filter presses, as well as to
provide new means and modes of' operation with
Another important object of my invention is to
provide an upright or substantially vertical press
or filter press of this nature embodying two
in a iilter press type of device, the machine em
pendent press members, pivotally supported from
bodying my invention herein set forth, has solved
one of the diiiicult steps in manufacturing proc
their upper ends, between which press members 50
the material passes while being iiltered, said press
members being connected With each other by
In the industrial arts filtration is very often a
costly item in the manufacturing process. This
55 is due in part to the intermittent character of
transverseiioatingly mounted tie means, where-_
by the heavy pressures produced between the two l
press members are counterbalanced at frequent 55
intervals or section by >section Without being
transmitted to other or mounting parts of the
This tie means may include springs ca
Fig. 5 is a cross section substantially on broken
pable of yielding to pressure exerted between the
line 5_5 of Fig. 3.
two pendent press members. .
Fig. 6 is a detached elevation from the outer or
rear side of the frame of one of the main pendent
press members.
Fig. '7 is an edge View of the same.
Fig. 8 is a cross section substantially on broken
Another object is to provide equalizer means in
connection with both the top and bottom of the
pendent press members for compelling equal
movement of said press members toward and
away from the central medial vertical plane of
the machine at all times, the upper equalizing
means preferably being in the form of manually
operated adjusting mechanism and the lower
equalizing means preferably being automatically
operated in response to pressure.
Another primary object is to provide a press and
ñlter press of this nature having a filter chamber
formed by four belts, all moving in the same
direction and at substantially the same rate of
speed, whereby wea-r and needless consumption of
power due to friction is reduced to a minimum,
and the problem of preventing leakage of liquids
even under relatively excessively high as well as
ordinary pressures is very much simplified, two of
25 said belts preferably being of material impervious
to the passage of liquid and being supported by
resilient means.
A further object is to provide for the application
of intermittent or periodic increase of pressure to
30 the materiall being treated, whereby short drain
age periods are afforded during the intervals whenthe pressure is relatively sustained but not in
creased, as well as during such periods of increas
ing the pressure. The preferred means for affect
C13 Ul ing such periodicÍ action may be in the form of a
ratchet drive for transmitting the power to the
filtermeans, said ratchet drive affording an inter
mittent drive of relatively slow and readily vari
able speed.
Fig. 4 is a cross section substantially on broken
line 4_4 of Fig. 3.
Other and more specific objects are to provide
eñicient self-adjusting plug means for maintain
ing a substantially liquid tight contact with the
moving belts; to provide suction means for pick
ing up any liquid which escapes around the plug
means; to provide new and efficient means for
picking up or collecting the liquid filtrate after
it has passed through the filter cloths and slats
(to prevent reabsorption of the liquid by the solid
matter (cake) during its emergence from the
pressure zone) ; to provide types of slat members
for slat belts new as to- form and construction,
whereby the withdrawal of filtrate away from the
pressing face of the slats is facilitated; to provide
for employing traveling porous absorbent means
as an assistance to carrying through the pressure
chamber the material being treated and promot
ing the drainage of the ñuid part 'of the material;
and to provide automatic means for governing
the speed and the rate of feed to the machine
in proportion to the thickness of the cake or
layer of solid matter in the machine at the point
of maximum pressure.
'I'he above mentioned general objects of my in
vention, together with others inherent in the
same, are attained by the mechanism illustrated
in the following drawings, the same being pre
ferred exemplary forms of embodiment of my
invention, throughout which drawings like ref
erence numerals indicate like parts:
Figure 1 is a front elevation of a press and filter
press constructed in accordance with my inven
Fig. 2 is a side elevation of the same.
Fig. 3 is a vertical section substantially on bro
,i 1’en line 3_3 of Fig. 2.
linel 8_8 of Fig. 6.
Fig. 9 is a detached elevation of a frame rail
used to support the impervious side belts of my machine.
Fig. 10 is a detached plan View of a filtrate
pick-up device used in my invention.
Fig. 11 is a sectional view substantially on bro
ken line Il_l Il, of Fig. 10.
Fig. 12 is a detached cross section of a cup like
packing plug used iny the upper portion of my
pressure chamber to form a seal against the 20
escape of liquids, a leather packing cupfbeing
Fig. 13 is a fragmentary view partly in section
and partly in elevation of the upper portion of
my press and filter press, showing a preferred 25
form of packing plug means in end elevation.
Fig. 14 is a detail view partly in elevation and
partly in longitudinal section of a preferred form
of multiple packing plug used in my machine.
Fig. 15 is a cross section substantially on broken 80
line I5_I5 of Fig. 14.
Fig. 16 is an inverted fragmentary plan view of
one of the packing plugs shown in Figs. 14 and 15.
Fig. 17 is a fragmentary sectional view through
the side belt rail and side belts, showing a frag 35
ment of the main filter belts in the position in
which they make sealing contact with the side
Fig. 18 is a front elevation, with parts broken
away, of one form. of slat for the main slat belts, ,4,0
a wire mesh being used on the face of said slat.
