Патент USA US2112943код для вставки
April 5,y ì . IMPRINTING E_AC WELLS API-’ARATUS i Original Filed May 5, 1933 3 Sheets-Sheet l April 5, 1938. _ E'. (j~ WELLS y I v 2,112,943 IMPRINTING APPARATUS ` Original Filed Mayß, 1933 3 Sheets-Sheet 2 April 5, 193s. 'E c,I WELLS ~ 2,112,943 IMPRINT ING APPARATUS Original Filed May 3, 1955 -5 Sheets-Sheet 3 e names 01‘- thìngâl arduous 'labor was k to the Shop rol ipe in the' bank « ó’. M 2,112,943 Patented-_ Apr. 5, 1938 UNITED FA )if enr Te oFFlcr. ' 2,112,943 \ IMPRINTING APPARATUS Edward C. Wells, Dayton, Ohio, assigner to Platt Iron Works, inc., Dayton, Ohio, a corporation of New York Application May 3, 1933, Serial No. 669,097 Renewed September 3, 1936 >2li Claims. This invention relates to the printing or im pressing of letters or other characters; and more particularly to typewriters, and the like, having mechanisms, or attachments therefor, whereby 5 controlled spacing of the imprinting characters is effected to produce justified lines. One of the principal objects of the invention isto provide means, in a typewriter, or the like, for effecting spacing of the letters or other charac 10 ters as they are being printed or impressed in lines so as to produce successive lines justiñed to -a common length. A Another object of the invention is the provision of a device of simple construction effective upon ' the type characters while being associated into lines to vary the spacing of thel characters t produce lines of common length. ' Another object of the invention is the provision of a justifying or spacing device having means for 'coordinating the space length between the impressed characters with the number of char acters inla line to produce lines of _a predeter mined length. ' Another object of the invention is the provision in such printing or character impressing mecha nism of a spacing device for justifying the lines by reference to a like association of characters . (Cl. IS7-_84) accompanying drawings. as a justifying mecha nism for a typewriter. . » . In the drawings: Flg. 1 is a side elevational view with parts bro ken away for clearness of illustration, and shows the spacing device of the invention as a mecha nism associated with a typewriting machine; Fig. 2 is a plan view of the structure shown in Fig. l; l Fig. 3 is a front elevational view of the char acter spacing device; l 10 ` ` Fig. ‘i is a sectional view taken on the line ?i-?i of Fig. 3; , Fig. 5 is a vertical sectional view taken on the line 5--5 of Fig. 4; . ' Fig. 6 is a fragmentary sectional view showing a drive connection and corresponds to the sec tion indicated ,at 6_6 of Fig. 4; Fig. 'I is a fragmentary sectional view of the selector mechanism and corresponds to the sec tion indicated at 1--1 of Fig. e; Fig. 8 is a fragmentary sectional view taken on I the line 8_8 of Fig. 5; Fig. 9 is a fragmentary view of another form of operating connection between the character '2 spacing device and the device uponI which the characters are impressed or associated. Fig. 10 is a fragmentary view showing lines of characters associated in unjustified lines; and Fig. 11 is a view similar Vto Fig. 1'0 and shows vide a device of the character described, includ ing a laterally movable platen, means to move the characters associated in justified lines.v Whenassociatlng type characters as words or said platen in step-by-step increments to effect letter spacing, justifying means to differentially other character groups into lines the lines would vary the length of said step-by-step movements, " normally be of varying length due to the vary a copyV holder to support unjustified typing, a ing number ofv letters in the several words which pointer movable ~into alignment with the end of can be included Within a line of a predetermined maximum length. In a typewriter, for'example, an unjustiñed line, and means actuated as an in cldent to movement of said pointer to condition the characters are associated in the typed lines said justifying means to differentially control providing character spaces of uniform length, the length of the step-by-step movements of said and because the character groups can onlyÍ be platen to permit reproduction of an unjustified separated at established `places such, for example, as at the end of a word or at the end of a syllable line to justified length. where a hyphen may be used, the lines neces A further object of the invention is the provi sion of a justifying or spacing controlling device sarily vary in length.. In vsuch association of in unjustified lines. l , ^ It is a further object of the invention to pro 40 45 which is readily. attachable to a typewriter, or C: all 40 characters as heretofore impressed only one `other device, for associating or impressing type Y margin might be aligned. T'his invention pro characters into lines, whereby such devices may vides for the association of> such characters in operate so that the characters will be associated in successive lines of justified length. Other objects and advantages of the invention will be apparent from the following description, the accompanying drawings and the appended claims. l Ul i) - For purposes of ready description a preferred embodiment of the invention is disclosed in the justified linea-that is to say, in lines having a ' common length so that both margins arev aligned. This is accomplished' by varying the length of the character spaces in accordance with the number of characters in the line. 