Fig. 19 is a sectional view on broken line I9_I 9
of Fig. 18.
Fig. 20 is a fragmentary sectional View sub
stantially on broken line 20_2D of Fig. 18 illus 45
trating details of the drainage means of the slat
shown in Figs. 18 and 19.
Fig. 21 is an end View of said slat.
Fig. 22 is a plan View with parts broken away
of another form of filter belt slat in which a
slotted plate is used on the face of the slat.
Fig. 23~is an edge View of the slat shown in
Fig. 22.
Fig. 24 is a sectional view substantially on
broken line 24_24 of Fig. 22.
Fig. 25 is a sectional View of a preferred form
of filter belt slat of rhomboidal shape in cross
section to afford walls which are inclined down
wardly from the face to the rear of said slat to
promote drainage of liquid.
Fig. 26 is a fragmentary elevation of a perfo
rated plate which may be used on the filter belt
slat shown in Figs. 18 to 21 in place of the wire
mesh plate shown in said Figs. 18 to 21.
Fig. 27 is a sectional view of still another form 65
of filter belt slat in which said slat is of rhom
boidal shape in cross section to aiford walls which
are inclined downwardly from the face to the
rear of said slat to promote drainage of a liquid,
and inwhich a plate of porous filter material is
provided as a face at the front of .the slat.
Fig. 28 is a plan view of still another form of
ñlter belt slat.
Fig. 29 is a fragmentary cross section on
broken line, 29-29 of Fig. 28.
Fig. 30 is a sectional viewv‘on a larger scale
Substantially 'on broken line 30-'370 of Fig. 28.
and a highly polished nonemovable plate is sub
stituted in place thereof.
Fig. 49 is a somewhat diagrammatic View partly
Fig. 31 is a detached elevation illustrating one
means for varying the speed of the ratchet drive . in section and partly in elevation, showing means
and one means for compelling an edual travel of for supporting the impervious side belt means (il
each ratchet arm.
with a pressure which varies in propertion to the
Fig. 32 is a detached fragmentary elevation pressure in the ñlter chamber.
illustrating one centering means which may be
Referring particularly to Figs. 1 to 1_7, inclusive,
wherein I have illustrated one embodiment of my
used in connection with the ratchet drive.
Fig. 33 is a detached fragmentary elevation of invention, I show a main frame formed of two
upright parallel, spaced apart, channel shaped
other centering means for the ratchet drive.
Fig. 34 is an elevation showing means for vary-_ side members H0 provided with base members K
ing either the feed of the machine or the speed HI and rigidly connected at their bottom ends
of movement of the belts, or both, automatically by a cross plate H2, see Fig. 2. At their upper
in proportion to the thickness of the cake or body ends the side members H0 each have an angle
of solid matter between the filter belts at the bar H3 secured thereto. These angle bars eX
location where said cake is most highly com
tend at right angles to the member Hß and are
Fig. 35 shows a modified form` of my invention
rigidly secured together by transverse platesl Il@
positioned near the outer ends of the angle bars
20 in which the ñlter belts are supported on chain
mesh belts, which, in turn, are supported on
rollers, the chain mesh belts taking the place of
the slat belts shown in the preceding figures.
H3. A transverse angle bar H5 (Fig. 3) also
extends cross wise between the top ends of the
side frame members H0 and cooperates with the
This ñgure also shows a movable carrier member
25 in the nature of a very porous fabric disposed
between the filter belts, said carrier member pro
two upper ends of the spaced apart >side mem- .
bers HD together. The angle bar I i5 also pro- "
viding drainage for materials which tend to pack
and said carrier also assisting in feeding the ma
terials through the machine.
Figs. 36 and 37 are enlarged fragmentary views
in elevation and cross section, respectively, of the
porous fabric shown in Fig. 35.
transverse plates I I4 in rigidly connecting the
vides support for a packing plug hereinafter de
scribed. The previously described parts form a
rigid stationary and substantial frame on which
the apparatus hereinafter described may be
Two pendent frame members, designated gen*
erally by the numeral I I6 are suspended from the
Fig. 3S is a diagrammatic view partly in side stationary frame by means of angle brackets H'l,
elevation and partly in section showing one ‘ which are secured to the upright frame members
35 method of feeding material off of a conveyor into
my press and ñlter press.
Fig. 39 is a cross section substantially on line
HIJ and have set screws H8 therein which pro-` «
.3Q-3e of Fig. 38.v
Fig. 40 is an enlarged detail showing the fiexin
ble means for supporting the packing piug be
tween the four moving filter belts in such a
trude into suitable depressions shown by dotted
lines at H9 in Fig. '7, in bracket members limon
the pendent frame members IIS. Other bracket
members II'I’, having set‘screws H 8', are pro
vided above the brackets |20 to prevent displace
ment of the pendent frame membersi due to up
manner as to insure an equal pressure of the
thrust. The ends of the set screwsI H8' are posi
plug against all filter belts.
tioned in depressions H9’ Yin plates |20’ which
Fig. 4l is a somewhat diagrammatic side ele
vation of another modified form of ratchet drive
for my combined press and filter press in which
the ratchet levers are connected directly to the
rest slidably on brackets |20 and permit the small
amount of swinging movement required by the
pendent frames. The pivotal supports which are
thus formed for the pendent frame members H6
crank arms.
are located near the upper ends of said frame
Fig. 42 is a fragmentary plan View of parts of
a bevel gear -drive which may be used for the
side chains of my combined press and filter press.
Fig. 43 is a View partly in section and partly in
members and in substantially vertical alignment
between upper bearings |2| and lower bearings
|22, see Figs. 6 and '7, which are provided on these
frame members. The upper bearings I2| are
at the upper
ends of from
the pendent
shelf like
.I I5 by
elevation showing the complete drive of the bevel
gear mechanism shown partly in Fig. 42.
Fig. 44 is a somewhat diagrammatic side elevation illustrating one means of guiding ñlter
belts into my combined press and filter press.
Fig. 45 is a fragmentary sectional view show»
ing an alternative spring supporting structure
60 for the main pendent frames.
Fig. 46 is a cross section through a side frame
of my machine showing a coil spring resiliently
supporting the side belt rail, said coil spring
affording greater travel and being less subject to
65 breakage than the flat springs shown in Figs. 4
and 17. Y
Fig. 4'? 1s a somewhat diagrammatic side ele
vation showing a modiñed form of my invention
of the pendent
at itsmembers
lower end
to a non-movable' part of the frame.
adjustable screw and nut means |724. This makes
it possible to adjust the tension of slat belts, here
inafter described, which are supported by these
bearings. 'I‘he pendent frames, hereinafter also
called strongbacks, H6 are essentially of strong
and rigid construction, designed to withstand
heavy pressure. They are preferably each formed
of an upright medial plate portion |25 having a
relatively flat plane inner face provided with
track members |26. Reinforcing cross members
|21 of substantially U shaped cross section are
rigidly connected with the medial plate portions
|25 and extend crosswise of the rear sides thereof
at spaced apart intervals. Longitudinally extend
ing web membersY |28 extend along the rear side
of the medial plate portions |25 and throughy the
cross members |21, as more clearly shown in Figs.
Fig. 48 is a fragmentary sectional view of a
4, 6, '7, and 8. The medial plate portions |25 'of
the pendent frame members are provided with
modified form of the invention in which the im
pervious moving side belts are dispensed with
openings |29 positioned between the U shaped
cross members', through which openings, liduid'
may be taken olf, as hereinafter described. The
slats slope downwardly and away from the filter
outer ends of the U shaped cross members are
provided with tie rod holes |30, as more clearly
shown in Figs. 6 and 8. The pendent frame mem
bers IIB, are shown as built up of a plurality of
chamber, due to the fact that the ñlter chamber
is slightly wedge shape or convergent from top
to bottom. This slope is greatly accentuated in
the rhomboidal form of slat shown in Fig. 27.
pieces welded together, but it will be understood
that they may be cast in one piece, if the use
The slat shown in Figs. 28, 29 and 30 is one
form of slat which may be used. This type of slat
may be of non-metallic material, as of hardwood
f 'I'he bearing members |2| at the top ends of
made liquid proof by subjecting it to a hot paraf
the pendent frames ||6 support shafts |3| and
fine bath. This slat has holes |42 for the recep~
|32 upon each of which shafts are mounted two
tion of suitable bolts, not shown, by which said
spaced apart sprocket wheels |33.
The lower
bearing brackets |22 support shafts |34 and |35,
upon each of which are mounted »two spaced
apart sprocket wheels |36. A greater or less
number of sprocket wheels |33 and |36 may be
provided on each of the respective shafts if de
sired. The lower sprocket wheels |36 are keyed
to the shafts |34 and |35 as shown in Fig. 5
20 and the upper sprocket wheels |33 may be simi
slat may be secured to thelink belts |40.
holes |42 are counterbored as at |43 on the front
side of the slat for the reception of the bolt
This slat |39 is further provided, on the
side against which the filter belt is pressed, with
spaced apart longitudinal» grooves |44, which ex
tend from the ends of the slat to a point near
the center and are connected, by a transverse in
tersecting groove |45, with drain holes |46, which
larly keyed to their shafts |3| and |32.
drain holes exten-d from face to rear of the slat
Two endless slat belts are loperatively mounted
on the sprocket wheels |33 and |36 and are sup
ported on the pendent frames | I6 in such a man
may be passed through the slat, so that said fil
trate may be picked up at the rear side thereof.
25 ner as to cooperate withv other parts in forming
a pressure or filter chamber |38 having as two
sides the two opposed-,and adjacent portions of
said slat belts.