'I'he length of space is varied with respect to what might be termed a normal space length. The adjusted space length for any line is established by reference to> 55 2,112,943 a like association of the same characters ar- . ranged at normal character spacing and by pro portioning the character spacing of the justified line in accordance with the length of the unjusti through provision of a selective drive operable between the frame II and carriage I2 and which ` The type character spacing device or justifier may be readily controlled as to the extent of a space movement, and includes a selector whereby a proper space length relationship may be estab lished to produce lines to a common length. In the form of type character spacing device illustrated the carriage I2 is supported for move ment upon the frame I I. As shown, one side of the frame II is provided with a guideway 20 hav ing a groove 2| that is cooperatively related to a similar groove in the guideway 22 on the carriage I2. A plurality of bearing balls 23 are positioned between the guideway grooves and provide a free moving support at one side of the carriage I2. Additional support is afforded by a rod 25‘that is is readily applicable to different uses, for ex shown mounted between laterally extending . ample, as for spacing type characters that are brackets 2S on the frame Il. This rod- is slidably engaged by a. bracket 21 which is attached to and fied line. The justifier provides the operating connection between that part of a type character associat ing device from which the type characters are associated, and that part which is relatively mov 10 able thereto and upon which the type characters are adapted to be associated.l By controlling the relative movement of these parts which, for pur poses of description, have been termed the frame and platen respectively, the characters may be 15 readily associated in lines of common length. associated by imprinting as in typewrìting, or 20 by controlling the spacing of the associated char acters into justiiied- form for the production of a stencil or thelike. The spacing device or justifier may be constructed as an integral part of a. type 15 extends downwardly from the carriage I2. Car 20 riage movement in the right hand direction is limited by provision of a sleeve 28 on the rod 25 which serves as a stop between the frame bracket 26 and the carriage bracket 21. This stop mech character associating device or may be con 25 structed as an attachment therefor as is shown in anism also serves in locating the left hand mar 25 'the illustrated embodiment of the invention gin position of the typewriter carriageIS. The carriage I2 is constantly urged'toward the wherein the justifier is applied as an attachment for a typewriter so that typewritten lines may be ' left (as viewed in Figs. 2, 3 and 4) and is con trolled in its movement in that direction by an es »produced to a justified or common length. capement mechanism. _Carriage movement to 30 In the drawings, in which like characters of 30 reference designate like parts throughout the several views thereof, the numeral I0 designates the type character spacing device or justifier which is shown as having a frame portion Il and 35 a carriage I2 which is movable thereon. The justifier as herein shown is mounted upon a common base I3 with a typewriter I4 although it is to be understood that the justifier need not be a separate part from the typewriter or other 40 character associating device. 'I'he typewriter comprises generally a frame I5 and a carriage I6 that is movable thereon. The justifier is oper atively connected to the typewriter for controlling the movement of the typewriter carriage I6 45 whereby the type characters associated or im printed in word or other sequence relationship on the platen I1 of the typewriter carriage IE may be spaced to produce lines of common length, that is to say, so that the lines may be justified. 50 The justifier is readily applicable to different the left is by means of a spring and ribbon such as is common and well known for the movement of a. typewriter carriage. As shown', a stud 30 (Fig. 5) on the frame -I I carries a rotatable spool 3I upon which a ribbon 32 is wrapped. One end 35 of the ribbon is fixed to the'spool and the other end is connected at 33 to the carriage. A suit able spring is attached to the stud 30 and spool 3| to tension the spool for movement of the carriage to the left. The escapement which controls the space by space movement of the carriage I2, and which is shown at 35, (Figs. 5 and 8) may be of any suit able type such, for example, as that illustrated which is well known for controlling the move- .. ment of a typewriter carriage. As shown, the escapement is mounted upon a bracket 36 which is attached to the frame II and comprises a rocking member 31 pivotally mounted upon the frame 36 by means of pivot members 38. The 50 makes of typewriters and for purposes of illus tration has been shown as associated with a frame 36 also carries rotatable star wheel or escapement wheel 40 that is operatively con “Royal” typewriter. As the operation and mech anism of this construction of typewriter are well 55 known, being such as described in the patent to Hess et al. 1,427,464, August 29, 1922, only so much of the mechanism of this typewriter is illus trated in detail as is needed in order' to permit of a clear understanding of the operation of the nected .to the carriage I2 and has angularly spaced teeth 4I which are engaged in succession by parts carried on' the rocking frame 31 for spacing movement of the carriage. A pivotally 60 typewriter and attached justifier. As mentioned above, the justifier serves to con trol the length of character space movement of the typewriter platen I1 which is operatively connected to the carriage I2. This is accom 65 plished by the provision of Amechanism between the relatively movable justifier parts II and I2 so that the space length of a character movement may be varied in accordance with the number of characters that are to be associated in a justified 70 line. For any given justified line the character spaces are of uniform length, and in the differ ent lines constituting a sheet of copy the space length for a line varies in accordance with the number of character spaces therein. 