This pressure or filter chamber
|38 is wider at 'the top and converges toward the
and aiîord‘passageways through which filtrate
Each groove |44 preferably has a saw kerf |41 25k
in the bottom thereof so that if a filter cloth is
pressed into the groove, the saw kerf will still
afford a channel for the drainage of liquid to the
holes |46. A packing member |48 in the nature
30 lower end in such a manner that material which
of a thin fiat piece of resilient material, as rub~-
is introduced at the top end will be subjected to
ber, may be secured, preferably by cementing the
increasing pressure
same, to the bottom edge of each slat.
as it moves
through said chamber. The opposed portions of
the slat belts which form walls of the pressure
35 chamber |38 move downwardly in the operation
of the machine.
The slat belts are formed of transverse slats
designated generally by |30, These slats are se
cured to link belts |40 which run on the sprocket
40 wheels |33 and |36. The link belts |40 have roll
ers | 4|, see Figs. 4 and 5, at the locations where
the links of said belts are pivotally connected,
which rollers run on kthe track members |26 and
serve as an antifriction meansfor supporting
the load carried by the moving slat belts due to
the development of pressure in the pressure
chamber |38. Roller or ball bearings of conven
tional type, not shown, may be provided inter
nally of the rollers |40 to further reduce fric50 tion, if desired. The slats used in making up>
the slat belts and designated generally by |39 are
strong members and may be adapted for support
ing filter cloth means on their pressing v`face
surfaces, and said slats are preferably provided
55 with drainage means whereby filtrate expelled
from material within the chamber |38 may read
ily pass outwardly through said slats. Several
forms of these slats are shown in Figs. 18 to 30,~
inclusive. Where reference is made in this speci-.l
60 ñcation to top edge and bottom edge of- these
slats, it will be understood that these terms referV
to the slats in the position in which they form
the filter cloth supporting means or walls ofthe
filter chamber, it being obvious that these slats
65 are reversed in position as they pass around the
upper and lower sets of sprocket wheels |33 an
|36, respectively.
These slats have three important functions;
flrst, they form supporting means to withstand»
the pressures which are exerted against the filter
cloths or belts; second, they serve to collect and
direct the liquid filtrate to a definite position;
third, they serve to drain the filtrate promptly
away from the filter cloth or slat face. In every
75 case the cracks between the edges of adjacent
packing members tend to prevent leakage be
tween the slats. The top edge of each slat is
provided with a longitudinal recess |49 which 35
communicates with a` medially positioned tran.,
verse notch or groove |50, whereby any filtrate Y .
which enters the crack between the slats is
drained to the center and discharged to therear
of the slat. The packing members |48 and re 40
cesses |49 and |50 are more clearly shown in
Fig. 30, which is on a larger scale than Fig. 2S. A
plurality of grooves I5! are provided in the backs
of the slats for the purpose of draining, toward
the center of the slat, any filtrate which may
escape the other grooves and trickle down the
base of the slats. The grooves |5| are inclined
downwardly from outer to inner ends and are
cut at an angle as illustrated in enlarged. detail,
Fig. 29, whereby they will form channels in which 50
the liquid may flow toward the center of the slats.
When a filter cloth is pressed against the front
side of this slat, said cloth will be supported by
the lands or surfaces |52 between the grooves
|44 and filtrate may be forced through said ñlter 55
cloth into the grooves |44 and thence disposed
of to the rear of the slats.
In Figs. 18, 19, 20 and 21 I have shown a
metal slat |53 provided with internal cavities |54
having ribs |55 therebetween. The face side of 60
the slat |53 is recessed to leave a narrow mar
ginal portion |56 which projects beyond the plane
common to the front edges of the ribs |55. The
face of the slat may be formed by a relatively
strong and heavy close-mesh wire screen |51, 65
which fits within the recessed portion and is flush
with the marginal portion |56. Tie wires |58,
Fig. 2l, may be used to secure the wire mesh face
§51 in place. Holes |18 may be provided in the
slat |53 to facilitate securing the same to a link 70
The wire mesh |51 serves as a support
against which ñlter cloth may be pressed. Liquid
filtrate which is forced through said ñlter cloth
presses readily through said wire mesh into the
cavities |54. The front edges of the ribs |55 may 75
be notched as at |59 and |60, so that this liquid
filtrate may flow from the cavities |54 to a cen
trally located discharge opening |6| and be dis
charged through the back Wall of the slat Where
ci , it is picked up by liquid ñltrate pick-up mecha
nisin, as hereinafter described. The top edge of
the slat |53v has a depression |62 therein to catch
liquid nitrate which finds its Way into the space
between the slats. A hole |63 extends from the
io bottom of this depression to the interior` cavities
of the slat, whereby liquid filtrate collecting in
the depression |62 will be drained off through
the slat. The top edge of each slat |53 is further
beveled at the rear corner as at |64 to facilitate
1.5. drainage of filtrate to the rear and the bottom
edge of each slat has a groove |65 positioned di
rectly over the beveled portion |64 of the next ad
jacent slat below, said groove |65 forming an
edge from which liquid will tend to drip and the
bevel |64 tending to prevent this drip from run
ning forwardly between the slats. Grooves |64',
having the same purpose and function as the
grooves |5i in Figs. 28 and 29 may be provided
in the rear wall of the slat |53.