75 » The variation in the space length is obtaine movable arm 42 on the rocking member is spring tensioned for movement between a fixed stop 43 and an adjustable stop 44. In one position of the rocking member .the arm 42 stands in the (lí) path of movement of the escapement wheel teeth and, as a result of the spring tension on the carriage I2, is held by the tooth against the adjustable stop 44. Upon pivotally moving the rocking member, as by depressing a key on the typewriter, the upper end of the member 31 swings forwardly an amount sufiicient to disen gage the arm 42 and engage a finger‘46 with the tooth previously held by the arm 42. This per mits the arm to move under urge of its spring 41 so that upon return movement of the frame 31 the arm will engage the next tooth and thus permit a movement of the wheel 40 by the amount of one tooth space. The escapement wheel 40 has rotatably mounted upon it a pinion 75 amaca; Il which is caused to move with the escapement .wheel in one direction of its movement through line length >will produce space lengths which are provision of a spring pressed pawl @9. This paw] ample, when .the justiñer is used with a type writer the spacing afforded by the gear men serves as a- drive connection between the pinion Ul and wheel inthe direction of feeding movement of the carriage and serves also, by overrunning, to permit independent return movement .oi’ the carriage. normal forthe size of characters used. For ex tioned is the same as the spacing produced by the typewriter escapement. For convenience in description this has been called normal spacing. It will be ,obvious that other sizes of gears may The selective drive connection from 'the pinion ‘ be used so long as their relationship is such that 10 48 to the carriage i2 is through a gear 5B which they diiïer one from another in amounts to pro is interconnected with other gears of different> duce a one character space difference in the pre sizes for rotation with a common shaft 59 carried determined line length. It will also be apparent by the frame il. The several gears rotate to~ that any one of the gears may be utilized to pro gether and mesh with racks that may be selec tively connected to .the carriage i2. The gears are proportioned yso that the pitch diameter of each differs from the pitch diameter of an adja cent gear by an amount sumcient to change the number oi character spaces in a predetermined line length by one whole character space. For example.. gear 59 may be constructed to have a pitch diameter such that the escapement mecha vide the desired normal spaceiength, so obviously the random length lines of‘unjustified copy can be condensed as well as elongated A selector is provided whereby the proper arm may be moved into engaging position for opera tively connecting the desired‘rack'and gear to the carriage. The selector comprises a rotatable 20 shaft 97 which is carried in bearings 88 on the carriage i2. The shaft has mounted upon it 'a nism will provide for sixty-:dile character spaces pluralityA of axially spaced cams indicated by the in a line six and one-half inches long. numerals 80 to 86 i Fig. 4) and positioned corre The next adjacent gear 5i is suiiiciently larger that only. sixty-four character space movements by the escapement are necessary to move the carriage the same amount that it is moved by gear 5@ in sixty-five character spaces, that is, to provide the same length line. This same relationship exists between the gears 52 and 5i and so on between gears 5S, 5d, 55, to gear ät which is of such size that nity-nine character spaces will be distributed uniformly in the six and one-half 9,3 Gl inch line. The corresponding racks, which are indicated by the numerals t@ to tt, (Figs. 4 and 5) are all of like form and are slidably mounted upon. the carriage. As shown, the carriage is provided with spaced blocks Bi and SS. These blocks are notched on their underside to receive the racks as indicated at t9 and position the racks in alignment with the corresponding gears. Each rack is slotted as indicated at 5l corre~ sponding to the spacing of the blocks, and each 45 is held for sliding movement within the blocks through provision of pins 58 that pass through the rack slots 5i (Fig. 7). The racks are selectively engaged with the car riage i2 through provision of a latching mecha 50 nism which is duplicated for each rack. As shown, freely movable arms '10 to 16 (Figs. 4 and 7) are positioned adjacent the racks for rocking movement upon the right hand .pin 58. Each arm is provided with a notch ‘Il which is 55 adapted to engage a pin >projection 18 on the associated rack. The arms are of like shape and consequently the notches 'i1 all stand an equal distance from the pivot pin 58 upon which the arms are mounted. The arms are urged down 60 wardly by similar springs 19. The associated gears and racks are assembled in such relation. sponding to the arms. Each arm has at its out ward end_a roller-89 which engages the periphery of its associated cam. As shown, the cams are formed generally circular and each has an in dentation 90 of sumcient depth to permit arm movement whereby a notch lî'may engage its « associated pin 19. lThe cams are íixed to the shaft 81 so that the cam notches are equally spaced in angular relationship, and so that only one arm may .move to engaging position at a time. The selecting movement of the cam shaft 35 is through provision of al readily accessible knob 9i. Indicating means are- associated with the se lector whereby the positioning of the selector may be readily observed, and to ald in effecting driv 40 ing engagement with theA proper gear and rack as sembly. As shown, the shaft 81 has ñxed to it a cam 93 which is constructed with a series of stepped faces corresponding in number. to the cams 90 to 86 and of progressively increasing dis tance from the shaft axis. A bar 94 that is slid ably carried by the blocks 61 and t8 operatively engages the cam 93 for movement thereby in ac cordance with the positioning of the shaft 8l and its associated parts. The bar 94 is slidably mounted upon the blocks 61 and 68 through pro vision of slots 95 that are engaged by screws 95 held in the blocks. The end of the bar adjacent the cam 93 is provided with a roller 91> which is urged into contacting engagement with the cam by a spring 98. The bar 94 carries a pointer 99 that moves in accordance with the cam position ing and thus serves as an indicator for readily adjusting the selector. The radial . spacing of the cam faces is suchthat: the pointer is moved '(il) by adjacently related faces an amount equal to> . ship that when the carriage is moved to the a normal character' space. right