lThe space between the two lowermost hori
zontal wires of the wire mesh member |51 is pref
erably filled or otherwise blocked up or obstructed
as shown at |515, Fig, 19, to thereby form a lip
or dam to cause the liquid ñltrate to ñow rear
30 wardly away from the Wire mesh and to further
prevent any residual filtrate from running back
into the ñlter cloth as the slat moves away from
the body of material which has just passed out
of the pressure zone. A narrow ledge or dam |66’
35 positioned just inside of the bottom edge of the
slat face 15,1 may be used instead of the filling
165. Also, there may be provided a dam |56',
whereby ñltrate which trickles down the screen
may be maintained away from the compressed
40, solid matter of the material being treated form
ing the cake and positively directed to passage
ways |51, providing positive isolating for filtrate
from the expanding vacuum-creating cake. Ex
perience has taught that the ñltrate tends to col
45 lect in the lower meshes of the ñlter face from
which, unless provision such as dam |56’ is pro
vided, it is reabsorbed into the cake by the vac
uum action of the expanding cake when the pres
sure is released. Passageways |51, Fig. 20, ex
slats,l 'li‘ljie flattening of the wire mesh-affords
a fìatláel." Surface;
more healing are@ fol” the
filtercloth and prevents injury of the filter cloth.
This flattening 0? the Wires i? ShOWïl. in Fïg- 20
Fig, 26 shows a fragment of a perforated plate
|10, which may be used on the slat |53 in place oi
t‘no Wire mosh. |5J~~ Qns advantage of this nof-v
forntsd plats |10 ovor tho Wire mosh |51 ls that
it affords a moro oven sufïsoo snol thor@ is loss
tendones? to stroton o nltor Cloth which is Pressed
against the iront of tno .slst- BY omitting or
filling, ono row of holes nonr tno bottom osso of. the
plate |10', as shown at |1'|, the same result is ob
tained es lov tho nso oi the filter |55 inlî‘lg- 1.9„ n
consideration partionlarlr impor-tant Wnoro oX~
oesslro pressures nro employed
The slnt.v i1?- shown in Fiss 22J 2,3» ond 2s is ~
also of motel Construction and has cavities l 13. on
tno insiolo into. whioh liquid ñltrsto nlnr ness»
A rib, |1||l oxtonds lengthwise Within said slnt |12
and. is flush with the front @des of the slot Tino
face of tino4 _slot |12 is .formed by s Iznotol pinto |15
which nos slots. |15 with rearwardly divolîeíne
walls and is _secured to the slat I'l'ê? by screws |11.
Tho slots |16 and. the supporting-surfaces between
said slots are of suitable shape, sin@ and position»~
ine that liquid filtrato which mossos through
s filter sloth, supported by the iol-nto |15, will, poss
through the slots |16` into the interior Cav-ities |13
of the s_lat and be discharged froin‘the rear. side of
the Slat through openings |18. Openings |18",
shown by dotted line-s in Fig. 22, may be provided
in the rib |14 for filtrate to pass through. TheV
s_lat |12 has holes |19 formed in enlarged por
tions of the `rib |111»- through which holes |19v bolts
or _Cap screws |80 may extend for the pur-pose of
securing the slats |12 to the link belts. ' The heads
ofy the cap screws |8|! are positioned in openings
|8| in the plates |12 and may be flushwith the
front vside ofV said plates |'|_2_, see Fig. 2,4. The
bottom edge of each Slat |12 may have a packing
strip |82 cemented or otherwise secured thereto,
Which tends to exclude iìltrate from the space be
tween saíd slats. The top edge of each slat |12
may have a depression |83 oommnnioablv oon
nected with the interior of the slat by notches |84
to catch any filtrate which finds its way between
the slats and to direct said iiltrate into the cavity
Within the Slat. A horizontal slot |85 is provided
tend from the bottom of the screen |51 to the
along the bottom of the plate |15 to alford a means 50
bottom edge of the slat, whereby filtrate may be
drained into the depression |52 in the top of
the next adjacent slat below. A vertical groove
£68 is provided in each end of each slat |53 near
for receiving filtrate in a portion of the plate
not otherwise provided withv slots. The ñltrate
entering the slot |85 passes down through open
ings formed by notches |86 in the inner side of
the front side thereof and one or more holes |69
the plate and will ordinarily find its way into the '
provided in the bottom of each groove |68
`iid extend through the end wall of the slat to
ne Aspace inside. When the slat is in use, a filter
cloth will extend around the end thereof, as more
so. fuily hereinafter described and shown in Fig. 17,
and any liquid filtrate which is forced edgewise
through this ñlter cloth `may enter the groove
5F58 and pass into the inside of the slat through
the holes 159.