hand position the pins 18 will stand axially to the shaft 91 so that the cam face of shortest radius will engage the roller of the pointer bar 95 when the cam 90 is positioned to permit en aligned and beneath the arm notches 'H for en (i5 gagement thereby. _ It should be understood that any desired line length may be justified by a proper selection of drive gears corresponding to the gears 5d to 56. However, the gears must be of related sizes so that for a given line length the gears will permit carriage movement of an amount diifering in adjacently related gears by one whole. character space length. The gears are preferably selected as to size so that the gear which provides the greatest number of character spaces for a given The cam 93 is iixed - gagement of the arm 'it with the rack 60 so that the gear 50 is connected to the carriage I2. As the shaft is rotated to bring other of the cams 99 to 86 into arm engaging position the pointer ' moves accordingly. 70 As mentioned above, the justifier carriage I2v has a driving connection with the typewriter car riage IgG to control the movement of the platen ii. The justifier is also connected to the type writer so that character space movements are im 4 2,112,943 parted to the justifier carriage in accordance the limits established by the guide lines. This with typewriter operation, that is, the justifier is readily accomplished by either terminating the carriage is moved as the typewriter keys are de pressed. This operation is produced by connect ing the justifier escapement with the typewriter escapement, and by rendering inoperative the connection between the typewriter escapement typed line at the end of a word, or by terminating the line where a` word may be hyphenated as and the typewriter carriage I6 so that the move ment of the carriage I6 is controlled by the move ment of the justifier carriage I2. As shown par in the predetermined line length. 'I‘his means, including the normal space length afforded by ticularly in Figs. 3 and 5, the rocking member 31 ' In the illustrated construction provision has been made to justify as much as six space lengths gear 50, that lines varying as much as seven spaces can be justified. It has been found by of the justifier escapement carries a roller |0I practice that practically any line may be termi that is engaged by an arm |02 on a rock shaft |03 which carriesalso a second arm |04. The arm |00 has a link connection |05 with the bar nated within a seven space variation either by ending a word or by hyphenating. In those few |01 of the typewriter escapement mechanism. The bar |01 is supported for rocking movement and moves to actuate the typewriter escapement upon depression of any key. The rocking move ment of the bar |01 is transmitted to the justifier instances where a greater variation exists justifi cation is obtained by inserting an additional character space between a sumcient number of adjacently related words that the line is repro duced to justified length. _ escapement through the linkage just described In order that the unjustified copy may be read ily used as a guide in adjusting the justifier to so that the justifier escapement is actuated in ac cordance with the operation of the typewriter produce justified lines a carrier is provided forA such copy. As shown, the justifier carriage has a escapement. As mentioned above, the operating connection between the typewriter escapement and the typewriter carriage is rendered inopera tive. This is accomplished by holding the car riage escapement release lever IIO in depressed position through provision of a suitable latch | I I. Upon depressing the lever IIO the escapement rack I I2 is moved out of engagement with thepin copy carrier II5 mounted above it upon brackets |I6'. The copy carrier I|5 comprises a frame 25 I I1’ upon which a roller I I8’ is rotatably mount ed. The roller |I8’ is arranged to support the unjustified copy so that it may be readily moved ion II3 that is associated with the typewriter es justified copy is thus held so that it can be easily capement wheel II4. platen I1 will move in accordance with the move read by thel operator when reproducing it in justified form, and so that the pointer of the selector may be readily moved with respect to the unjustified line lengths for adjustment of the ment of the justifier carriage I2. As shown, character space length. Any suitable driving connection may be pro LA indicated. vided whereby the typewriter carriage I6 and there is attached to the bracket 21 of the carriage I2 a projecting finger IIB which extends for -Ili wardly at the elevation of the typewriter tabular bar II1. This finger is operatively connected to the carriage I6 by the insertion in the bar I|1 of readily removable clips IIB at each side of the finger I I6. Independent movement of the type writer carriage is obtained by releasing the latch III to render the typewriter escapement opera tive, and by disengaging the clips |I8 so that the carriages are disconnected from one another. To produce associated type characters in lines of justified length the characters are first asso ciated in lines of random length by using normal spacing. This copy is then used as an index or guide for reproducing vthe characters in lines of justified length. To use >the illustrated struc ture to provide an example of this, the mattei' to be reproduced in justiiied lines` is first typed on the typewriter in the normal manner to pro duce a sheet of copy corresponding to that shown in Fig. 10. The unjustified copy is produced within the limits of a predetermined line length as indicated by the vertical guide lines |20 and ' |20'. These lines are spaced apart according to the predetermined line length at which justifi cation is obtained, that is at which the coordi - nated gear and rack combinations of the justi to a desired position by turning the roller knob | I9. Suitable adjustable clips I2| also aid in po sitioning the copy in the frame II1'. The un As shown, the pointer - ’ 99 is of sufficient length that its end |22 termi nates adjacent the front face of the roller. The pointer is guided by provision of an overlying bar 40 |23 which permits free sliding movement of the pointer. . ~ The device is prepared to produce justified lines by moving the carriage to the right hand position and by turning the selector knob 9I so 45 that the pointer stands in the position of the predetermined line length. This corresponds to the cam positioning in which gear 50 and rack 60 are cooperatively connected to the carriage I2. The unjustified copy is then placed in the carrier 50 so that the right hand margin of the predeter- . mined line lengthl stands in registration with the pointer. This is readily accomplished by pro viding the unjustified copy with guide lines or by placing a reference mark on the copy in the po 55 sition of the right hand margin. Having placed the copy in the carrier as described the selector knob 9| is then turned to move the pointer 99 into registration with the last letter of the line that is to- be recopied in justified form. This selects the proper gear and rack that will produce vchar acter spacing of the justifier such that the num ber ‘of 'characters in the selected line will be ad- ' justed 'to produce a like number of character spaces to'justiñed length. ¿ 05 As shown in the unjustified copy illustrated in Fig. 10, the first line is two characters short fier varying by whole space length differences will >produce typed lines of the same length. In the illustrated example we have assumed sixty-five _ of predetermined line`length. After placing the character spaces of normal length to be divided cop'y in the carrier with the first line in view the into a six and one-half inch line. The other knob 9| is turned an amount suiiicient to bring 70 space lengths also divide evenlyinto a six and the pointer 99 into registration with the last let one-half inch line. The guide lines`|20 and |20’ ter of the line, which brings the cam 82 into po are therefore spaced apart six and one-half sition for engagement of the arm 12 with its rack 62 so that gear 52 will connect the justifier inches. In making the original copy on the type writer the typed lines must all terminate within escapement to the carriage. The copy is then re 75 5 2,112,943. produced on the typewriter and, by having se- - half inches long, and the normal spacing is taken lected a proper length of character space, will be to be ten characters per inch, or sixty-five char reproduced to justified line length as is shown` in acter spaces of normal length in the justified the first line of the copy illustrated in Fig. 1l. line. The gears are proportioned so that sixty ñve or less whole character spaces are produced, This same procedure is followed for each succeed and the variation between adjacent gears `is each line the selection is made in accordance by steps oi’ one whole character space length in the justiñed line length. »As a further illustra with the unjustified line length.. , In order to insure maintenance of the selected tion, a justiñed line length of seven inches is assumed'for a device having a normal character 10 10 character space length throughout the extent of any given line, whereby all of the character spaces ' spacing of twelve characters per inch or eighty of that line are oi’ uniform extent, a locking de» four character spaces rfor the justified line. In vice is provided so that selection can only be this instance the gears will be proportioned so made at one position in the carriage travel. In that carriage travel for the justified line length 15 the illustrated embodiment of the invention this -will be eighty-four or less whole spaces, differing 15 in adjacent gears by one whole space. If an as selection is made at the right hand limit of car riage movement in which` position the lock is sembly of lseven gears is provided the range of ing line of the original unjustified copy, and in disengaged; Also, in this position, the latch pins 'i8 are aligned. 20 l Y As shown in Fig. 3, a lever arm |28 is pivotally attached at |29 to the carriage |2 and is urged in justification will then' be from eighty-four to seventy-eight spaces. If desired, the number of gears, together with the associated rack and 20 other selecting mechanism, may be increased in. a counterclockwise direction by provision of ay number to provide a greater range of justifica-` spring |30. The arm has a detent finger |3| - tion. It has been found, however, 'that a seven which isadapted to engage a notched wheel |32 space range is adequate. When the justifier is to .be used as an attach 25 25 that is fixed to the shaft’S'l and is provided with notches |33 corresponding in positioning to the' indented portions 90 of the cams 80 to 86. The movement of the lever arm |28 is controlled by a horizontally extending bar |34 which extends 30 along the front of the frame || and is positioned so that the lower end |35 of the >arm |28 can . override the bar i3d only when the detent |3| is in engagement with a notch of the wheel, |32. The parts |26 and i3d are coordinated as to posi 35 tioning so that when the carriage is in the ex treme right hand position the arm end |35 may drop down an amount suflicient to release the de tent |3|. In this position the arm vend |35 oper ates against the end of the bar I3! as a positive stop whereby the carriage may not be moved un til the arm |28 is rocked by depressing the handle portion |36 to engage the detent |3| and release the arm end |35. Upon making the proper gear selection- the handle portion 636 is depressed whereupon the carriage moves to the left an amount just sufficient to cause the arm end |35 to override the bar |36. The selected line is then _typed in, justified form and the carriage is re turned for selection of character space length for the'next succeeding line. As mentioned above, the justifier drive `connec tion incorporating the gear 5|! and rack 60 pref erably provides a normal character space length, ' that is, a space length corresponding to the _nor 55 mal character spacing of the typewriter., The „ original unjustified copy may therefore be typed on the platen of the typewriter carriage I6 either by using the typewriter escapement or the justi fier escapement as desired. The