When a wire mesh face |51 is used on the face
side of the ñlter slats, as shown in Figs. 18 to 21,
it permits the liquid filtrate to pass freely through
the filter cloths which are pressed against said
wire mesh, but I find that the heavy pressures
within the pressure chamber may stretch and
even tear the filter cloth, by pressing it into the
tendency preferably by subjecting the wire mesh
to a very high pressure to thereby flatten out said
wire mesh before it is installed on the faces of the
cavities of the next adjacent slat through the
depression |83 and notches |8¿|. It will be noted,
in Figs. 22 and 24 that the slots H6 terminate
above the level of the bottom of the interior cavity
|13 of the slat |12, and that the slot |535 is closed
at the inner side by the edge of the slat, thereby
leaving a lip or darn at |81 which corresponds in
purpose and function with the lip or dani |55 in
Figs. 1_8 and 20, previously described. Drain holes
|88 are provided in the back of each slat |12, pref
erably just below the top wall and just below the
rib |14 of said slat, to facilitate washing out,
cleaning and sterilization of the interior cavities
of said slats. It will be apparent that these drain
holes |88 will be in a suitable position to allow
all liquid to drain out of the slats when the posi
tion of the slats is reversed after said slats have'
passed around the lower sprocket wheels |33
at the beginning of their upward excursion and
before they have passed around the upper sprocket
free from the filter cloth. The end Walls of the
slats |12 are notched at the front edges, as at |89,r
vide sufiicient space between the closely super
imposed slats to permit the drainage of the fil
trate from the filter face to the rear of the slat,
said space being necessary to prevent the block
ing of the drainage by film production as other
wise results. The recessed portions |89’ may be
suitably sloped to deliver the filtrate thus drained
Fig. 24, to afford passageways through which
liquid filtrate in the edges of a filtercloth which
extends around the ends of said slatsmay flow
to pickeup means at any desired location. be
tween the two ends of the slat. The inclined
top and bottom walls of slats |90 and |90' cause 10
into the slats. In Fig. 24 I also disclose a pre
ferred method of mounting the links |40 on the
filtrate to be removed quickly from the proximity
of the filter belts, cloths, or filter faces and tend
wheels |35 at the beginning of their downward'
excursion. This washing out may be done' by di
recting a spray of water through the slotted vface
of the slats as they are moving upwardly on the
5 outer sides of the machine, said slats then being
slats by countersinking the base portion |40’ of
to prevent reabsorption of liquid by expanding
each link into the seat, whereby the ends of the
link portion |40' will abut against solid metal
shoulders in the slat and the tendency to shear
solid material at the location where pressure is
released. I find that there is a strong tendency 15
for filtrate to be withdrawn from the slat and
re-absorbed by the solid material after said solid
material has passedthe location of maximum
pressure and has started to expand, said expan
sion exerting a vacuum like action. The slats 20
shown in Figs. 25 and 2'1 minimizes this tendency
off the bolts |80 will be greatly lessened.
The filter belt 105 (Fig. 24) i contacting the slat
face k|15 may be treated or impregnated to render
20 it repellent to filtrate.
An example of such a
filtrate repellent material, when water con
stitutes the filtrate, would be a fllter'be-lt made of
trate so that said filtrate has no opportunity to
impregnated with paraffin. A filtrate repellent
be thus drawn back and reabsorbed by the
solid matter. Also in Fig. 25 I provide a rela 25
tively thin walled pervious slat face |10l which
fabric or belt of this nature will cause the filtratev
which collects in the holes or slots of theslat
face |15 to form globules 106 when said filtrate is
exposed to the vacuum suction action arising from
the expanding cake when pressure is released.
When filtrate is thus induced to assume the
globular form, space is left between said globules
for air to pass to relieve the vacuum like action
without carrying said filtrate back into the filter
belt and' into the cal-1e.` Treating the slat faces
with filtrate repellent material, such as aluminium
stearate, also renders these faces repellent to the
return of filtrate and helps to cause any filtrate
in the passageways in said slat faces where ex
perience teaches it naturally forms as a film, to
assume a globular form and allow air to pass in
wardly Without carrying the filtrate back into the
Thus, either the filter belts or the slat faces
cooperates to permit prompt drainage by retain
ing a thinner vfilm of the ñltrate in thevinter
stices of the permeable slat face. This thin slat
face is preferably reinforced by a plurality of 30
webs |14’ which may parallel the top' and bot
tom Walls of the slat. The providing of a plu
rality of such web members also provides for an
increased drainage surface to which the filtrate
may adhere, thereby retarding the tendency of 35
the filtrate to fiow backwardly, due to the vac
uum produced by the expanding cake whenythe
pressure is released. Drainage ports |6|' may
be formed in the rear wall of slat |90’ illustrated
in Fig. 25 on the plane of each rib member |14’. 40
The rib members |14’ are preferably provided
with relatively sharp and abrupt frontal edge
or both may be treated with water repellent ma
portions |9|’ to act as a dam to retard the re
terial. Among the metals, applicant has dis
turn of the filtrate to the said expanding cake
due to the suction tendency occurring when the 45
cake expands when the pressure is relieved.
covered that duraluminium` is inherently less
aqueous filtrate film formingthan other metals.