justifier may be arranged to Vjustify any 60 desired line length by a proper selection of gears constituting the drive connection. That is, hav ing determined the justified line length, gears are ment on devices which will not permita- compact mounting such as is illustrated in those figures of the drawings showing the justifier as a closely positioned typewriter attachment the justiner may be mounted in any vdesired position remote 30 from. the device upon Which-type characters are associated by provision oi’an- operating connec tion such as is shown in Fig. 9 wherein the car riage of the justifier and the carriage upon ,which the type characters are associated are intercon nected by means of a shaft.. As shown,fthe justi fier carriage I2' has attached to it a rackl|4ll which extends parallel to-the direction of travel - of the carriage. A gear |4| which is fixed to a shaft |42 meshes with ther` rack |40. The 40 shaft |42 is supported in suitable brackets on the justiñer frame and on a fixed portion of the device upon which the type characters are associated; The shaft-end adjacent the type writer, or whatever device is to be controlledy 45 by the justiñer, carries a gear |43 4that is in meshing engagement with a rack |44 that is mounted upon a carriage portion |45 of the type character associating device. 'I'he shaft |42 may be of any desired length, and the operating link age which operates the justifier escapement is proportioned accordingly. Also `the justifying mechanism may be built right into the type writer in place of the. regular escapement. And, of course, the same mechanism is effective for 55 producing such predetermined spacing in suc cessive lines of type characterscf varying se quence and arrangement as will give a predeter- ‘ mined length for successive or succeeding lines. And, obviously, when desired-the variable spac 60 ing mechanism may. be made applicable to de vices other than the typewriter in which the type or impressing characters are effective within a selected for assembly on the common shaft hav given zone or space and the material being acted 65 65 ing a pitch diameter relationship such that the ' upon is moved with relation thereto. character space length `will divide evenly into the While 4the method herein described, and the . justified line length, and so that the number of form of apparatus for carrying this method into character spaces afforded by any given gear in traversing the carriage the distance- of the justi 70 ñed line length will diiîer from the number of spaces producedby adjacently positioned gears by one whole character space length. rI'his is clearly brought out in the description of the il lustrated embodiment of the invention wherein 75 the justified line is assumed to be six and one effect, constitute preferred embodiments of the invention, it is to be understood that the inven 70' tion is not limited to this precise method and form of apparatus, and that changes may be made in either without departing‘from the scope of the invention which is defined in the appended claims. ^ 75 6 What is'claimed is: 1. A type character spacing device of the char acter described adapted for associating type characters in lines having aligned margins, said device comprising parts including a frame and platen relatively movable for character spacing, selectively variable spacing means connecting said parts and adapted upon actuation to release tion corresponding to a predetermined line length, means for moving the pointer from the first - mentioned position into registration with the endI ` of a line of unjustified copy and for simultane ously adjusting the length of carriage character space movement whereby the characters associ ated on the platen are justified to the predeter - mined line length. said parts for a character space movement, con 6. In a type character spacing device of the trol means adjustable to selectively vary the Y character described comprisi-ng a frame and a spacing means to alter the length of the char carriage movable thereon, a platen carried by said carriage, means for moving the carriage ` acter space movement, and locking- means to hold the control means in adjusted position ex cept in a predetermined position of said platen. 2. A type character spacing device of the char by character spaces and for selectively varying the length of the character spaces comprising a plurality of members freely movable on said acter described adapted for associating type characters in lines having aligned margins, said device >comprising a relatively movable frame ber, said latches being movable into engagement and platen, spacing means connecting said parts ` 20 and adapted upon actuation to release said parts for a character space movement, means for selec tively varyingthe length of the character space `movement between said parts, locking means en gageable with said space varying means to hold 25 said means in selected position, and means for maintaining said locking means engaged except in one margin position. carriage, a latch on said carriage for each mem with the corresponding members to afford a driv ing engagement between a member and the car riage, a rotatable shaft, angularly related cams on said shaft axially spaced in positions cor responding to the positioning of said latches and adapted upon shaft rotation to successively move each latch into engagement with its member. 