Figs. 25 and 27 show cross sections of two
hollo-w metal slats |90 and |90', respectively, of
a preferred form of construction, said slats be
ing of rhomboidal form in vertical cross section,
the top and bottom of said slats being inclined
downwardly and backwardly from'the face of
the slat to thereby promote rapid drainage of
filtrate from face to b-ack, both within the slat
and between the respective slats in thefilter
The said rhomboidal form of the slathas
been found, by experience, to be a most impor
tant change in preventing the re-absorption of
the expressed filtrate by the vacuum created by
60 the expanding cake when the pressurek is released
and in increasing the efficiency of the machine
as a whole. This is effected by providing for
the prompt withdrawal of the filtrate from the
filter face on the'passage of the slat through the
filter or pressure zone. Moreover, upon the up
per excursion of the slat outside of the filter
zone, the same rhomboidal form has the im
portant advantage of shedding or discharging
the residual filtrate cleaning fluid away from the
70 machine, so that injury to the metallic parts of
the machine is prevented. Particularly is >this
important when the filtrate is of a character
detrimental to the materials of which the ma
' chine is constructed.
by rapidly removing substantially all of the fil
a fabric in which the threads had been treated or
rI’he top walls of the slats
|90 and Isl’ are each recessed as at |89’ to pro
Ports |62’ may be provided in, the rear wall
above ports IBI’ to admit air to relieve any vac
uum created by the expanding cake without`
carrying the filtrate back into the cake and with 50
out interfering with the drainage of the filtrate
through ports ISI’.
The slat |90 shown in Fig. 27 differs in one
respect fromthe slat |90' shown in Fig. 25`in
that the front side of said slat |90 is recessed 55
as at |9| for the reception of a slat face |92
which is formed of a plate or block of porous
filter material. Also inclined rib |95’ in, Fig. 27
may have passageway |96' adjacent the rear wall
to permit filtrate to pass downwardly to a dis 60
charge outlet |91'.
The two pendent frames HB, Figs. 1 to 5 are
connected with each other by a plurality of
fioatingly mounted tie rods |93, which extend
through the holes |30 in the outer ends of the 65
U shaped cross members |21. Relatively strong
and heavy compression springs |94 may be pro
vided on the floatingly mounted tie rods |93
at the outer sides of the U shaped cross mem
bers |21, and nuts v|95 on the ends of said tie 70
rods may serve as adjustable holding means for
the springs |94. Suitable washers |96 may be
provided at both ends of the springs |94. Due to
the fact that the pressure between the pendent
frames increases toward the lower end of the 75
machine, I prefer to provide stronger floatingly
mounted tie rod members and heavier springs
to-ward the lower end. In Fig. 3, it will be, noted
that the lowermost springs |94 are made larger
and heavier. Obviously more spring pressure
may be obtained toward the lower end of the
pendent frames by providing a greater number
of springs, which may be done as hereinafter
more fully described, with specific reference to
Fig. 4.5.
By"interconnecting the two pendent frames
with the floatingly mounted tie rods |93 it will
or belts all as hereinafter described and shown in
the drawings. The endless filter belts 205, shown
in Figs. l, 3, 4, 5, and 1'7 are wider than the slat
belts and the edges 295' `of said ñlter belts fold
over the‘ends of the slats |39 as shown in Figs.
4, 5, and I7. These iilter belts 205 pass around
rollers 2M, 251, 2GB, and 2G@ at the upper end of
the frame and around rollers ZIB and 2H at the
lower end of the frame, see Fig. 3. They are
pressed against the s_lat belts by the material 10
within the pressure chamber |38, and movement
bers are positioned a short distance above the
may be imparted to them by the slag*J belts. In
Fig. 3 the älter belts are shown as passing over
the guide rollers 205 just before they engage with
the slat belts in their downward movement. In
Fig. 44 I have shown a guide member 2| 2 posi
tioned at the side _of the slat belt near the upper
end thereof and serving to'fold the edge of the
ñlter belt at right angles, whereby the edge of the
iilter belt may be caused to fold correctly over
the ends of the slats |39 as it passes into the
pressure area of the machine.
Positioned at the sides of the previously de
pivot screws lll on which said pendent frame
scribed slrat belts and in engagement with the
be apparent that the pressure of material in the
pressure chamber |38 between the two pendent
15 frames will be borne as a tension by said tie rods
§93 and will not be transmitted to» the stationary
frame of the machine. This provides a balanced
structure ol great strength and minimum weight
and affords a very advantageous construction
20 for high presure operation.