7. In a type character spacing device of the character described comprising a frame and a carriage movable thereon, a platen _carried by 3. A type character spacing device of the char- n said carriage, means for moving the carriage by acter described adapted for associating type characters in lines having aligned margins, said character spaces and for selectively varying the length of the character spaces comprising a plu 30 device comprising a frame and a platen movable thereon, spacing means for moving said platen by character space movements, a plurality of connecting members of fixed and different space length characteristics adapted for selective at tachment between said spacing means and platen, adjustable means for selectively attaching a connecting member for imparting to the platen, rality of members freely movable» on said car riage, a latch on said carriage for each member, a character space movement of desired» length,_ 40 locking means normally tending to prevent actu ation of said adjustable means. _ 4. In a Itype character spacing device of the character .described adapted to associate type characters in justified lines from copy constitut 45 ing like associations of characters in unjusti fied lines, a carriage, a platen operatively con nected -thereto upon which type characters are adapted to be associated in justified lines, a holder for holding the unjustified copy, means for moving the carriage, means for controlling character space movement of the carriage, said controlling means comprising a plurality of drive connections for imparting character space move said latches being movable into engagement with the corresponding members to afford a driving. engagement between a member and the carriage, a rotatable shaft, angularly related cams on said shaft axially spaced in positions corresponding to the positioning 'of said latches and adapted upon- shaft actuation to successively move each> latch into engagement with its member, and 40 means for indicating the latch positioning com prising a cam member on said shaft anda pointer in operating engagement with said cam. „ 8. A justifying attachment for a typewriter comprising a frame portion adapted to be fixed ly mounted with respect to the typewriter frame, a justifier carriage movably mounted on said justifier frame portion and adapted to trav erse a predetermined line length, means for op eratively >connecting the justifier carriage and o the carriage of the typewriter, a platen on said typewriter carriage, an escapement mechanism for the justifier carriage, means for operatively ment of different lengths, indicating means ex connecting the justifier escapement and the tending toward the copy holder for registration escapement mechanism of the typewriter, means with a line end of the copy and movable into registration with a selected line end, and means operated with the indicating means for selective ly engaging a drive connection to impart car 60 riage movement of a character space length co for rendering the typewriter escapement mech; ordinated with the length of a line of unjusti fied copy to reproduce the characters of that line in justified length on the platen. 5. In a type character spacing device of the character described adapted to associate type characters i-n justified lines from copy consti tuting like associations of characters in unjusti fied lines, a carriage, a platen attached thereto upon which type characters are adapted to be 70 associated in justified lines, means for support , ing the unjustified copy on said carriage, means for moving said carriage, means for adjustably controlling the character space length movement of the carriage, a. pointer directed toward the 75 unjustified copy and adapted to assume a posi anism inoperative, means for holding copy writ ten in unjustified lines, a plurality of justifier carriage feeding means each affording a diñ’erent length of character space, indicating means ex tending toward the copy holder for registration with a line end of the copy and movable into registration with a selected line end, andv means operated with the indicating means for selective ly engaging a carriage feeding means affording a length of character spacing such as to repro-l duce the characters forming a line of unjustified copy into a line of predetermined length on the platen. ~ - - . 9. I-n a type character spacing device of the character described comprising a platen sup porting carriage movable between fixed margin limits, an escapement mechanism adapted upon actuation to release said carriage for a charac ter space movement, a plurality of relatively fixed 2,112,943 _ . 'r 15. A device for associating. type characters gears of differing pitch diameter operatively con- Y in justified lines comprising a movable platen, a nected to said escapement to provide space move ments of varying extent, a raclr for each of said carrier for copy arranged in lines of uniform ' gears, latch receiving means on each rack, aligned character spacing and random length within the ' latchlng means on the carriage selectively en _limits of the justified line length, means for mov gageable with said rack latch receiving means, , ing the platen by character spaces, adjusting the gear and rack relationship being such that means for varying the extent of a space move the latch receiving means are aligned in one ment, and indicating means operable with the adjusting means and extending toward the copy margin position of the platen. carrier for registration with a random line end 10 1G. In a type character spacing device of the as an index of the adjusted position of the spac character described comprising a platen sup porting carriage movable between ñxed margin positions, anI escapement mechanism adapted upon actuation to release said carriage for a characterl space movement, a plurality of rela tively ñxed gears of differing pitch diameter inv constant operative engagement with said escape ment, a rack in meshing engagement with each gear, latch receiving means on each of said racks, a latch on the carriage for each of said rack latch receiving means, and a rotatable control member for the latches to selectively and individually engage a rack to the carriage. ' l1. In a device for reproducing lines of type characters arranged as unjustified copy in lines of random length to lines of predetermined com mon length, adjustable spacing means, a copy holder to hold the unjustiñed copy in predeter mined position, and means registrable with a 30 random length line of the copy in the copy holder as an index in adjusting the character spacing ing means for reproduction of the indicated line . to justified length. 16. In a type character spacing device for' justifying random length lines into lines oi’ pre determined length having aligned margins, the combination of a platen movable- between `pre-determined margin limits, an escapement mecha nism adapted upon actuation to release said platen for a character Vspace mevement, adjust 20 able spacing means comprising a plurality of adjacently related gears of differing pitch diam eter, each gear having an intermeshing rack, the pitch relationship of the adjacent gears being such as to traverse the platen between the said margin limits by a difference of one whole char acter space, means for selectively attaching a desired gear and rack combination between the escapement and the platen, and locking means to defeat operation of said last mentioned means 30 when the platen is intermediate its marginal for reproduction of that line to predetermined positions. length.. 17. In a type character spacing device ofthe character described, the combination of a platen movable- between predetermined marginal .posi l2. In a device for associating type characters Si in justified lines from like associations of char acters in unjustiñed lines, a carrier for unjusti ñed copy, adjustably variable spacing means, and means extending toward the copy carrier and movable into registration with an unjustified line v end to adjust the spacing-means by an amount to space the characters of that line to justified line length. ' I i3. In a type character spacing device of the character described comprising a platen movable between ñxed margin limits, an escapement mechanism adapted upon actuation to release said platen for a character space movement, va riable spacing means operable to vary the length of character space with respect toI a lcharacter space of normal length, a rotatable control mem ber for the spacing means, and means for indi cating the positioning of the control member comprising a stepped cam on the control mem ber and a pointer operated by said cam, said L' Ll cam steps being graduated to move the pointer in amounts of one normal character space length. 14. In a type character spacing device of the character described comprising a platen support ing carriage movable between fixed margin lim its, an escapement mechanism adapted upon actuation to release said carriage for a character space movement, a plurality îof relatively ñxed gears of differing pitch diameter operatively con nected to said escapement, a. rack for each gear, - latch receiving means on each of said racks, a latch on the carriage for each of said rack latch receiving means, a rotatable control member for the latches, means thereon for selectively en gaging the racks at angularly spaced- points on the control member, and means for indicat ing the positioning of the control member com prising a cam on the control member and a pointer operated by -said cam, said cam having stepped. :faces coordinated as to positioning with the latching positions. . tions, an es_capement mechanism, a member mov- . able under control of said escapement, said es capeme'nt mechanism being adapted upon actu ation to release said member for a character space movement, adjustable spacing means be 40. tween the platen and member to transmit mo tion to the platen and to vary the platen travel with respect to theescapementmovement, a ro tatable control movable to`predetermined posi tions for adjustment of the spacing means to pro vide space variation of one whole character space in the platen travel between the margin limits, and locking means to defeat operation of said rotatable control when said platen is interme diate its marginal positions. « 18. A justifying device attachable as a unit to a typewriter having a. frame, movable platen, a platen carriage, and movable key bars, said-de ,vice controlling the spacing of the typewriter platen and comprising a supporting frame adapt ed to be fixed to the typewriter frame, a platen controlling carriage member supported by said supporting frame for rectilinear movement, means for selectively attaching the platen car-_ riage member to the typewriter platen carriage 60 at a desired one of a plurality of positions spaced in the vdirection of movement of the platen car riage member, escapement means supported by said supporting frame, means operated by the keys of the typewriter for operating said escape ment, and variable spacing means between the escapement means and the platen controlling member adjustable to positions affording prede termined space movements of the typewriter platen which are aliquot fractional parts of a predetermined line length, and means for adjust ing the variable spacing means. 19. A justifying device for 'reproducing lines of type characters arranged as unjustified copy in lines of random length to lines of predetermined 75 2,112,948 common length, comprising a platen, adjustable platen, a platen carriage, means supporting said spacing means for the platen, a copy carrier af fording a predetermined copy position on the justiiier for unjustified copy that is to be re carriage for rectilinear movement, a justiiler car riage mounted for movement in a path parallel to produced into justiiied form, control means for the adjustable spacing means, and means oper able with the control means and movable- to a desired one oi.' a plurality of positions each hav ing a predetermined relationship to the copy posi tion on the copy carrier to establish a position lng for the adjustable spacing means coordinated to the length of the line of copy to be reproduced. 20. A justifying device for reproducing lines of type> characters arranged as unjustified copy in lines of random lengths to lines of predeter mined length comprising a type platen, movable key bars adapted forl cooperation with said the path of movement of the platen carriage, means for selectively attaching the platen car riage to the justifier carriage at a desired one of a plurality of positions spaced in the direction of platen movement for location of the left hand\ margin position of justiñed lines, escapement means operated by said key bars, and adjustable 10 spacing means between the escapement means and the justiñer carriage adjustable to positions affording predetermined space- movements of the justifier carriage which are aliquot fractional parts of a predetermined line length. EDWARD c. WELLS.