It will be noted that the uppermost tie rods
|52' which connect the two pendent frame mem
25 members are swingingly supported and that no
springs are provided on these tie rods |93’. This
is more clearly shown in Figs. l to 4 inclusive.
The nuts is? on these top tie >rods are preferably
non-rotatably secured to the cross members |21.
30 This may be done by welding said nuts |91 to
washers or plates |98 which are welded to the
cross members |27. The tie rods |93' each have
right hand threads at one end and left hand
threads at the other end, whereby rotation of
35 said tie rods in one direction, within the relativer
ly ñxed and non-rotatable nuts |9'í will cause
the two pendent frame members to be moved
toward each other and rotation of said .tie rods
an opposite direction will cause said two`
40 pendent frame members to be moved away from
each other, it being apparent that each pendent
frame member will be moved the same amount
toward or away from the medial vertical plane
of the pressure chamber |38 in response to ro
45 tation of the tie rods |93’. To insure equal an
gular movement of the two tie rods |93’ in the
same direction, I preferably provide a sprocket
wheel ls‘lâ on each of said tie rods and I inter
connect said two sprocket wheels by an endless
50 link belt 282, see Fig. 2. The tie rods |93’ may
be turned by exerting a pull on the link belt 29o,
it being understood that these adjustments will
be made when the machine is inoperative and
when the pendent frames are not subjected to
pressure, and that a small amount of power will
suiîice to turn the tie rods.
lSuitable stop means, which may be in the na
ture of sleeve members 2M on the lowermost tie
rod |93, are provided for limiting the movement
60 toward the center, oiy the pendent frames. This
prevents the slat belts on the pendent frames
from being pressed together with the possibility of
damaging the same when there is no material in
the chamber |38 of the machine.
These sleeve
65 members 20| are shown in Fig. 1. slat belts which are carried on the two
pendent :frame members |25 serve as supports
for woven or fabricated ñltering members. Each
fabricated filtering member may be in the nature
of an endless ñlter cloth belt 2,05 for use in con.
nection with each slat belt, as shown by broken
lines in Figs. l and 3, or it may be in the nature of
one or more straight strips of ñlter cloth mate
rial not in endless form, or it may be in the nature
of a plurality of superimposed filter cloth strips
portions 205’ of the filter cloths 205, which eX 25
tend around the ends of the slats |39, are two
side belts 2|3, preferably impervious and prefere
ably of metallic character to provide low friction.
These side belts form walls of the pressure cham
ber |73@ and may be of duplicate construction. 3,0
Each of the side belts 2|3 is carried on a slat belt
composed of slats 2|@ secured to an endless link
belt 2 l 5. 'I‘he link belts 2 | 5 are mounted on upper
sprocket wheels 2|6 and .lower sprocket wheels
2 | I, see Fig. 2, and said link belts 24| 5 have rollers
2 lli provided on the pivot pins 2| E, which connect
the respective links of said link belts, see Fig. 17.
The rollers 2|3 may run on trackways 220, see
Figsffl, 9, and 17, which may be positioned oppo
site the sides of the pressure chamber |33 and ex 4.5.0.
tend 'between the upper and lower sprocket
wheels 2||5 and 2| '1, respectively. ` The trackways
220 support the link belts 2|5 and s-lats ,2|4 and
saidslats 2| Al» support the impervious side belts
2|3 close liquid tight contact with the marginal
portions 205,’ of the filter belts 225, which mar
ginal portions 255’ are folded over the ends of
the slats |3§fto provide a fluid tight joint between
the ends of ythe slats and the side belts. The
trackways 22|) for the side belts may be supported 50
by iiat springs 22| which extend cross wise of said
trackways 22D at frequent intervals, as shown in
Figs. 4, 9, and 17. This track 22S is slightly flex
ible or resilient so that the same may be locally
adjusted to make the joint between the side belt 55
and the ñlter belts iilter tight.
The ends of the
iiat springs 22| have holes 222 for the reception of
portions A223 of reduced diameter on the ends of
cap screws 222, Figs. 4 and 1'?. The cap screws
224 are threaded through bosses 225 on the up
right side frame members | il?, see Fig. il, and may
be adjusted to vary the pressure of the side belts
2i3 against the ends of the slats |39 of the main
slat belts to make the joints of desired tightness.
The flat springs 22| are provided at frequent in 65
tervals and are adjustably supported at each end,
thereby making it possible to adjust the' position
of the side belts H3 at any desired location to
maintain liquid tight contact with the ñlter cloths
and the main slat belts. In Fig. 46 I have shown
a modified form of adjustable spring mechanism
for Supporting the side belts. In this disclosure
the trackway 22B has a plurality of rearwardly
projecting studs 225, only one of which is shown,
that extend through holes in a side frame mem- 75
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